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MAINE 

A  HISTORY 


CENTENNIAL  EDITION 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


THE  AMERICAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY 

NEW  YORK 

1919 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


MI:.-    1—1 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


MELVILLE  W.  FULLER— The  qualities 
which  advanced  Melville  W.  Fuller  to  the  head 
of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  were  in- 
herited from  a  long  line  of  noble  ancestors,  in- 
cluding two  of  the  most  important  families  of 
the  Plymouth  Colony,  numbering  among  his 
forebears  lawyers  and  jurists  of  marked  ability. 

The    ancient    seat    of    the    family    was    in    the 
parish   of    Redenhall,    County   Norfolk,   England. 
Edward  and  Samuel   Fuller  were  passengers  on 
the   historic  Mayflower,   and   settled   in   Plymouth, 
Massachusetts.     Edward  Fuller,  the  son  of  Rob- 
ert Fuller,  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  compact 
on    board    the    Mayflower    before    landing.       Both 
he  and  his  wife  died  early  in  1621,  leaving  a  son 
Samuel.     This  Samuel,  early  left  an  orphan,  lived 
with  his  uncle,  Dr.  Samuel   Fuller,  who  was  the 
first   physician   at   Plymouth,  and   of  whose   will 
he  was  executor.      He  married  Jane,  daughter  of 
Rev.  John  Lathrop,  and  had  nine  children,  among 
whom    was    Samuel    Fuller.       He    married 
cousin  Anna,  daughter  of  Captain  M;itt'" 
ler,   who  also  came   in  the  Mayflower,  but   after 
the   death   of   his   parents    returned    to    Englaml 
Matthew  Fuller,  eldest  son  of  Samuel  aiui  Aura 
Fuller,  was  born  at  Barnstable,  and  died  in  Col- 
chester,  Connecticut,   where   he    settled    in    1713. 
He  married  Patience  Young,  daughter  of  George 
and  Hannah  (Pinson)  Young,  of  Scituate.    Their 
third  son,  Young  Fuller,  married  Jerusha,  daugh- 
ter of  Jonathan  and  Bridget  (Brockway)  Beebe, 
of  East  Haddam,  Connecticut.     Their  third  son, 
Caleb   Fuller,  born  in   1735,  in   Colchester   f 
uated  from  Yale  College  in  1758,  and  received  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts  in  1762.     He  rcsid>  • 
Ellington,     Connecticut,    and     married     Hannah, 
daughter  of  Rev.  Habijah  Weld,  the  famous  min- 
ister who  preached  forty-five  years  ago  at 
boro,    Massachusetts,    a    son    of    Rev.    Thoinri 
Weld,  the  first  minister  of  Dunstable,  and  great- 
grandson  of  Rev.  Thomas  Weld,  the  first  minister 
of    Roxbury,    Massachusetts.       Caleb    Fuller    re- 
moved to  Middletown,  Connecticut,  and  later  to 
Hanover,    New    Hampshire.       His    son,    C:i]> 
Henry  Weld  Fuller,  graduated   from   Dartmoi:;' 
College,   studied   law,   and  settled   in   practi 
Augusta,    Maine,    in    1803.      He    married    Esthe' 
Gould,  daughter  of  Captain  Benjamin  Gould,  of 


Newburyport,  Massachusetts,  who  led  a  company 
of  thirty  minute-men  from  Topsfield  to  Lexing- 
ton on  the  alarm  of  1775,  and  received  a  wound 
in  that  battle,  which  left  a  scar  upon  his  cheek 
for  life.  He  was  later  a  captain  in  the  Continen- 
tal army,  and  was  the  last  man  to  cross  Charles- 
town  Neck  on  the  retreat  from  Bunker  Hill.  He 
participated  in  the  battles  of  White  Plains,  Ben- 
nington  and  Stillwater,  and  commanded  the  main 
guard  at  West  Point  when  Arnold  fled  after  the 
capture  of  Major  Andre.  Frederick  Augustus 
Fuller,  son  of  Henry  Weld  and  Esther  (Gould) 
Fuller,  was  born  October  5,  1806,  in  Augusta, 
read  law  with  his  father,  was  admitted  to  the  bar, 
practiced  at  Augusta  and  Orono,  Maine,  and  was 
chairman  of  the  board  of  county  commissioner* 
of  Penobscot  county.  He  died  January  29,  1841. 
He  married  Catherine  Martin,  daughter  of 
Nathan  and  Pauline  Bass  (Cony)  Weston,  of 
Augusta.  Nathan  Weston  was  the  second  Chief 
Justice  of  Maine,  a  son  of  Daniel  Weston,  who 
was  a  jurist  of  note. 

Chief  Justice  Melville  Weston  Fuller,  son  of 
Frederick  Augustus  and  Catherine  Martin  (Wes- 
ton) Fuller,  was  born  in  Augusta,  Maine,  Feb- 
ruary ii,  1833.  He  was  prepared  for  college  at 
Augusta,  and  went  to  Bowdoin  College  in  1849, 
from  which  he  graduated  in  1853,  afterward  en- 
tering the  Dane  Law  School  of  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, and  receiving  his  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Laws  in  1855.  He  entered  upon  practice  in 
Augusta,  and  while  waiting  for  clients  employed 
his  spare  time  in  newspaper  work,  a  circum- 
stance to  which  is  doubtless  due  somewhat  of 
the  literary  facility  which  formed  a  marked  fea- 
ture in  his  career. 

While  Mr.  Fuller  was  acting  as  reporter  for 
the  Augusta  Age  (of  which  his  uncle,  B.  A.  C. 
Fuller,  and  himself  were  publishers)  in  the  Maine 
House  of  Representatives,  James  G..  Blaine  wa» 
engaged  in  a  similar  capacity  in  the  Senate  for 
the  Kennebec  Journal.  Through  political  oppo- 
nents, then  and  in  after  life,  the  two  were  always 
personal  friends,  and  at  last  by  curious  coinci- 
dence, found  themselves  together  in  Washington 
— the  one  as  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States, 
and  the  other  as  Secretary  of  State. 

Mr.    Fuller,   while   practicing   in    Augusta,   was. 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


elected  city  attorney  at  the  age  of  twenty-three, 
and  also  president  of  the  Common  Council.  In 
1856  he  visited  Chicago,  where  he  met  Mr.  S.  K. 
Dow,  from  New  York  county,  Maine,  a  practic- 
ing lawyer.  A  partner  of  Mr.  Dow  was  retiring 
from  the  firm,  and  Mr.  Dow  offered  Mr.  Fuller 
a  place  in  his  office,  either  as  partner,  or  clerk, 
at  the  salary  of  fifty  dollars  a  month.  He  chose 
the  latter,  and  worked  on  those  terms  for  five 
months,  living  within  his  income.  Before  a 
year  he  enjoyed  a  considerable  business,  in  which 
he  continued  until  he  left  the  bar  for  the  Su- 
preme Court.  His  'legal  career  was  strongly 
marked  with  industry,  persistency  and  brilliant 
success.  During  his  thirty  years'  practice  he 
was  engaged  in  as  many  as  three  thousand  cases 
at  the  Chicago  bar.  He  affected  no  specialty, 
conducting  a  general  practice,  practically  exclud- 
ing divorce  law  and  criminal  law,  in  which  class 
of  cases  his  name  scarcely  appears.  Mr.  Ful- 
ler's partnership  with  Mr.  Dow  continued  until 
1860.  From  1862  to  1864  his  firm  was  Fuller 
&  Ham,  then  Fuller,  Ham  &  Shepard  for  two 
years,  and  for  two  years  thereafter  Fuller  & 
Shepard.  In  1869  he  received  as  partner  his 
cousin,  Joseph  E.  Smith,  son  of  Governor  Smith, 
of  Maine.  This  was  terminated  in  1877,  after 
which  he  was  alone.  His  business  was  only  such 
as  he  cared  to  accept,  and  his  professional  in- 
come during  his  later  practicing  years  was  esti- 
mated at  twenty  to  thirty  thousand  dollars  per 
annum. 

A  staunch  Democrat,  Mr.  Fuller  became  by 
sympathy  and  personal  regard  an  earnest  adher- 
ent of  Senator  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  and  on  the 
death  of  the  great  statesman,  June  3,  1861,  he 
was  made  a  member  of  the  committee  having 
charge  of  the  funeral  ceremonies.  In  1862  Mr. 
Fuller  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Illinois  Con- 
stitutional Convention.  He  reported  to  that 
body  the  resolutions  in  memory  of  Senator 
Douglas,  and  made  one  of  the  opening  addresses 
on  that  occasion.  In  1864  he  was  elected  to  the 
Illinois  Legislature,  and  as  a  Unionist  (not  a 
Republican  or  anti-slaveryite)  gave  support  to 
the  National  Government.  He  was  a  delegate 
to  the  Democratic  National  Conventions  of  1864, 
1872,  1876  and  1880,  always  taking  an  active  in- 
terest. Immediately  after  the  election  of  Mr. 
Cleveland  as  President  for  his  first  term,  Mr. 
Fuller  called  upon  him  in  Albany,  and  Mr. 
Cleveland  at  once  conceived  for  him  high  appre- 
ciation. On  the  death  of  Chief  Justice  Waite,  it 
seemed  desirable  that  his  successor  should  be 
taken  from  the  West,  and  Mr.  Fuller's  liberal 


education,  high  legislative  ability,  lofty  profes- 
sional standard,  marked  industry  and  command 
of  languages — all  these,  combined  with  his  de- 
votion to  the  principles  of  the  party  of  which 
President  Cleveland  was  the  chosen  exponent 
for  the  Nation,  made  him  a  logical  nominee  for 
the  position,  which  was  accordingly  offered  him. 
Mr.  Fuller,  highly  appreciating  the  high  and  un- 
expected honor,  hesitated.  He  was  not  ambi- 
tious of  distinction,  and  his  large  family  necessi- 
tated his  most  careful  consideration  as  to 
whether  he  could  afford  a  position  which  would 
reward  him  less  liberally  than  did  his  profes- 
sion. He,  however,  consented,  and  on  April 
30,  1888,  President  Cleveland  nominated  him  for 
Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  and  he  was 
confirmed  by  the  Senate  on  July  20,  and  took  the 
oath  of  office  October  8,  1888. 

Mr.  Fuller  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Laws  from  the  Northwestern  University  and 
from  Bowdoin  University  in  1888;  from  Harvard 
in  1890,  and  from  Yale  and  Dartmouth  in  1901. 
He  was  chancellor  of  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion; chairman  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  Bow- 
doin College.  He  was  one  of  the  arbitrators  to 
settle  the  boundary  line  between  Venezuela  and 
British  Guinea,  Paris,  1899;  was  a  member  of 
the  arbitral  tribunal  in  the  matter  of  the  Muscar 
Downs,  The  Hague,  1905;  a  member  of  the  per- 
manent Court  of  Arbitration,  The  Hague;  and 
received  the  thanks  of  Congress,  December  20, 
1889.  As  Chief  Justice,  he  administered  the  of- 
ficial oath  to  Presidents  Harrison,  Cleveland,  Mc- 
Kinley  and  Taft,  and  died  during  the  administra- 
tion of  the  latter,  July  4,  1910. 

Mr.  Fuller  married  (first)  in  1858,  Calista  O., 
daughter  of  Eri  Reynolds;  and  (second)  May  30, 
1866,  Mary  E.,  daughter  of  William  F.  Cool- 
baugh,  a  leading  citizen  of  Chicago.  She  died 
April  17,  1904,  when  Chief  Justice  Fuller  prac- 
tically retired  from  society. 


EUGENE  HALE— The  name  of  Hale  will 
ever  honor  the  history  of  Maine,  as  it  does  that 
of  the  United  States.  It  is  identified  with  pa- 
triotism and  public  service.  Eugene  Hale  de- 
scended from  worthy  American  ancestors.  The 
name  under  the  different  forms  of  de  la  Hale, 
at-Hale,  Hales  and  Hale,  has  been  abundant  in 
Hertfordshire,  England,  since  the  early  part 
of  the  thirteenth  century.  No  evidence  appears 
that  any  of  the  name  were  above  the  rank  of 
yeoman  before  1560.  The  name  also  early  pre- 
vailed and  is  probably  still  found  in  a  dozen 
other  counties  in  England.  Of  the  Hales  of 


> 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


Gloucestershire,  to  which  family  belonged  the 
illustrious  Sir  Matthew  Hale,  Lord  Chief  Jus- 
tice, Atkyns,  in  his  history  of  that  county,  says: 
"The  family  of  Hale  has  been  of  ancient  stand- 
ing in  this  county,  and  always  esteemed  for  their 
probity  and  charity."  Within  the  first  fifty  years 
after  the  settlement  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  at 
least  eight  emigrants  of  the  name  of  Hale,  and 
perhaps  two  or  three  more,  settled  in  that  col- 
ony and  in  Connecticut,  descendants  of  five  of 
whom  are  traced  to  the  present  time.  There  is 
no  evidence  that  any  of  these  were  of  kin  to 
Thomas  Hale,  of  N'ewbury,  the  immigrant  an- 
cestor of  the  line  of  which  this  article  treats. 
The  name  was  also  found  among  the  early  set- 
tlers of  Virginia  and  Maryland,  and  their  de- 
scendants bearing  the  cognomen  are  still  found 
in  the  Southern  States.  In  New  England  the 
name  has  been  brought  into  prominence  by 
Nathan  Hale,  the  patriot  by  John  P.  Hale,  the 
distinguished  statesman  of  New  Hampshire; 
Senator  Eugene  Hale,  of  Maine,  and  others. 

Thomas  Hale,  the  earliest  known  progenitor 
of  the  family  herein  considered,  was  of  the  par- 
ish of  Walton-at-Stone,  in  Hertfordshire,  Eng- 
land. No  record  of  his  birth  is  found,  but  the 
parish  register,  which  styles  him  "Thomas  Hale, 
Senior,"  shows  that  he  was  buried  October  19, 
1630.  He  left  a  will  bearing  date  October  1 1, 
1630,  proved  December  9,  1630,  in  the  court  of 
the  Archdeaconry  of  Hitchin,  in  the  County  of 
Herts,  the  original  of  which  is  still  on  file  among 
the  records  of  the  court.  After  the  usual  pious 
profession  of  faith,  thanks  to  God,  committal 
of  his  soul  to  its  creator  and  his  body  to  burial, 
he  disposes  of  his  personal  property  and  his 
real  estate  consisting  of  eleven,  and  perhaps 
twelve,  distinct  parcels.  Among  those  desig- 
nated are  the  house  close,  the  backside  close, 
the  hill  close,  and  the  meadow  and  rye  close. 
From  the  brief  record,  it  is  apparent  that  he  was 
of  the  rank  of  yeoman  of  the  smaller  class  as  to 
property,  but  marked  by  thrift,  respectability, 
honesty,  piety,  and  prudent  foresight.  It  is  im- 
possible to  determine  the  value  of  the  estate 
which  he  left,  but  it  was  evidently  not  large, 
perhaps  worth  an  annual  rental  of  four  or  five 
hundred  dollars.  He  married  Joan  Kirby,  who 
was  of  the  parish  of  Little  Munden,  Herts,  which 
was  probably  the  place  of  her  birth  and  their 
marriage.  They  were  the  parents  of  five  chil- 
dren: Dionis,  Thomas,  Mary,  Dorothy  and 
Elizabeth.  At  some  time  between  her  husband's 
death  and  June,  1637,  Joan,  widow  of  Thomas 
Hale,  married  a  Bydes,  or  Bides,  probably  John, 


and  was  still  living  in  October,  1640,  the  date 
of  her  mother's  will,  but  was  probably  dead  be- 
fore 1660. 

The  only  son,  Thomas  Hale,  was  born  in  1606, 
in  the  parish  of  Walton-at-Stone,  and  baptized 
there  June  15,  1606.  In  1635  he  settled  in  New- 
bury,  Massachusetts,  with  his  wife,  Thomasine, 
locating  on  what  is  now  called  the  Parker  river. 
Ten  years  later  he  removed  to  Haverhill,  same 
colony,  where  he  was  a  landholder,  a  prominent 
citizen,  a  magistrate,  serving  in  various  official 
capacities,  and  upon  important  committees. 
Many  conveyances  of  real  estate,  in  which  he  is 
described  as  "glover,"  "yeoman,"  or  "leather- 
dresser,"  appear  in  his  name.  He  died  in  New- 
bury,  December  21,  1682,  and  his  widow,  January 
30,  1683. 

Their  eldest  child,  Thomas  Hale,  was  born 
November  18,  1633,  in  England,  and  died  Octo- 
ber 22,  1688,  in  Newbury.  He  was  almost  con- 
tinuously in  the  town  service,  as  an  official  or 
on  important  committees.  He  married  at  Salem, 
May  26,  1657,  Mary,  daughter  of  Richard  and 
Alice  (Bosworth)  Hutchinson,  of  that  town,  bap- 
tized December  28,  1630,  at  Muskham,  County 
Notts,  England,  died  December  8,  1715,  in  Box- 
ford.  She  was  the  executrix  of  his  will,  which 
disposed  of  property  valued  at  £505,  6s.  and  8d. 

Their  third  son  was  Captain  Joseph  Hale,  born 
February  20,  1671,  in  N'ewbury,  died  February 
13,  1761,  in  Boxford,  one  week  short  of  ninety 
years  old.  He  was  a  man  of  means,  and  served 
the  town  in  both  civil  and  military  capacities. 
He  married,  November  15,  1693,  Mary,  daughter 
of  William  and  Sarah  (Perley)  Watson,  of  Box- 
ford.  She  died  February  I,  1708. 

They  were  the  parents  of  Ambrose  Male,  thin] 
son,  born  July  16,  1699,  in  Boxford,  died  April  13, 
1767,  in  Harvard,  Massachusetts.  He  was  a 
Colonial  soldier  in  1759  from  Harvard,  where  he 
settled  about  1742.  He  married,  in  Boxford,  De- 
cember n,  1722,  Joanna  Dodge,  born  July  15, 
1702,  died  February  10,  1732,  daughter  of  Antipas 
and  Joanna  (Low)  Dodge,  of  Ipswich,  Massa- 
chusetts. 

Their  second  son  was  Benjamin  Hale,  born 
March  14,  1728,  in  Boxford,  died  September  20, 
1771,  in  Harvard.  In  1757-58  he  was  a  soldier 
of  the  French  War,  a  corporal  in  Captain  Has- 
kell's  company,  which  marched  from  Harvard  to 
Fort  William  Henry  in  1757.  His  estate  was 
valued  at  £405,  45.  lod.  He  married  in  Harvard, 
October  6,  1757,  Mary  Taylor,  born  March  12, 
'733i  in  that  town,  who  survived  him,  daughter 
of  Israel  and  Rachel  (Wheeler)  Taylor. 


li 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Their  youngest  child,  David  Hale,  was  born 
March  22,  1772,  in  Harvard,  lived  some  years  at 
Rutland,  Massachusetts,  whence  he  removed  to 
Turner,  Maine,  and  died  there  February  6,  1846. 
His  homestead  farm  is  still  in  possession  of  the 
family.  He  married  in  Ellington,  Connecticut, 
October  5,  1794,  Sarah  Kingsbury  of  that  town, 
born  1766,  died  May  7,  1847,  daughter  of  Simon 
and  Deliverance  (Cady),  Kingsbury,  of  Elling- 
ton Connecticut. 

Their  second  son,  James  Sullivan  Hale,  born 
December  13,  1806,  in  Turner,  died  there  De- 
cember 17,  1880.  He  was  a  well-to-do  farmer, 
a  man  of  marked  individuality  of  character,  with 
a  keen  sense  of  humor.  He  married  February 
ii,  1835,  Betsey  Staples,  born  October  16,  1808, 
died  December  5,  1881,  eldest  child  of  John  and 
Betsey  (Young)  Staples,  of  Turner.  Two  of 
their  sons  attained  high  distinction  in  their  native 
State. 

Eugene  Hale,  eldest  child  of  James  Sullivan 
Hale,  was  born  June  9,  1836,  in  Turner,  and 
grew  up  on  the  paternal  farm,  carrying  his  part 
in  its  labors,  while  attaining  his  primary  edu- 
cation in  the  district  and  grammar  schools  of 
the  town.  After  a  course  at  Hebron  Academy, 
he  entered  the  office  of  Howard  &  Strout  in 
Portland,  where  he  studied  law  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  January,  1857,  before  the  completion 
of  his  twenty-first  year.  He  immediately  began 
practice  of  law  in  Orland,  Maine,  removing  soon 
afterward  to  Ellsworth,  becoming  a  member  of 
the  law  firm  of  Robinson  &  Hale.  The  senior 
member  died  soon  after,  and  for  ten  years  Mr. 
Hale  continued  there  in  independent  practice,  de- 
veloping great  ability  and  success  as  a  lawyer. 
For  nine  consecutive  years  he  served  Hancock 
county  as  attorney,  and  was  long  associated  un- 
der the  firm  name  of  Hale  &  Emery  with  Lu- 
cilius  Alonzo  Emery,  recently  retired  from  the 
Supreme  Bench  of  the  State.  After  the  latter's 
elevation  to  the  bench,  Mr.  Hale  was  associated 
with  Hannibal  E.  Hamlin,  son  of  the  venerable 
Hannibal  Hamlin,  Vice-President  of  the  United 
States  under  Abraham  Lincoln.  Very  early  Mr. 
Hale  became  active  in  political  matters,  and  in 
1867,  1868  and  1880  was  a  member  of  the  State 
Legislature.  He  was  remarkably  well  versed  in 
political  questions,  a  ready  and  able  debater,  and 
quickly  gained  prominence  in  legislative  matters. 
During  his  last  term  he  was  chairman  of  the 
committee  of  the  Legislature  to  investigate  what 
has  since  become  familiarly  known  as  the  "State 
Steal,"  and  largely  through  his  efforts  this 
scheme  was  exposed  and  thwarted.  In  1868  he 


was  elected  to  the  Forty-first  Congress,  and  by 
reelection  served  in  the  Forty-second  and  Forty- 
third  Congresses.  In  1874  President  Grant  ten- 
dered him  the  office  of  postmaster-general,  which 
he  declined.  By  reelection  he  served  in  the 
Forty-fourth  and  Forty-fifth  Congresses,  and  was 
chairman  of  the  Republican  Congressional  Com- 
mittee in  the  last.  President  Hayes  offered  him 
the  appointment  of  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  but 
this  he  also  declined.  In  1868  he  was  a  delegate 
to  the  National  Republican  Convention,  and 
again  in  1876  and  1880.  In  the  last  two  he  was 
a  leader  of  the  Blaine  forces.  On  the  retire- 
ment of  Hannibal  Hamlin  from  the  United  States 
Senate,  Mr.  Hale  was  elected  to  succeed  him, 
and  took  his  seat  March  4,  1881.  By  subsequent 
reelections  he  was  chosen  for  a  period  of  thirty 
years.  In  all  of  these  he  received  the  unanimous 
vote  of  his  party  in  the  Legislature.  While  in 
the  House  of  Representatives  he  was  a  member 
of  the  Committee  on  Appropriations,  the  Com- 
mittee on  Naval  Affairs  and  other  important 
committees,  and  when  he  entered  the  Senate 
was  placed  on  the  Committees  on  Appropriations 
and  N'aval  Affairs.  In  1919  the  Government 
caused  one  of  its  new  naval  ships,  a  destroyer, 
to  be  named  the  "Eugene  Hale"  in  memory  of 
his  services  for  the  American  Navy,  the  leading 
naval  authorities  agreeing  that  his  constructive 
hand  had  more  to  do  with  the  building  up  of 
our  navy  than  that  of  any  other  statesman  of 
his  generation.  In  his  long  service  in  the  Sen- 
ate he  took  a  leading  position,  was  chairman  of 
the  Committee  on  Census  until  1893,  when  the 
Democrats  gained  control  of  the  Senate.  He 
served  as  chairman  of  the  committees  on  Ap- 
propriations and  Naval  Affairs,  and  as  member 
of  the  Finance,  Philippine  Census,  Canadian  re- 
lations, and  Private  Land  Claims  committees, 
and  in  the  last  term  was  chairman  of  the  Re- 
publican Conference  of  the  Senate,  and  of  the 
Republican  steering  committee  and  was  the  floor 
leader  of  the  Republicans.  Many  of  the  most 
important  appropriation  bills  were  passed  under 
his  management.  Among  these  were  the  bills 
passed  in  the  Senate  for  the  construction  of  a 
new  navy.  He  introduced  the  first  amendment 
favoring  reciprocity  with  the  countries  of  Cen- 
tral and  South  America,  which  he  supported  with 
speeches  that  received  a  wide  circulation.  While 
his  addresses  were  delivered  with  telling  force, 
and  made  keen  thrusts  at  his  adversaries,  they 
were  never  ill-natured.  During  the  campaign 
of  1882  his  speech  upon  the  free  trade  attitude 
of  the  Democratic  Convention  of  that  year  was 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


the  Republican  keynote  speech  and  was  very 
widely  circulated.  Mr.  Hale  was  ever  active  in 
securing  efficient  and  proper  government  of 
the  District  of  Columbia.  Both  in  the  practice 
of  law  and  in  the  conduct  of  party  politics  he 
was  always  recognized  as  the  wise  counsellor. 

He  was  a  wide  reader,  delighting  especially  in 
poetry.  His  style  was  based  on  the  best  models 
in  English  literature.  He  could  quote  accu- 
rately from  almost  all  the  standard  works  of  fic- 
tion and  poetry.  A  contemporary  recalls  an 
instance  where  Senator  Hale  once  heard  a  chance 
quotation  from  Scott's  'Lady  of  the  Lake";  he 
immediately  recited  the  whole  battle  scene,  giv- 
ing the  charge  of  the  royal  archers  through  the 
glen,  and  the  rush  of  the  clansmen  under 
Roderick  Dhu.  With  words  carefully  selected 
he  was  an  easy  and  forcible  speaker,  and  his 
extemporaneous  addresses  required  no  revision. 
As  an  after-dinner  speaker  he  was  always  ef- 
fective and  interesting,  whether  his  remarks 
treated  of  great  subjects  or  were  on  occasions 
where  wit  and  merriment  abounded.  The  prin- 
cipal educational  institutions  of  Maine — Bowdoin, 
Bates  and  Colby  colleges,  conferred  upon  him 
the  degree  of  LL.D.  Mr.  Hale  had  great  faith 
in  the  resources  and  prospects  of  his  native  State, 
and  his  investments  were  made  in  her  industries. 
He  erected  a  beautiful  home  called  "The  Pines" 
on  the  heights  at  Ellsworth,  surrounded  by  sev- 
eral hundred  acres  of  field  and  woodland.  He 
was  an  extensive  purchaser  of  timber  lands  and 
of  seashore  property,  and  invested  in  cotton, 
woolen  and  pulp  mills  of  Maine.  Wherever 
known,  Mr.  Hale  was  recognized  as  a  man  of 
culture,  of  broad  and  genial  nature,  and  drew 
about  himself  cordial  friends  and  few  enemies. 
He  was  a  liberal  entertainer,  both  at  Washing- 
ton and  in  his  home  at  Ellsworth,  where,  dur- 
ing the  summer  vacations,  many  friends  from 
within  and  without  the  State  gladly  accepted  his 
hospitality.  In  these  entertainments  he  was  ably 
seconded  by  his  wife,  an  accomplished  hostess, 
delighting  in  nothing  more  than  looking  after  a 
house  full  of  friends. 

Mr.  Hale  was  married  in  December,  1871,  at 
Washington,  to  Mary  Douglas  Chandler,  only 
daughter  of  Hon.  Zachariah  Chandler,  long  a 
Senator  from  Michigan,  and  afterwards  Secre- 
tary of  the  Interior.  Mrs.  Hale  inherited  many 
of  the  great  qualities  of  her  eminent  father. 
She  was  a  woman  of  rare  endowments  and  char- 
acter, and  a  source  of  helpfulness  to  her  distin- 
guished husband  through  life.  They  had  three 
sons:  Chandler,  Frederick  and  Eugene.  Fred- 


erick Hale,  the  second  son,  now  occupies  a  seat 
in  the  United  States  Senate,  a  worthy  son  of  an 
eminent  father.  He  was  elected  to  the  Senate 
in  1916,  his  father  having  retired  in  1911. 

Mr.  Hale,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  died  Oc- 
tober 27,  ?9i8. 


HON.  JOSEPH  PARKER  BASS  was  a 
lineal  descendant  of  Pilgrim  and  Puritan  an- 
cestry. His  paternal  ancestor  was  Deacon  Sam- 
uel Bass,  who,  with  his  wife  Anne,  came  to 
New  England  in  Governor  Winthrop's  company, 
in  1630.  He  removed  with  his  family,  in  1640, 
to  Braintree  (now  Quincy),  and  represented  the 
town  in  the  General  Court  for  twelve  years. 
Historians  credit  him  as  being  a  man  of  strong 
and  vigorous  mind  and  as  one  of  the  leading 
men  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony.  His  son, 
John  Bass,  was  born  in  Roxbury,  Massachusetts, 
in  1632,  and  married,  December  3,  1657,  Ruth 
Alden,  a  daughter  of  John  and  Priscilla  (Mul- 
lins)  Alden,  characters  that  have  been  made 
famous  by  Longfellow's  poem,  "The  Courtship  of 
Myles  Standish."  John  Bass,  the  son  of  John 
and  Ruth  (Alden)  Bass,  married  Abigail  Adams, 
a  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Abigail  Adams.  Her 
father  was  an  uncle  of  John  Adams,  the  second 
President  of  the  United  States. 

The  line  of  descent  for  five  generations  is  as 
follows:  Samuel  Bass,  son  of  John  and  Abigail 
(Adams)  Bass,  married  Sarah  Savil,  and  their 
only  son,  Samuel  (2)  Bass,  married  Anna  Raw- 
son.  Samuel  (3)  Bass,  son  of  Samuel  and  Anna 
(Rawson)  Bass,  was  born  August  22,  1747,  and 
died  in  February,  1840.  He  married,  September 
29,  1772,  Elizabeth  Brackett,  and  their  son, 
Samuel  (4)  Bass,  born  in  Braintree,  Massachu- 
setts, in  1777,  married  Polly  Belcher.  Samuel  (5) 
Bass,  son  of  Samuel  (4)  and  Polly  (Belcher) 
Bass,  was  born  in  Braintree,  Massachusetts,  No- 
vember 15,  1805,  and  died  in  Randolph,  Vermont, 
October  17,  1861.  He  married  Margaret  Parker, 
a  daughter  of  Joseph  Parker,  of  Charlestown, 
Massachusetts,  and  the  issue  of  this  marriage  was 
two  sons,  Samuel  (6),  born  October  II,  1833, 
and  Joseph  Parker. 

Joseph  Parker  Bass  was  born  at  Randolph, 
Vermont,  September  24,  1835.  He  received  hit 
education  in  the  common  schools  and  academy 
located  in  his  native  town.  Arriving  at  the  age 
of  eighteen  years,  he  went  to  Lowell,  Massachu- 
setts, turned  his  attention  to  commercial  busi- 
ness, and  was  employed  as  a  clerk  in  a  dry  goods 
store  there.  Seven  years  later  he  engaged  in  the 
same  business  in  that  city  for  himself,  and  in  the 


8 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


fall  of  1863  removed  to  Bangor,  Maine,  where 
he  continued  the  dry  goods  business  until  1870. 
He  then  turned  his  attention  to  larger  fields  of 
enterprise,  and  engaged  quite  extensively  in  buy- 
ing and  selling  timber  lands  and  city  real  estate. 
Mr.  Bass,  from  an  early  age,  was  interested  in 
political  matters,  and  he  became  a  familiar  figure 
at  the  sessions  of  the  Maine  Legislature.  It  is 
an  interesting  fact  that  his  first  appearance  her- 
alded the  memorable  senatorial  contest  of  1869 
between  Hannibal  Hamlin  and  Lot  M.  Morrill, 
in  which  the  latter  was  defeated  by  one  vote. 
This  result  was  obtained  by  a  member  from 
Aroostook  county,  who  cast  a  blank  ballot,  and 
the  efforts  of  Mr.  Bass,  in  connection  with  other 
Bangor  citizens,  were  directed  to  keep  the  east- 
ern members  in  line  for  Mr.  Hamlin.  Although 
Mr.  Bass  was  originally  a  Republican,  and  sup- 
ported General  Grant  for  the  Presidency  in  1872, 
the  following  year  he  accepted  a  nomination  for 
mayor  of  Bangor  on  a  Citizens'  ticket,  and  de- 
feated his  Republican  opponent  by  a  majority  of 
405  votes.  In  entering  on  his  duties  as  the  chief 
municipal  officer  of  the  city,  there  were  many 
important  matters  for  consideration.  A  man  of 
strong  convictions,  Mr.  Bass  would  not  yield  to 
coercion.  The  custom  of  cities  loaning  funds  for 
the  building  of  railroads  had  become  ruinous  to 
the  city's  finances,  and  the  newly  elected  Mayor 
vigorously  protested  a  loan  for  the  construction 
of  a  railroad  from  Bangor  to  Calais.  The  matter 
was  to  be  voted  upon  by  the  people  at  a  special 
meeting,  and  the  parties  interested,  having  the 
support  of  the  Board  of  Aldermen,  attempted  to 
have  a  special  meeting  of  the  board  called  to 
postpone  the  meeting  of  the  voters,  but  this 
Mayor  Bass  declined  to  do,  and  on  the  date 
appointed  the  loan  project  was  defeated.  Through 
his  efforts  during  a  smallpox  epidemic,  free  vac- 
cination and  the  isolation  of  patients  were  estab- 
lished. In  the  case  of  an  afflicted  child,  the 
father  resisted  its  removal  to  the  pest  house, 
threatening  death  to  anyone  attempting  its  re- 
moval. The  policemen  being  afraid  to  do  their 
duty,  Mayor  Bass  took  the  initiative,  and  directed 
the  removal  of  the  child.  The  child  died  and  the 
father  brought  suit  against  the  mayor  for  $10,- 
ooo,  but  the  latter  was  sustained  by  the  courts, 
and  the  decision  has  often  been  quoted  as  author- 
ity in  establishing  the  rights  of  municipal  offi- 
cers in  handling  contagious  diseases.  Partisan- 
ship was  at  the  extreme  point  during  Mayor 
Bass'  administration.  His  erection  of  a  building 
to  house  the  city  carts  was  criticised;  it  was 
charged  by  his  political  opponents  that  the  con- 


struction was  without  any  authority  of  the  City 
Council.  This  was,  however,  contradicted  by  a 
member  of  the  finance  committee  of  the  Council, 
and  though  the  new  City  Council  ordered  Mr. 
Bass  to  remove  the  building,  the  city  solicitor 
decided  that  the  erection  of  the  building  was 
legal. 

An  interesting  episode  of  Mayor  Bass'  admin- 
istration was  the  visit  of  President  Grant  and  a 
distinguished  party  to  Bangor,  in  August,  1873. 
Members  of  the  Republican  party  determined 
that  the  Mayor  should  take  no  part  in  the  recep- 
tion of  the  Presidential  party,  but  he  outwitted 
his  opponents,  captured  the  party,  gave  them  *. 
ride  of  several  hours'  duration,  entertained  them 
at  lunch,  and  carried  off  all  the  honors  of  the 
reception.  This  was  President  Grant's  second 
visit  to  Bangor,  as  he  was  in  the  city  at  the 
great  celebration  held  at  the  time  of  the  opening 
of  the  European  &  North  American  Railway, 
October  18  and  19,  1871,  to  mark  the  establish- 
ment of  direct  rail  line  between  New  York  City 
and  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia. 

It  was  during  his  mayoralty  administration  that 
Mr.  Bass  interested  himself  in  the  State  Fair. 
In  1873  the  City  Council  voted  an  appropriation 
if  the  fair  was  held  at  Bangor,  with  a  contingent 
appropriation  if  held  there  the  following  year. 
The  fair  officials,  in  violation  of  their  agreement, 
decided  to  hold  the  fair  in  1874  in  another  local- 
ity, and  though  the  Mayor  vetoed  a  resolution 
of  the  City  Council  to  pay  the  contingent  appro- 
priation, the  new  incoming  administration  paid 
the  amount.  The  position  taken  by  Mr.  Bass 
worked  against  his  re-election  for  Mayor,  but 
afterwards  he  was  commended  for  the  position 
he  had  taken  in  the  transaction.  This  unfair 
treatment  by  the  trustees  of  the  Maine  State  Fair 
in  discriminating  against  Bangor  induced  Mr. 
Bass,  in  connection  with  F.  O.  Beal  and  Ezra  L. 
Sterns,  to  promote  the  Eastern  Maine  State  Fair. 
This  was  a  private  organization,  and  the  first  fair 
was  held  in  1883,  and  for  twelve  years  Mr.  Bass 
was  president  of  the  association,  a  corporation 
having  been  formed,  and  successful  exhibitions 
were  given.  The  exhibition  of  1887  rivaled  even 
the  cattle  shows  in  England,  and  in  many  respects 
fairly  equalled  the  Royal  Exhibition  in  that  coun- 
try. The  following  year  the  great  feature  was 
the  exhibit  by  the  New  Brunswick  government 
of  twenty  carloads  of  Percherons,  Clydesdales 
stallions  and  brood  mares.  In  1889  a  controversy 
arose  between  Mr.  Bass  and  his  colleagues,  the 
latter  demanding  they  should  receive  compensa- 
tion for  their  services.  As  Mr.  Bass  had  fur- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


g 


nished  the  financial  backing  and  the  exhibition 
grounds  free,  he  immediately  took  possession  of 
the  real  estate,  and  for  the  next  six  years  it 
was  conducted  under  his  sole  management.  The 
great  attraction  of  the  fair  in  1890  was  the  stal- 
lion Nelson,  who  made  the  world's  record  2.ISJ4, 
hitched  to  high  sulky  on  a  half-mile  track.  The 
stallion  had  been  suspended  by  the  National 
Trotting  Association,  of  which  the  Eastern  Maine 
State  Fair  was  a  member,  and  on  the  refusal  of 
the  parent  organization  to  allow  the  Maine  horse 
to  exhibit,  the  Eastern  Maine  State  Fair  with- 
drew its  membership.  Mr.  Bass,  however,  se- 
cured an  act  of  the  Legislature  to  allow  Maine 
agricultural  societies  to  enforce  the  rules  of  the 
National  Trotting  Association  when  not  conflict- 
ing with  the  laws  of  the  State. 

A  suit  in  equity  was  brought  by  Messrs.  Beal 
and  Sterns  against  Mr.  Bass,  claiming  he  was 
profiting  by  the  fair,  and  that  the  corporation  not 
being  legally  formed,  was  a  partnership.  The 
courts  decided  it  was  a  legally  organized  cor- 
poration, but  in  1894  Mr.  Bass,  owing  to  the 
divided  support  of  the  citizens  of  Bangor,  decided 
to  withdraw  from  his  connection  with  the  fair, 
and  on  payment  of  a  certain  amount  by  the 
plaintiffs  in  the  suit,  made  a  new  lease  of  the 
exhibition  grounds,  and  withdrew  from  any  con- 
nection with  the  enterprise. 

Mr.  Bass  was  a  member  of  the  Legislature  of 
1876;  he  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  passage  of 
an  amendment  to  the  law  relating  to  the  liabili- 
ties of  municipalities  for  personal  damages  on 
the  public  sidewalks  and  highways.  He  also  in- 
troduced an  order  for  investigation  of  the  sale 
of  Stnte  lands  for  the  benefit  of  the  agricultural 
college  at  Orono,  which  had  been  disposed  of  at 
a  ruinous  price,  much  below  that  of  other  States. 
He  always  remained  a  warm  advocate  for  appro- 
priations for  the  State  College,  which  he  felt 
thus  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  State.  Though 
the  inquiry  was  held,  it  was  difficult  to  obtain 
facts,  and  no  redress  could  be  obtained  from  the 
purchasers  of  the  lands.  He  took  an  active  in- 
terest in  the  legislation  to  allow  the  University 
of  Maine  to  confer  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Arts,  which  met  with  strong  opposition  from 
Bowdoin  College,  but  it  was  finally  passed  by 
the  Legislature  of  1007.  He  took  an  early  stand 
in  favor  of  the  non-taxation  of  mortgages,  which 
finally  became  a  law  in  1911,  and  though  at- 
tempts have  been  made  to  repeal  it,  it  is  still  a 
law  of  the  State.  It  was  largely  through  his 
endeavors  that  a  State  hospital  was  finally  located 
at  Bangor.  In  1897  he  introduced  a  bill  to  take 


poultry  and  poultry  products  from  the  taxable 
list,  and  through  his  appearance  before  the  com- 
mittee, and  earnest  endeavors,  the  bill  was  passed. 
The  valuation  of  this  product  was  more  than 
doubled  in  the  next  fifteen  years.  He  advocated 
the  same  law  for  cattle,  sheep  and  swine,  and 
succeeded  in  the  passage  of  a  measure,  in  1915, 
exempting  them  from  taxation,  but  by  an  amend- 
ment passed  in  1917,  the  wise  law  became  in- 
operative. Mr.  Bass'  interest  in  legislative  mat- 
ters was  always  for  the  advancement  of  the  State, 
and  he  never  benefited  by  one  dollar  in  the  pas- 
sage of  any  legislative  enactment. 

One  of  Mr.  Bass'  principal  interests  was  in  the 
timber  lands  of  Maine.  Over  a  long  period  of 
years  there  were  various  attempts  made  to  in- 
crease the  taxation  on  timber  lands;  this  was  not 
objected  to  by  the  owners  if  the  money  be  used 
for  protection  against  forest  fires.  Mr.  Bass  was 
chairman  of  the  legislative  committee  for  the 
Maine  timber  land  owners  for  over  thirty  years. 
At  the  legislative  session  of  1905  a  resolution 
was  introduced  for  a  constitutional  amendment 
authorizing  the  Legislature  to  assess  taxes  on 
all  timber  lands  in  unorganized  townships  equal 
to  that  of  organized  towns  and  cities,  and  even 
did  not  relieve  the  timber  land  owners  of  a  road 
tax.  The  supporters  of  the  bill  argued  that  these 
taxes  should  be  used  for  the  support  of  State 
institutions  and  public  purposes.  Mr.  Bass,  as 
chairman  of  the  committee  of  timber  land  own- 
ers, was  supported  by  influential  citizens  of  the 
State,  and  after  a  hearing  before  the  committee 
to  which  it  was  assigned,  so  convincing  were  the 
arguments  against  the  bill,  the  committee  unani- 
mously reported  that  the  amendment  ought  not 
to  pass. 

In  1883  the  Maine  Central  railroad  leased  the 
European  &  North  American  railway.  There 
was  quite  a  large  amount  of  European  stock 
owned  in  Bangor,  and  the  city  received  from  the 
State  treasurer,  under  the  gross  transportation 
law,  a  rebate  of  several  thousand  dollars  on  stock 
owned  in  Bangor.  A  Bangor  member  of  the 
Governor's  Council  was  able  to  induce  the  Coun- 
cil to  refuse  to  grant  the  rebate  to  municipali- 
ties where  stock  was  owned,  for  the  reason  that 
the  road  had  been  leased  to  the  Maine  Central. 
Mr.  Bass  took  this  matter  up  before  the  legisla- 
tive committee  and  cited  legal  opinions,  taking 
the  ground  that  the  executive  council  could  either 
retain  this  money  in  the  treasury  or  deliver 
it  to  the  municipalities  where  stock  was  owned, 
as  before  the  road  was  leased.  Mr.  Bass  had 
an  act  introduced  in  the  Legislature  directing 


10 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


that  this  rebate  money  be  paid  to  municipalities 
where  the  stock  was  owned,  leased  roads  as  well 
as  others,  which  act  was  finally  passed.  After 
the  passage  of  the  act,  there  were  three  years 
that  the  money  was  retained  in  the  State  treasury. 
Mr.  Bass  had  another  act  introduced,  ordering 
the  State  to  pay  over  to  the  municipalities  the 
amount  of  rebate  retained  for  the  three  years, 
which  was  passed.  Various  attempts  have  been 
made  to  secure  the  repeal  of  this  rebate  law, 
but  they  have  been  defeated,  with  Mr.  Bass  lead- 
ing the  opposition.  In  the  formation  of  the 
Bangor  &  Aroostook  railroad,  Mr.  Bass  was 
active  in  securing  rights-of-way  and  necessary 
legislation,  and  was  the  first  person  to  subscribe 
to  the  stock,  taking  $52,500.  On  the  organization 
of  the  company  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  di- 
rectors. Through  his  instrumentality  the  bequest 
left  by  Gen.  S.  F.  Hersey  to  the  City  of  Bangor 
was  largely  augmented.  The  principal  of  the 
bequest  was  to  be  paid  in  1900,  and  the  trustees 
of  the  estate  had  made  a  previous  settlement  of 
$100,000  cash  with  the  City  Council.  Mr.  Bass, 
not  satisfied  with  this  settlement,  urged  the  City 
Council,  in  1900,  to  make  further  demands  of 
the  trustees,  and  eventually  through  his  efforts 
another  $50,000  was  obtained  from  the  trustees 
of  the  estate. 

Bangor,  in  1911,  suffered  from  a  great  fire,  and 
the  question  of  civic  improvement  became  a  lead- 
ing question.  The  appointment  of  Mr.  Bass  as  a 
member  of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  brought 
him  in  touch  with  the  situation.  He  strongly 
advocated  the  building  of  the  public  library  on 
its  present  location,  and  also  the  erection  of  the 
high  school  building  on  its  former  lot  in  Abbott 
Square,  and  opposed  the  movement  to  build  the 
post  office  in  Centre  Park.  He  was  successful 
in  opposing,  in  Bangor,  the  establishment  of  the 
commission  form  of  government. 

For  over  forty  years  Mr.  Bass  was  the  owner 
of  the  Bangor  Daily  Commercial,  and,  like  a 
number  of  newspaper  proprietors,  was  called 
upon  to  defend  himself  in  libel  suits,  and  he  suc- 
cessfully combatted  these  suits,  the  costs  being 
assessed  to  the  plaintiffs.  A  corporation  was 
formed  in  1905,  known  as  the  J.  P.  Bass  Pub- 
lishing Company,  for  the  publication  of  the  Daily 
and  Weekly  Commercial. 

Mr.  Bass  attended  the  National  Democratic 
Convention  held  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  in  1880,  and 
his  prominence  in  Maine  politics,  even  at  that 
time,  was  recognized  by  William  H.  Barnum, 
chairman  of  the  Democratic  National  Committee. 
In  discussing  plans  for  the  Democratic  cam- 


paign in  Maine,  Mr.  Bass  advised  a  general 
reorganization,  with  new  committees  in  each 
Congressional  district,  arguing  that  on  these 
conditions  there  would  be  good  prospects  of 
success.  He  was  afterwards  invited  for  a  con- 
ference at  New  York  City,  when  plans  were 
formulated  for  the  Maine  compaign,  the  National 
Committee  agreeing  to  duplicate  any  amount  of 
money  raised  in  each  Congressional  district.  The 
fusion  of  the  Democrats  and  Greenbackers  re- 
sulted in  the  election  of  Gen.  Harris  M.  Plaisted 
as  Governor,  though  the  Republican  presidential 
candidate,  General  Garfielcl,  carried  the  State. 

Mr.  Bass  was  chairman  of  the  executive  com- 
mittee for  Maine  of  the  World's  Fair  Commis- 
sion, held  at  Chicago,  Illinois,  in  1893.  He  was 
successful  in  obtaining  private  subscriptions  to 
augment  the  State  appropriation  of  $10,000,  and 
a  building  was  erected  at  the  cost  of  $30,000, 
which  was  pronounced  by  President  Palmer  of 
the  Exposition  as  "the  best  building  on  the 
grounds  except  for  size."  The  building  after 
the  Exposition  was  removed  and  rebuilt  at  Po- 
land Spring,  Maine,  where  it  is  still  preserved. 
Mr.  Bass  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  May- 
flower Descendants  of  Massachusetts  and  Maine 
and  a  member  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows. 

Mr.  Bass  married,  in  1866,  Mary  L.  March, 
daughter  of  Leonard  and  Martha  L.  March, 
prominent  residents  of  Bangor,  Maine.  Mrs. 
Bass  died  in  1899. 

Honorable  Joseph  Parker  Bass  died  at  his 
home  in  Bangor,  Maine,  March  27,  1919,  at  the 
age  of  eighty-three  years,  six  months  and  three 
days.  He  had  been  suffering  for  several  weeks 
from  obstruction  to  the  circulation  in  his  left 
leg,  and  it  was  hoped  that  he  might  obtain 
relief  from  an  operation,  which  was  performed 
by  Dr.  C.  A.  Porter,  of  Boston,  but  a  clot  of 
blood  went  to  the  heart  and  death  came  sud- 
denly. Mr.  Bass  left  a  large  property  and  made 
a  number  of  public  bequests.  He  gave  Maple- 
wood  Park  to  Bangor  for  a  public  park,  to  be 
named  Bass  Park,  and  among  other  bequests 
was  a  gift  of  $25,000  to  the  Eastern  Maine  Gen- 
eral Hospital,  and  a  liberal  annuity  for  the 
Bangor  Children's  Home. 


GEORGE  COLBY  CHASE— From  most 
worthy  Quaker  ancestry,  President  Chase  in- 
herited those  qualities  that  placed  him  where  he 
was  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

(I)  The  first  of  his  family  in  this  country  was 
William  Chase,  born  in  1595,  who  came  in  Win- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


11 


throp's  fleet  in  1630  with  his  wife,  Mary,  and  son, 
William  Chase.  It  has  been  claimed  by  some 
that  he  was  related  to  Aquila  Chase,  who  set- 
tled in  Northeastern  Massachusetts,  but  no  such 
relationship  has  ever  been  proved.  He  settled 
at  Roxbury,  was  a  member  of  the  Apostle  Eliot's 
church,  and  was  made  freeman,  May  14,  1634. 
In  1637  he  was  a  member  of  the  company  that 
settled  at  Yarmouth,  Massachusetts,  where  he 
died  in  May,  1659.  His  wife  died  in  the  follow- 
ing October.  He  was  a  soldier  against  the  Nar- 
ragansett  Indians  in  1645. 

(II)  William    (2)    Chase,   son    of   William    (l) 
Chase,    born    about    1622,   who    accompanied    his 
father  from  England,  lived  in   Yarmouth,  where 
he  died  February  27,   1685.      There  is  no  record 
of  his  wife.      Several  of  his  sons  were  identified 
with    the    Society    of    Friends.      They    lived    for 
some    years    in    Portsmouth,    Rhode    Island,   and 
removed  thence  to  Swansea,  Massachusetts. 

(III)  Joseph   Chase,   fifth   son   of   William    (2) 
Chase,   married,   February  28,    1695,   Sarah   Sher- 
man, of  Swansea,  daughter  of  Sampson  and  Isa- 
belle  (Tripp)  Sherman,  born  September  24,  1677- 
The    Shermans    were    also    identified    with    the 
Friends,  of  whom  there  was  a  considerable  col- 
ony in  Swansea. 

(IV)  Stephen    Chase,    fourth    son    of    Joseph 
Chase,  was  born   May  2,   1709,  in   Swansea,  and 
died   June    22,    1700.       He    married    Esther    Buf- 
fington,  who  was  born  August  12,  1712,  and  died 
May  14,  1750.     The  Buffingtons  settled  in  Salem 
and   Lynn,   Massachusetts,   and  were   among  the 
early    residents    of    Swansea,    the    first    of    the 
name,  Thomas  Bovanton,  lived  in  Salem,  where 
he    married,    December    30,    1671,    Sarah    South- 
wick,    probably    a    granddaughter    of    Lawrence 
Southwick,  and  a  niece  of  Whittier's   Cassandra 
Southwick,  of  Salem.     They  were  the  parents  of 
Benjamin    Buffington,    who    was    born    1675,    in 
Salem,  lived  for  a  time  in   Lynn,  and  settled  in 
Southeastern    Massachusetts    within    the    bounds 
of    the    Swansea    Monthly    Meeting    Society    of 
Friends,   of  which   he   became   a   member.      The 
Puritan  officials  of  Massachusetts  were  wont  to 
ignore   the   Quakers,   and   the   town   records   fail 
to    give    any    information    concerning    the    early 
Quaker  families.     It  is  probable  that  Esther  Buf- 
fington, above  mentioned,  was  a  daughter  of  Ben- 
jamin Buffington. 

(V)  Stephen   (2)   Chase,  sixth   son   of  Stephen 
(i)    and    Esther    (Buffington)    Chase,    was    born 
February    3,    1740,    in    the    vicinity    of    Swansea, 
and   died   December    18,    1821,   in   Unity,    Maine. 
He  began  the   settlement   of  that   town  in    1775, 


probably  traveling  by  water  from  his  native  lo- 
cality in  Massachusetts;  proceeded  first  to  Dur- 
ham, Maine,  and  thence  up  the  Kennebec  river 
and  its  tributaries  to  Unity  Pond,  and  on  a  com- 
manding eminence,  overlooking  that  water, 
built  a  log  house.  His  wife,  Hannah  (Blethen) 
Chase,  born  May  27,  1739,  in  Swansea,  died  in 
Unity,  June  2,  1845,  at  the  age  of  one  hundred 
and  six  years.  The  Blethens  were  also  a  Quaker 
family  that  was  numerously  represented  in  and 
about  Swansea. 

(VI)  Hezekiah  Chase,  son  of  Stephen  (2)  and 
Hannah   (Blethen)   Chase,  was  born  October  27, 
1774,  and  was  an  infant  when  his  parent-  located 
in  Unity.      He  was  one  of  the  best  known  men 
of  that  town,  and  died  there  April  9,  1848.      He 
was  often  the  representative  of  the  town  in  the 
State    Legislature,   and   also   served   as   judge    of 
probate    for    Waldo    county.      His    wife,    Sarah 
(Gilkey)    Chase,   was   born   in   Unity,   September 
27,  1779.  and  died  March  18,  1833. 

(VII)  Joseph   Chase,   son   of   Hezekiah    Chase, 
was  born   October  22,   1804,   in   Unity.      He   was 
an  industrious  farmer,  recognized  by  his  towns- 
men as  a  man  of  strict  integrity,  and  popularly 
known   as   "the   honest   man."      He   was   a   great 
lover  of  books,  his  knowledge  of  the   Bible  and 
of  general  history  surpassing  that  of  most  pro- 
fessional  students.      He  died  at  his   son's  home 
in   Lewiston,   September  24,   1876.      He   married, 
July  4,   1842,  Jane   Chase   Dyer,  born  in  Thorn - 
dike,  April  4,  1815,  died  in  Lewiston,  August  18, 
1887.      She   was   a   woman    of   superior   intellect 
and   encouraged   her   children   in    the    pursuit   of 
knowledge.     Her  mother  was  one  of  nine  sisters, 
whose    descendants    have   been    characterized   by 
public  spirit  and  enterprise.      One   of  them  was 
the   mother  of   Rev.   Elijah    P.   and   Hon.   Owen 
Lovejoy,  the  former  the  first  martyr  in  the  cause 
of  Anti-Slavery. 

(VIII)  George    Colby    Chase,    son    of    Joseph 
Chase,  was  born   March   15,   1844,  in  Unity,  and 
passed  through  the  usual  experiences  of  a  farm- 
er's son  in  Maine.      He  was  early  introduced  to 
rigorous  farm  labor,  and  previous  to  the  age  of 
twelve    years    attended    the    district    schools    in 
winter  only,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  weeks 
in  summer.      After  he  was  twelve  years  old  his 
school    privileges    were    entirely    limited    to    the 
winter  term,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  weeks 
in  the  old-fashioned  high  school.      When  sixteen 
years   old,  through   the   influence   of  his   mother, 
he  was  permitted  to  spend  a  term  at  the  Maine 
State   Seminary.      Principal   Cheney,   his   teacher 
in  Latin,  especially  urged  upon  the  boy's  parents 


12 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


his  continuance  in  school,  but  circumstances  pre- 
vented his  return  to  the  seminary  for  more  than 
two  years.  During  much  of  this  time  the  severe 
illness  of  his  father  left  the  entire  care  of  the 
family  on  this  youth  of  sixteen.  In  the  succeed- 
ing four  years,  beginning  at  the  age  of  seven- 
teen, he  taught  winter  schools  and  had  an  occa- 
sional term  at  the  seminary,  but  was  busily  en- 
gaged most  of  the  time  in  farm  labor.  At  the 
age  of  twenty  he  graduated  from  the  preparatory 
department  of  the  seminary,  at  the  head  of  his 
class,  and  in  the  following  autumn  entered  Bates 
College.  Poor  health  and  the  necessity  of  earn- 
ing the  expenses  of  his  education  somewhat  re- 
tarded his  progress,  but  he  persevered,  was  ac- 
tive in  the  religious  work  of  the  college  and 
in  the  debates  of  his  literary  society.  In  1868 
he  graduated  at  the  head  of  his  class,  having  re- 
ceived in  his  sophomore  year  the  prize  for  the 
first  public  debate  held  in  the  college. 

His  friends  had  always  expected  that  he  would 
enter  the  ministry,  but  he  was  hesitant,  not  feel- 
ing sure  that  he  was  called  to  preach.  In  his 
uncertainty  respecting  duty,  he  declined  an  op- 
portunity to  remain  at  Bates  as  a  teacher  with 
the  prospect  of  a  permanent  position  in  the 
college.  About  this  time  he  also  declined  the 
principalship  of  the  Maine  Central  Institute  and 
a  promising  position  in  Rhode  Island.  He  be- 
came instructor  in  Greek,  Latin,  Mental  and 
Moral  Philosophy  in  the  New  Hampton  Literary 
Institution,  where  at  the  end  of  his  second  year 
the  examination  of  his  classes  was  attended  by 
President  Cheney  and  Professor  Stanton  of  Bates. 
Upon  their  urgent  request  that  he  return  to  his 
alma  mater,  he  decided  to  attend  the  Theological 
School  at  Bates,  and  at  the  same  time  to  act  as 
tutor  in  the  college.  Here  from  1870  to  1871  he 
studied  Theology  and  taught  Greek  to  the  fresh- 
man class.  At  the  end  of  the  year  he  was  unani- 
mously elected  to  the  Chair  of  Rhetoric  and  Eng- 
lish Literature  in  Bates,  and  spent  the  following 
year  in  graduate  work  at  Harvard  University 
in  special  preparation  for  his  duties.  Among 
his  instructors  were  Professors  James  Russell 
Lowell,  Ezra  Abbott,  Francis  J.  Child  and  E.  A. 
Sophocles.  In  1872  he  began  his  work  at  Bates. 
Practically  nothing  had  been  attempted  pre- 
viously in  his  department.  The  organization  of 
the  work  in  English  at  Bates  is  therefore  to  be 
credited  wholly  to  President  Chase.  His  work 
in  the  early  years  was  extremely  laborious,  in- 
cluding not  only  lectures  and  recitations,  but  the 
correction  of  all  student  themes  and  the  care 
of  all  class  and  public  speaking.  For  several 


years  he  gave  declamation  drill  during  each  term 
to  every  student  in  the  college.  His  hours  of 
labor  were  longer  than  those  of  almost  any  un- 
skilled workman  in  the  State.  The  condition  of 
the  college  also  demanded  that  he  assist  in  other 
departments  and  a  part  of  the  work  in  his  own 
department  was  necessarily  given  over  to  tutors 
and  instructors.  For  some  years  he  taught  the 
freshman  class  in  Greek,  and  in  1873-74,  during 
the  absence  of  Professor  Hayes  in  Europe,  he 
taught  the  latter's  classes  in  exegesis  of  the 
Greek  Testament,  and  Botany.  In  the  follow- 
ing year,  during  the  absence  of  Professor  Stan- 
ton,  besides  carrying  a  large  share  of  his  own 
work,  he  taught  all  the  Greek  and  Latin  in  the 
curriculum,  except  the  freshman  Latin. 

As  the  college  grew  and  prospered,  Pro- 
fessor Chase  was  enabled  to  give  most  of  his 
attention  to  his  own  department.  In  1881,  after 
Bates  had  suffered  serious  financial  losses,  Pro- 
fessor Chase  was  chosen  to  act  in  association 
with  President  Cheney  in  the  endeavor  to  in- 
crease the  college  fund.  Beginning  in  the  win- 
ter of  1881-82  he  continued  for  ten  years  to  de- 
vote nearly  all  of  his  vacations  and,  in  addition, 
two  whole  terms  to  the  work  of  raising  money. 
Through  his  efforts  the  college  received  for  cur- 
rent needs  and  for  its  fund  about  one  hundred 
and  forty  thousand  dollars  ($140,000).  He  was 
wont  after  completing  a  term  to  leave  Lewiston 
on  the  first  outgoing  train,  often  taking  with  him 
essays  to  be  corrected  during  his  leisure  mo- 
ments or  while  pursuing  his  journey.  During 
these  years  Professor  Chase  had  been  very  active 
in  increasing  the  college  library  and  received  in 
a  single  year  more  than  one  thousand  choice 
volumes  in  its  behalf.  His  labors  in  behalf  of 
the  college  brought  him  into  relation  with  many 
leading  people,  and  he  made  for  it  many  friends 
among  wealthy  and  eminent  men. 

President  Chase  was  always  a  student  of  edu- 
cation and  educational  methods.  In  preparing 
students  for  Bates,  Dartmouth,  and  Brown  at 
the  New  Hampton  Literary  Institution,  he 
gained  a  large  insight  into  the  work  of  second- 
ary schools.  No  student  whom  he  fitted  for 
college  was  ever  conditioned  at  admission,  and 
Dartmouth  gave  him  the  credit  of  furnishing 
some  of  the  best  prepared  members  of  a  class 
of  eighty.  For  many  years  President  Chase 
was  a  director  of  the  Latin  School  of  Lewiston. 
For  sixteen  years  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Lewiston  School  Board — during  two  years  of 
that  time  its  president.  He  declined  a  reelec- 
tion to  the  Board  in  1891.  Much  of  the  effi- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


13 


ciency  of  the  Lewiston  schools  may  be  credited 
to  his  wise  influence  and  judicious  action. 

Persistence  in  such  arduous  labors  naturally 
made  great  inroads  upon  his  health,  and  in  the 
summer  of  1891  the  trustees  sent  him  abroad  to 
obtain  a  much-needed  rest.  Accompanied  by  his 
wife,  he  spent  six  months  in  general  travel,  in- 
cluding some  six  weeks  in  exploration  of  the 
English  Lake  District  and  about  three  months 
in  London,  where  he  attended  lectures  in  the 
London  University  College  and  studied  in  the 
British  Museums.  He  also  gave  considerable 
attention  to  German  educational  methods. 

In  1894  he  was  made  president  of  the  college, 
with  the  title  of  President  and  Professor  of  Psy- 
chology and  Logic,  and  he  continued  in  that  ca- 
pacity to  the  time  of  his  death.  President  Chase 
was  essentially  a  college  man  and  had  relatively 
little  time  to  devote  to  other  interests  or  other 
lines  of  public  service.  He  occasionally  made 
public  addresses,  but  was  obliged  to  decline  many 
invitations  to  lecture  at  various  institutions  in 
New  England.  On  two  different  occasions  he 
declined  to  consider  other  positions  which  prom- 
ised to  treble  his  salary. 

In  addition  to  his  Inaugural,  he  has  published 
two  addresses  before  the  committee  on  educa- 
tion of  the  Maine  Legislature,  two  before  the 
American  Institute  of  Instruction,  an  address  at 
the  Centennial  Celebration  of  Unity,  in  1904,  one 
before  the  Northern  Baptist  Convention  on  the 
Religion  of  a  College  Student,  a  monograph  on 
the  Disruption  of  the  Home,  a  sermon  on  Al- 
truism (published  by  Funk  and  Wagnalls  in  Mod- 
ern Sermons  by  World  Scholars),  an  address 
on  Higher  Education,  and  numerous  papers  upon 
various  educational  subjects. 

The  growth  and  progress  of  Bates  under  the 
administration  of  President  Chase  are  in  large 
measure  an  index  to  what  he  has  accomplished 
in  the  25  years  since  he  was  inaugurated.  At 
the  close  of  1894  Bates  had  585  graduates,  167 
students,  9  officers  and  instructors,  and  55 
courses  of  study  (15  elective  and  40  required). 
At  the  close  of  1919  she  will  have  2,376  grad- 
uates, more  than  400  students  (after  a  shrink- 
age from  nearly  500  due  to  war  conditions),  40 
officers  and  instructors,  and  190  courses  of  study. 
In  1894  the  college  had  5  buildings.  In  1919 
it  has,  including  one  in  process,  of  erection,  17. 
In  1894  the  Bates  Library  contained  11,639  vol- 
umes; in  1919,  47,000  volumes.  In  1894  the 
fund  as  shown  by  the  treasurer's  report  was 
$3171850.  In  1919  it  is  nearly  $1,200,000;  and  the 
total  assets  of  the  institution  are  more  than  $l,- 


700,000.  In  1894  Bates  was  scarcely  known  out- 
side of  New  England.  In  1919  her  contributions 
to  the  faculties  of  American  colleges  and  univer- 
sities, including  Harvard,  Yale,  Princeton,  Co- 
lumbia, Cornell,  Johns  Hopkins,  and  most  of 
the  great  universities  of  the  West,  have  been 
more  than  90,  distributed  among  more  than  60 
institutions. 

George  Colby  Chase  was  married  June  12, 
1872,  to  Emma  F.  Millett,  born  June  27,  1845, 
in  Norway,  Maine,  daughter  of  Joel  and  Betsy 
(Parsons)  Millett.  The  family  of  President  and 
Mrs.  Chase  includes  one  son  and  four  daughters. 
President  Chase  died  at  his  home.  May  27,  1919. 


ARTHUR  SEWALL,  third  son  of  William 
Dunning  and  Rachael  (Trufant)  Sewall,  was 
born  in  Bath,  Maine,  Thanksgiving  Day,  1835. 
His  father  was  one  of  the  prominent  shipbuild- 
ers of  Maine,  and  Senator  in  the  Legislature  of 
his  State.  He  was  the  grandson  of  Colonel 
Dummer  Sewall,  of  the  Revolutionary  army,  who 
was  the  fifth  generation  in  lineal  descent  from 
Henry  Sewall,  sometime  mayor  of  Coventry, 
Great  Britain.  Henry  Sewall's  grandson 
(Henry)  married  Jane  Dummer,  and  emigrated 
to  Newbury,  Massachusetts,  in  1634. 

Noble  descent  is  claimed  for  the  family,  but  if 
it  cannot  boast  of  that  in  its  ancient  home,  it 
did  not  take  long  to  attain  prominence  in  the 
new.  There  is  no  family  more  conspicuous  in 
early  New  England  history.  Three  of  the  lineal 
descendants  of  Henry  Sewall  became  chief  jus- 
tices of  Massachusetts,  and  two  others  were 
judges  of  the  highest  court  of  the  province  and 
the  commonwealth. 

Attorney-General  Jonathan  Sewall,  of  the  Co- 
lonial and  Revolutionary  period,  was  a  great- 
grandson  of  Henry  Sewall,  and  a  cousin  of  Jona- 
than Sewall,  who  was  the  poet  of  the  Revolution 
(Jonathan  Mitchell  Sewall).  A  son  of  Attorney- 
General  Jonathan  Sewall,  who  was  a  Royalist 
Refugee,  became  Chief  Justice  of  Quebec  in  1789. 
Of  all  these,  the  most  famous  was. Samuel  Sewall, 
the  first  Chief  Justice,  the  "Good-and-Wise"  of 
Whittier's  line,  who,  carried  away  by  the  pre- 
vailing delusion  on  the  subject  of  witchcraft, 
joined  with  members  of  his  Court  in  condemn- 
ing several  accused  persons,  but  unlike  others 
made  a  public  confession  of  his  error  in  the  Old 
South  Church.  His  son,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Sewall, 
was  long  pastor  of  the  Old  South  Church,  and 
was  elected  president  of  Harvard  College,  but 
declined.  Of  the  other  children  of  Henry, 
Anne  married  William  Longfellow,  and  was  the 


14 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


direct  ancestress  of  the  poet,  and  from  Stephen 
was  descended  Grover  Cleveland,  President  of 
the  United  States.  The  family  of  Sewall  is  con- 
nected with  nearly  every  prominent  family  of 
New  England. 

John  Sewall,  brother  of  Samuel  and  Anne 
Sewall,  who  married  Hannah  Fessenden,  of  Cam- 
bridge, was  the  ancestor  of  the  Sewalls  of  Maine. 
His  son,  Samuel,  settled  in  York  in  1708. 

David  Sewall,  a  son  of  the  preceding,  was  a 
classmate  at  Harvard  of  John  Adams,  and  was 
appointed  by  Washington  (1789)  the  first  United 
States  Judge  for  the  District  of  Maine,  having 
previously  served  on  the  Supreme  Bench  of  Mas- 
sachusetts. He  filled  these  positions  "For  forty 
years  without  one  failure  of  attendance,"  until 
he  retired  from  public  life  in  1818. 

David  Sewall's  brother,  Dummer  Sewall,  set- 
tled in  Bath  in  1764,  and  was  the  great-grand- 
father of  Arthur  Sewall.  At  the  age  of  twenty- 
one,  Dummer  Sewall  enlisted  in  the  Provincial 
army,  raised  to  operate  against  the  French  in 
North  America,  and  served  at  Louisburg,  where 
he  was  appointed  an  ensign.  Upon  his  return, 
the  following  year,  he  was  appointed  lieutenant, 
and  ordered  to  the  army  for  the  invasion  of 
Canada  under  General  Amherst,  and  served  until 
the  fall  of  Montreal,  at  which  he  was  present. 
As  soon  as  hostilities  were  threatened  by  Great 
Britain,  he  was  elected  by  the  people  of  the 
district  as  one  of  the  committee  of  safety.  In 
April,  1775,  he  led  the  men  of  Georgetown  (now 
Bath),  to  drive  off  the  King's  spar-makers,  and 
arrested  the  King's  agent,  it  being  the  first  act 
of  resistance  to  British  authority  in  the  District 
of  Maine.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  Provincial 
Congress,  which  assembled  at  Watertown;  and 
by  the  council  then  administering  the  executive 
affairs  of  the  State  he  was  appointed  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  a  regiment,  with  which  he  marched  to 
Cambridge  and  joined  the  Continental  army  un- 
der General  Washington.  He  was  a  magistrate 
for  his  county  of  Lincoln,  appointed  by  the  first 
Government  established  by  the  people  of  Massa- 
chusetts; and  soon  after  the  adoption  of  the 
Constitution  of  Massachusetts,  he  was  elected  a 
Senator  from  the  District  of  Maine. 

Arthur  Sewall  was  educated  in  the  common 
schools  of  Bath.  At  an  early  age  he  went  to 
Prince  Edward  Island,  trading  and  securing  ship 
timber  that  he  sent  to  the  ship  yards  along  the 
Kennebec.  Returning,  when  less  than  twenty 
years  of  age,  he  entered  the  employ  of  his 
father's  firm  (Clark  &  Sewall). 

Dummer  Sewall,  himself,  had  built  some  small 


vessels  in  conjunction  with  others,  as  also  Jo- 
seph, his  son,  the  grandfather  of  Arthur  Sewall, 
but  the  Sewall  firm  really  had  its  beginning  in 
1823,  when  William  D.  Sewall  launched  the  brig 
Diana  of  but  one  hundred  and  ninety-nine  tons 
burden.  From  that  time,  without  interruption, 
this  firm  continued  to  build  vessels,  in  the  most 
of  which  it  held  a  controlling  interest,  upon 
land  taken  up  by  Dummer  Sewall  upon  his  ar- 
rival in  Bath,  and  which  had  been  continuously 
in  the  ownership  of  the  family  and  is  today. 

In  1854,  Arthur  Sewall  formed  a  partnership 
with  his  senior  brother  Edward,  under  the  firm 
name  of  E.  &  A.  Sewall,  taking  over  the  business 
of  the  old  firm  of  William  D.  Sewall  and  Clark 
&  Sewall.  In  January,  1855,  the  two  brothers 
(Arthur  and  Edward)  launched  their  first  ship, 
the  Holyhead,  of  over  one  thousand  tons  burden, 
a  large  ship,  in  those  days,  followed  the  same 
year  by  another.  Every  year  since  then,  until 
three  years  after  the  death  of  Arthur  Sewall,  this 
firm  built  on  an  average  a  ship  a  year,  most  of 
them  of  large  tonnage  for  their  era. 

A  recapitulation  of  the  names  of  some  of  the 
most  famous  ships  built  by  the  Sewall  Brothers 
recalls  a  glorious  chapter  of  our  early  Merchant 
Marine:  the  Hellespont,  Leander,  Valencia,  Vigi- 
lant, Villa  Franca,  Ocean  Scud,  Vancouver,  Vicks- 
burg,  Intrepid,  Volant,  Ocean  Signal,  and  the 
bark  Frank  Marion.  Then,  in  1869,  a  group  of 
three  noted  vessels,  Undaunted,  Eric  the  Red  and 
El  Capitan.  Then  the  Occidental,  Oriental  and 
Continental.  Then  the  harvest  group,  Har- 
vester, Reaper,  Thrasher  and  Granger.  The  In- 
diana was  launched  during  the  exciting  days  of 
the  Tilden  campaign,  in  anticipation  that  the 
State  of  Indiana  would  go  Democratic.  (For  Mr. 
Sewall  was  an  admirer  of  Tilden,  and  thorough- 
ly believed  in  his  election  in  1876.) 

In  1879,  upon  the  death  of  the  elder  brother, 
Edward,  the  firm  name  was  changed  to  that  of 
Arthur  Sewall  &  Company;  and  associated  with 
Arthur  was  his  second  son,  William  D.,  and  his 
nephew,  Samuel  S.  Sewall.  The  building  activ- 
ity of  this  firm  continued  on  an  increasing  scale. 
In  1890  they  launched  the  ship  Rappahannock,  of 
over  three  thousand  tons  burden,  then  the  larg- 
est wooden  ship  afloat.  While  this  ship  was  on 
the  stocks,  President  Benjamin  Harrison  visited 
Bath  as  the  guest  of  Mr.  Sewall,  and  walked 
along  the  keel  of  this  ship.  The  coincidence 
was  noted  that  Mr.  Sewall's  father  had,  in  1841, 
during  the  presidency  of  the  elder  Harrison, 
launched  another  ship  Rappahannock,  then  of 
only  a  little  over  one  thousand  tons  burden, 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


15 


which  was  at  that  time  the  largest  wooden  ship 
afloat.  In  December  of  the  same  year  (1890) 
the  firm  launched  the  ship  Shenandoah,  still 
larger.  In  September,  1891,  they  launched  the 
Susquehannah,  and  in  August,  1892,  the  Roanoke, 
which  was  then  the  largest  wooden  ship  afloat, 
and  holds  the  record  today  of  being  the  largest 
wooden  sailing  ship  ever  built. 

It  had  been  demonstrated,  however,  that  the 
limit  of  size  had  been  reached  in  these  vessels, 
beyond  which  wooden  construction  could  not 
go,  as  it  was  impossible  to  build  to  such  dimen- 
sions of  wood  and  have  the  vessels  withstand 
the  strain.  So,  in  the  spring  of  1893,  Arthur 
Sewall,  having  made  a  tour  of  the  shipyards  of 
the  world,  began  the  equipment  of  his  yard 
for  the  complete  construction  of  steel  sailing  ves- 
sels, and  the  first  result  of  this  was  the  steel 
ship  Dirigo,  the  first  steel  sailing  ship  ever  built 
in  the  United  States.  A  steel  fleet  followed, 
some  for  outside  ownership.  Those  that  were 
built  and  owned  by  this  firm  were  the  Arthur 
Sewall,  Erskine  M.  Phelps  (known  as  the  White 
Flier),  Edward  Sewall,  five-master  schooner 
Kineo,  and  the  most  famous  of  the  group,  though 
not  launched  until  after  the  death  of  the  senior 
partner,  the  William  P.  Frye,  which  has  the  dis- 
tinction of  being  the  first  American  ship  sunk 
by  Germany,  bombed  by  the  German  cruiser, 
Prince  Eitel  Friedrich,  on  January  28,  1915.  Cu- 
riously enough  the  Senator  for  whom  this  ship 
was  named  was  the  boldest  in  his  denunciation 
of  the  action  of  Germany  in  the  Samoan  affair, 
when  first  the  cloven  foot  of  German  diplomacy 
was  shown  in  her  relations  with  the  United 
States.  For,  she  demonstrated  there,  in  that 
small  theatre,  the  same  disregard  of  treaties,  in- 
solence toward  the  United  States,  and  brutality 
toward  a  weak  people,  which  she  has  now  so 
demonstrated  before  the  entire  world.  In  the 
possession  of  this  fleet  of  wood  and  steel,  the 
Sewall  firm  controlled  the  largest  fleet  of  sailing 
ships  in  the  United  States.  It  is  doubtful  if 
any  larger  amount  of  similar  tonnage  was  con- 
trolled by  any  other  partnership  in  the  world. 

It  was  in  his  career  as  a  builder  of  ships  that 
Arthur  Sewall  took  his  greatest  pride.  There 
was  sentiment  in  his  work,  as  shown  in  the 
choice  of  names;  there  was  family  pride,  in  ex- 
panding an  industry  that  had  come  down  to  him 
for  generations;  and  there  was  patriotic  pride, 
in  keeping  afloat  the  American  flag.  For  he 
was  an  intense  American.  In  times  of  war, 
nothing  could  induce  him  to  disguise  or  prepare 
his  ships  against  possible  capture;  and  the  Stars 


and  Stripes  and  the  flag  of  the  Sewalls  continued 
to  fly  from  his  ships  during  the  entire  Civil 
War.  One  of  his  best,  the  Vigilant,  was  cap- 
tured by  the  Confederate  gunboat,  Sutnter,  when 
she  was  but  fairly  out  upon  the  high  seas. 
There  was  also  a  professional  pride,  for  he 
watched  every  part  of  a  ship's  construction;  and 
there  was  nothing  connected  with  it  of  which 
he  was  not  capable  of  manually  performing. 
Those  were  days  of  relations  of  mutual  helpful- 
ness between  employer  and  employe.  There 
was  an  esprit  de  corps  in  the  Sewall  yard  that 
could  only  be  found  in  a  small  community  where 
the  workmen  were  resident,  and  self-respecting 
and  respected  citizens. 

Mr.  Sewall  took  equal  pride  in  his  work  after 
a  ship  had  sailed  out  of  the  still  waters  of  the 
Kennebec  and  began  to  make  a  record  for  her- 
self upon  the  high  seas.  Almost  all  of  the 
Sewall  vessels  were  officered  from  the  banks  of 
the  Kennebec,  with  a  preference  given  to  the 
boys  of  Bath.  For  many  years  there  was  no 
field  more  promising  for  a  young  man  to  fol- 
low. The  best  blood  of  Maine  has  proudly 
walked  the  quarter-deck  of  Bath-built  vessels, 
and  it  is  hardly  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  at 
least  every  family  on  the  river  has  contributed 
one  son  to  the  service  of  the  Merchant  Marine. 

If  Mr.  Sewall  could  have  had  his  way,  and 
had  the  conditions  been  favorable,  he  would 
gladly  have  devoted  all  his  time  to  the  building 
of  ships.  But  his  capabilities  as  a  man  of  af- 
fairs drew  him  into  other  work.  His  father 
had  been  a  director  of  the  Portland  &  Kennebec 
Railroad,  and  when  this  road  was  made  a  part 
of  the  Maine  Central  Railroad  system,  a  system 
comprising  nearly  all  of  the  railroad  mileage  of 
the  State,  Mr.  Sewall  became  a  director  of,  and 
later  in  1865,  the  president  of  the  corporation, 
which  position  he  held  for  nine  years,  a  term 
longer  than  that  of  any  other  previous  incum- 
bent, and  during  which  the  condition  and  the  ex- 
tensions of  the  road  made  their  greatest  progress. 
He  would  have  continued  longer  in  the  office  of 
president  had  his  nature  been  one  of  subservi- 
ency. He  was  also  a  director  of  the  Eastern 
Railroad,  and  was  its  president  before  it  became 
merged  into  the  Boston  &  Maine.  He  had  ex- 
tensive connections  with  other  roads,  not  only 
in  Maine  but  also  in  the  Western  States  and  in 
Mexico.  He  was  the  third  president  of  the 
Bath  National  Bank,  the  first  president  of  which 
had  been  his  father's  partner,  and  the  control 
of  which  had  remained  in  the  Sewall  family.  He 
was  also  a  factor  in  the  establishment  of  the 


16 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Bath  Iron  Works.  Arthur  Sewall  was  a  man  of 
marked  executive  ability  and  capacity,  business 
judgment,  and  a  safe  counsellor  in  business  en- 
terprises. It  was  due  to  these  qualities,  rather 
than  to  any  large  holdings  of  stock,  that  he  was 
called  to  the  numerous  corporate  positions  that 
he  filled. 

All  his  life  Mr.  Sewall  was  keenly  interested 
in  the  political  affairs  of  his  country,  but  never 
was  he  a  seeker  of  political  honors.  He  regu- 
larly and  conscientiously  discharged  his  duty  as 
a  citizen  at  the  polls,  and  was  a  man  of  decided 
opinions,  which  he  was  ever  ready  to  avow, 
however  unpopular  they  might  be.  Mr.  Sewall 
was  a  Democrat  from  conviction,  and  in  this  con- 
viction he  never  wavered,  which  fact  closed  to 
him  every  avenue  of  political  preferment  in 
Maine.  He  was  councilman,  and  in  1876-77 
alderman  of  his  city,  and  these  are  the  highesc 
and  the  only  elective  political  offices  he  ever 
held.  Within  his  party,  however,  he  occupied  a 
position  of  enviable  prominence  for  many  years. 

He  was  a  delegate  to  the  National  Democratic 
Convention  at  Baltimore  that  nominated  Horace 
Greeley  in  1872;  and  again  to  that  in  Cincinnati, 
which  nominated  Hancock  in  1880.  He  was  also 
*  delegate-at-large  to  the  convention  that  nomi- 
nated Cleveland  in  1884.  In  1888,  he  was  pres- 
ent at  the  National  Democratic  Convention  in 
St.  Louis,  and  was  then  elected  a  member  of 
the  National  Democratic  Committee,  and  was 
also  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  of 
that  organization  for  the  campaign  of  that  year. 
He  attended  the  National  Democratic  Conven- 
tion in  Chicago  in  1892,  and  again  elected  to  the 
National  Committee,  and  made  a  member  of  the 
executive  committee.  In  1893,  he  was  the  nom- 
inee of  his  party  for  the  United  States  Senate 
against  the  Hon.  Eugene  Hale.  Mr.  Sewall's 
Democracy,  like  himself,  was  virile  and  robust; 
but  sometimes  it  seemed  as  if  his  political  faith 
was  fashioned  on  what  he  thought  the  Demo- 
cratic party  ought  to  be,  rather  than  what  it 
was  in  fact.  On  leading  issues  his  party  faith 
seemed  overshadowed  by  his  Americanism.  He 
was  not  a  Free  Trade  Democrat,  and  was  a  fol- 
lower of  Randall  rather  than  of  Carlisle.  With 
regard  to  the  tariff,  he  would  have  used  it  so 
far  as  necessary  to  raise  revenue,  as  a  weapon 
against  other  Nations,  a  weapon  of  defense  to 
our  industries,  as  well  as  a  weapon  of  action  to 
force  from  other  Nations  a  return  for  every 
concession  that  we  made  to  them.  To  this 
extent  he  sympathized  with  the  reciprocity  meas- 
ures of  Elaine,  and  was  a  believer  in  discriminat- 


ing duties  in  favor  of  Amercan  tonnage  as  ad- 
vocated by  Jefferson.  When  this  measure  failed 
he  stood  strongly  for  the  different  ship-subsidy 
bills  fathered  by  the  Republican  party,  for  which 
he  found  little  favor  in  his  own.  He  thought 
it  not  only  humiliating  and  costly  but  also  dan- 
gerous, as  recent  events  have  proved,  that  we 
should  be  dependent  upon  foreign  tonnage  to 
carry  our  own  commerce.  In  this,  he  saw,  with 
the  prescience  that  was  one  of  his  marked  char- 
acteristics, the  situation  with  which  we  had  to 
deal  in  the  World  War. 

In  line  with  his  views  on  the  tariff,  he  be- 
lieved that  through  the  power  of  commercial  dis- 
crimination and  retaliation,  our  Government  had 
nothing  to  fear  from  any  Nation  of  Europe;  and 
with  such  a  weapon  we  required  no  great  navy. 
He  was  an  advocate  of  a  vigorous  foreign  policy. 
With  regard  to  our  relations  with  Canada,  he 
would  have  had  us  deal  with  her  so  as  to  force 
her  to  realize  her  disadvantage  as  a  British  de- 
pendency. He  favored  the  annexation  of  Ha- 
waii; the  maintenance  of  our  influence  in  Samoa; 
and  the  independence  of  Cuba.  He  was  a  warm 
admirer  of  the  ability  and  vigor  of  Cleveland's 
Secretary  of  State,  Mr.  Olney,  especially  as  dis- 
played in  the  defense  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine, 
in  which  he  firmly  believed.  From  the  time  that 
the  free  coinage  of  silver  attained  any  place  in 
public  discussion,  Mr.  Sewall  had  been  its  ardent 
and  outspoken  champion.  In  1893,  he  wrote  to 
William  L.  Putnam,  his  intimate  friend  from 
boyhood,  and  one  of  the  leading  lawyers  and 
Democrats  of  New  England,  as  follows: 

Our  President,  In  supporting  his  Single  Gold  theory, 
remarked  in  his  Interview  with  Governor  Northen  that 
lie  was  desirous,  as  far  as  in  his  power,  not  to  les- 
sen the  purchasing  power  of  our  money,  intimating 
that  he  would  rather  see  it  increased  so  that  the  la- 
borer and  the  farmer  would  buy  as  much  or  more 
with  his  dollar  than  he  ever  had  heretofore.  H« 
seems  to  overlook  the  fact  that  the  laborer  and  th« 
farmer  have  first  to  buy  their  dollar  with  their  labor 
and  their  products  before  they  can  come  to  the  proc- 
ess of  spending  it  and  realize  its  high  purchasing 
power.  .  .  . 

It  seems  to  me  that  establishing  and  continuing 
this  Single  Gold  Standard  is  equivalent  to  our  Gov- 
ernment furnishing  new  measures  of  value,  which  giv« 
the  purchaser  much  more  for  his  money  than  ever 
before;  or,  which  would  be  like  furnishing  the  fanner, 
to  measure  his  grain  when  selling,  with  a  new  half- 
bushel  measure  that  would  hold  three  pecks.  Th« 
country  cannot  prosper  under  this  system.  The  re- 
peal of  the  Sherman  Purchasing  Clause  will  restore 
fully  confidence  in  our  money,  and  if  we  would  con- 
tinue on  that  line  and  contract  our  currency  to  noth- 
ing but  Gold,  that  confidence  in  our  money  would  b« 
still  greater;  but  this  remedy  will  not  restore  confi- 
dence in  business  and  confidence  in  new  industries 
and  enterprises.  Before  that  is  fully  restored,  we 
have  got  to  so  modify  and  change  our  system  of  money 
that  we  may  be  free  in  the  future,  as  far  as  pos- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


17 


sible,  from  these  extreme  fluctuations  and  have  such 
a  system  that  will  treat  capital  and  labor  alike- 
other  words,  that  while  the  dollar  will  purchase  Hi 
bushel  of  wheat  as  heretofore,  the  farmer  will  also 
be  protected  and  will  not  be  subjected  by  any  com- 
bination to  be  forced  to  sell  his  wheat  at  an  under 
value.  .  .  . 

The  recent  panic,  from  which  we  are  about  recover- 
ing, has  proven,  I  think,  to  many  minds,  that  the 
material  defect  in  our  financial  system  was  not  th» 
operation  of  the  Sherman  Purchasing  Law,  for  the 
repeal  of  which  there  Is  now  such  a  clamor  and  such 
an  effort  being  made  by  the  Administration.  That, 
no  doubt,  contributed  very  largely  to  the  general 
scare  and  unsettled  feeling  that  brought  about  th« 
panic;  but,  the  ripening  process  of  the  Single  Gold 
Standard,  under  which  we  have  lived  since  1873,  had, 
to  my  mind,  more  to  do  with  It  than  the  purchase  of 
silver.  This  panic  was  a  "Money"  and  "Banker's" 
panic,  the  one  to  follow,  unless  we  remedy  our  finan- 
cial system,  and  furnish  a  stable,  bl-metallic  basis  for 
our  currency,  will  be  a  commercial  panic,  far  mor« 
serious  and  more  disastrous  In  its  effect  than  the  re- 
cent one.  I  assume,  and  I  think  the  statistics  con- 
firm the  conclusion,  that  we  have  not  gold  enough  In 
the  world  for  all  the  important  nations  to  base  their 
financial  systems  upon  the  Single  Gold  Standard. 

At  the  National  Democratic  Convention  in 
Chicago  in  1896,  the  natural  firmness  and  power 
of  decision  that  characterized  Arthur  Sewall,  to- 
gether with  his  warm  advocacy  of  silver,  brought 
him  at  once  into  prominence.  In  the  National 
Committee,  he  opposed  the  Gold  men  at  every 
point  in  the  preliminary  organization  of  that 
convention,  and  voted  for  Daniels  as  against 
Hill  for  temporary  chairman.  He  did  this  with 
full  knowledge  that  his  action  would  be  resented 
by  the  delegation  from  Maine,  where  the  silver 
sentiment  had  not  developed,  and  in  consequence 
of  his  action  he  was  dropped  by  the  Maine  dele- 
gation from  the  National  Committee.  On  the 
same  day  he  telegraphed  his  wife  that  he  was 
now  out  of  politics  forever  and  for  good.  With- 
in thirty-six  hours  he  was  nominated  for  the  sec- 
ond highest  position  within  the  gift  of  his  party. 
His  nomination  took  place  on  the  fifth  ballot. 
Sibley,  of  Pennsylvania,  McLean,  of  Ohio,  Wil- 
liams, of  Massachusetts,  and  Bland,  of  Missouri, 
were  his  leading  opponents.  Mr.  Sewall  received 
568  out  of  a  total  of  679  votes.  A  writer  of 
the  time  affirms  that: 

It  was  the  executive  ability  of  men  like  Sewall  that 
prevented  riot,  and  a  demonstration  of  mob  rule,  at 
that  convention,  when  the  Radicals,  In  their  hour  or 
triumph,  came  near  to  losing  their  advantage  by  par- 
liamentary indiscretion.  When  regularity  was  brought 
out  of  that  political  chaos,  Sewall  was  placed  on  tin 
National  ticket  with  Bryan  .  .  .  for  his  demon- 
strated ability,  and  exhibition  of  love  for  fair  play. 

Upon  his  return  to  his  native  city  he  was  wel- 
comed by  such  a  joyous  outpouring  of  its  citi- 
zens as  Bath  had  never  before  seen.  Mr.  Sewall 
accepted  the  nomination  for  vice-president  in  the 
full  belief  that  in  doing  so  he  was  performing 

ME.— 1—2 


a  sacred  duty.  In  his  speech  of  formal  accept- 
ance at  Madison  Square  Garden,  on  the  evening 
of  August  12,  he  said: 

Our  Party,  and  we,  believe  that  a  great  majority  of 
the  American  people  are  convinced  that  the  legislation 
of  '73.  demonltizlng  silver,  was  a  wrong  inflicted  upon 
our   country    that    should    and    must   be    righted.       W« 
believe    that    the    Single    Gold    Standard    has    so    nar- 
rowed  the   base   of  our   monetary    structure   that    it   Is 
unstable  and  unsafe;  and  so  dwarfed  it.  In  Its  develop- 
ment and  In  its  power  to  furnish  the  necessary  finan- 
cial  blood   to   the   Nation,   that   commercial   and    Indus- 
trial paralysis  has  followed.     We  believe  that  we  need, 
and   must  have,   the  broad   and  expanding  fountain   of 
both   gold    and    silver   to   support   a   monetary    system 
strong  enough,   stable  enough,  and  capable  of  meeting 
the    demand    of    a    growing    country    and    enterprising 
people — a  system  that  will  not  be  weakened  and  panic- 
stricken    by    every    foreign    draft    upon    us;    a    system 
that    will    maintain    a    parity    of    just    values    and    the 
Nation's    money,    and    protect    us    from    the    frequent 
fluctuations   of  today — so   disastrous   to   every   business 
and  industry   of  the  land.      We  demand   the  free  coin- 
age of  silver;  the  opening  of  our  mints  to  both  money 
metals,    without     discrimination;     the    return     to    the 
money   of  our  fathers;   the  money   of  the   Constitution 
— Gold  and  Silver.      We  believe  this  is  the  remedy,  and 
the  only  remedy,  for  the  evil  from   which  we  are  now 
suffering — the  evil  that  is  now  so  fast  devastating  and 
impoverishing  our  land  and  our  people,   bringing  pov- 
erty   to   our   homes,   and    bankruptcy    to    our    business, 
which  if  allowed  to  continue  will  grow  until  our  very 
institutions    are    threatened.      The    demonetization     of 
silver   has   thrown   the  whole   primary    money   function 
on  Gold,  appreciating  its  value  and  purchasing  power. 
Restore  the  money   function   to   silver,   and   silver   will 
appreciate,    and    Its   purchasing   power   increase.     Take 
from    Gold    its    monopoly,    its    value    will    be    reduced; 
and  in   due  course,   the   parity   of  the   two  metals  will 
again    obtain    under    natural    causes.       We    shall    then 
have   a    broad   and    unlimited    foundation   for   a   mone- 
tary   system,    commensurate   with    our   country's    needi 
and   future   development;    not   the   unsafe   basis   of   to- 
day,   reduced    by    half,    by   the   removal    of   silver,   and 
continually  undermined  by  foreigners  carrying  from  ut 
our    Gold.       This    is    the    reform     to     which    we    are 
pledged — the  reform   the  people  demand — the  return   to 
the    monetary    system    of    over    eighty    years    of    our 
National    existence.       The    Democratic    party    has    al- 
ready   given    its   approval,    and    its    pledge;    our   oppo- 
nents   admit    the    wisdom    of    the    principle    for    which 
we  contend,   but   ask   us   to   await   permission   and   co- 
operation of  other  Nations.      Our  people  will  not  wait; 
they  will   not  ask   permission  of  any   Nation   on  earth, 
to    relieve    themselves    of    the   cause    of    their    distress. 
The  issue   has  been   made;   the   people   stand   ready   to 

render   their   verdict   next   November 

I  accept  the  nomination,  and  with  the  people's  con- 
firmation, every  effort  of  which  God  shall  render  m« 
capable  will  be  exerted  In  support  of  the  principles 
Involved. 

On  September  24,  following,  Mr.  Sewall  ad- 
dressed to  Stephen  M.  White,  chairman,  and 
members  of  the  notification  committee  the  fol- 
lowing: 

W«  have  rescued  our  party  from  those  who  under 
the  Influence  of  the  money-power  have  controlled  and 
debased  it.  Our  mission  now  is  to  rescue  from  thil 
•ame  power  and  its  foreign  ally,  our  own  beloved 
country.  .  .  . 

The  test  of  party  principles  is  the  Government  they 
assure.  The  proof  of  good  Government  ia  a  con- 
tented and  happy  people;  and  the  supreme  test  of 
both  is  the  ability  to  guide  th»  country  through  a 


18 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


crisis  such  as  the  people  of  all  Nations  periodically 
have  to  face.  Our  people  now  face  a  crisis — a  crisis 
more  serious  than  any  since  the  war.  To  what  party 
shall  they  turn,  in  their  dire  emergency  ?  It  is  true 
that  the  present  crisis  may  not  Involve  all  equally; 
that  there  are  those  who  do  not  suffer  now — who  may 
not  suffer  should  the  crisis  threatened  by  the  Gold 
Standard  come  upon  us  in  all  its  fury.  Human  sel- 
fishness makes  these  deaf  to  all  appeals.  But  to  these, 
fortunately,  the  Democratic  party  has  never  needed 
to  appeal  to  win  its  battles;  nor,  does  it  now,  save 
as  there  are  some  among  them  who  ciin  rise  superior 
to  self  in  the  sacrifice  that  such  a  crisis  demands  of 
every  patriot. 

We  are  told  that  the  country  has  prospered  under 
the  present  monetary  standard;  that  its  wealth  has 
enormously  Increased.  Granted,  but  in  whose  hands? 
In  the  hands  of  the  toilers,  the  producers,  the  farm- 
ers, the  miners,  the  fabricators  in  the  factories,  the 
creators  of  the  Nation's  wealth  in  peace,  its  defenders 
in  war?  Have  they  the  prosperity  that  was  theirs  so 
late  even  as  twenty  years  ago?  I  deny  it;  they  deny 
it.  None  affirm  it,  save  those  whose  interests  It  is 
to  do  so — whose  profits  would  diminish  as  prosperity 
returns  to  those  off  whose  distress  they  thrive. 

All  is  indeed  right  between  capital  and  labor.  The 
"best  money  in  the  world"  is  none  too  good  for  those 
who  have  got  it;  but  how  about  the  90  per  cent,  of 
our  people  who  "have  got  it  to  get?"  How  is  it 
with  those  who  must  buy  this  "best  money  in  the 
world"  with  the  products  of  their  own  labor?  These 
are  the  people  for  whom  the  Democratic  party  would 
legislate.  What  is  the  best  money  for  these,  is  the  ques- 
tion for  all  to  ask  who  really  love  this  land.  Is  it  a  fair 
measure  of  values,  that  fifteen  bushels  of  potatoes  must 
be  paid  for  a  dollar;  ten  bushels  of  oats  for  a  dollar; 
three  bushels  of  wheat;  and  all  other  products  of  the 
soil  and  mines;  and  the  labor  of  all  wage  earners  at  the 
same  ration?  Does  any  fair  mind  say  this  is  honest 
money  that  forces  such  an  exchange?  And  If  it  la 
not  a  fair  exchange,  is  it  honest?  Is  it  less  than  rob- 
bery? 

This  is  the  condition  to  which  the  Single  Gold 
Standard  has  brought  us;  under  it,  the  appreciation  of 
the  "best  money  in  the  world"  has  increased  the  wealth 
of  the  rich;  and  for  the  same  reason  has  increased 
the  debt  of  the  debtor.  So  it  has  been;  so,  under 
the  present  standard,  it  must  continue  to  be. 

With  these  object  lessons  about  us,  little  need  have 
we  for  history  and  statistics,  and  the  researches  of 
scholars.  Little  satisfaction  it  is  to  us,  that  they 
have  warned  us  long  since  of  the  deadly  evil  of  the 
Gold  Standard.  It  has  brought  us  at  last  to  the  part- 
ing of  the  ways.  Whither  shall  the  people  go?  In 
the  way  that  has  led  to  their  enslavement?  Or,  In 
that  which  offers  them  their  only  chance  to  regain 
individual  liberty,  lasting  prosperity,  and  happiness? 
Let  not  our  opponents  charge  us  with  creating  class 
distinctions.  Alas,  for  the  Republic,  they  are  already 
here,  created  by  the  Republican  party  and  policy  of 
the  last  thirty  years— created  by  the  very  system  we 
now  overthrow  and  destroy. 

_Xor    do    we    raise    a    sectional    Issue.      The    nomina- 

11    you    tender    repels    tlie   charge;    none    know    better 

ban    I,   that   this   nomination   is  meant  as  no   personal 

rlbute,    but    fresh    assurance    that    our    party    remains 

trur.    to    its    historic   character— the   non-sectional    party 

of  our  country.     Not   by   our  policy,   but   only   by   the 

continuance    of    the    Gold     Standard     ran     sectionalism 

i  revived— sectionalism  that  under  the  Kepiiblican 
rule  hung  as  a  heavy  curse  over  the  land,  sectional- 
Ism  that  it  is  the  glory  of  the  Democratic  party  at 
last  to  have  destroyed. 

Neither   shall    our   opponents   lie    permitted    to    terrify 

e  people  by  predictions  that  temporary  disturbance 
or  panic  will  come  from  the  policy  we  propose  The 
American  people  will  be  loyal  to  the  Nations  money; 


will  stand  behind  it;  and  will  maintain  it  at  whatever 
value  they  themselves  may  place  upon  it.  ... 

Neither  let  us  be  slandered  from  our  duty  by  false 
accusations  against  us;  let  us  have  faith  that  right 
makes  might;  and  in  that  faith  let  us  to  the  end  dare 
to  do  our  duty  as  we  understand  it.  We  know  well 
the  nature  of  the  struggle  in  which  we  are  engaged, 
we  are  anxious  only  that  the  people  of  the  land  shall 
understand  it;  and  then  our  battle  is  won.  Behind 
all  the  intrenchment  of  the  Gold  Standard  are  gathered 
those  favored  classes  It  has  fostered  and  nourished— 
the  only  "dangerous"  classes  of  the  land.  Avarice 
and  unholy  greed  are  there;  every  trust  and  combina- 
tion are  there;  every  monopoly  is  there,  led  by  the 
greatest  monopoly  of  all,  the  monopoly  of  the  power  of 
Gold. 

With  us,  in  our  assault  upon  these  intrenchments, 
are  all  those  unselfish  men,  who,  not  now  suffering 
themselves,  cannot  rest  content  with  conditions  so 
full  of  suffering  for  others;  and  that  vaster  number 
of  our  people  who  have  been  sacrificed  to  the  small 
and  selfish  class  who  now  resist  the  attempts  to  re- 
gain their  ancient  rights  and  liberties.  These  are 
the  patriots  of  1896— the  foes  of  a  "dishonest"  dollar, 
which  enriches  10  per  cent,  of  our  people  to  rob  the 
rest — the  defenders  of  the  homes  of  the  land,  of  pub- 
lic morals,  and  the  public  faith,  nil  of  which  alike 
forbid  the  payment  of  Government  obligations  in  a 
coin  costlier  to  those  who  are  obliged  to  pny  more 
than  what  the  contract  calls  for — the  defenders  of  the 
honor  of  the  Nation,  whose  most  sacred  charge  it  is  to 
care  for  the  welfare  of  all  of  its  citizens. 

The  election  resulted  in  giving  Mr.  Bryan  a 
popular  vote  of  6,500,000 — the  largest  vote  he  had 
at  any  time  received  as  a  candidate.  He  re- 
ceived 176  electoral  votes;  Mr.  Sewall,  149;  and 
Mr.  Watson,  of  Georgia,  who  was  put  in  the  field 
by  the  Populist  party  to  defeat  Mr.  Sewall,  27. 
Had  the  election  taken  place  in  September,  it 
is  the  conviction  of  Mr.  Bryan,  which  he  has 
steadfastly  maintained,  that  he  and  Mr.  Sewall 
would  have  been  elected.  After  his  defeat,  Mr. 
Sewall  continued  actively  in  his  business  of  ship- 
building, and  traveled  extensively.  Mr.  Sewall 
was  a  member  of  the  New  Church  (Swedbor- 
gian). 

In  1859,  he  married  Emma  Duncan  Crocker, 
daughter  of  Charles  Crooker,  Esq.,  an  old-time 
shipbuilder.  Mrs.  Sewall's  mother  (Rachael 
Sewall)  was  descended  from  the  Samuel  Sewall, 
who  came  to  York.  Arthur  Sewall  died  on  Sep- 
tember 5,  1900,  at  Small  Point,  Maine,  his  sum- 
mer home.  His  widow  still  survives  him.  He 
had  three  sons:  Harold  Marsh;  William  Dun- 
ning, his  business  successor;  and  Dumjner,  who 
died  in  infancy.  Arthur  Sewall's  grandchildren 
are:  Captain  Loyall  Farragut  Sewall,  late  Tank 
Corps,  A.  E.  F.;  Ensign  Arthur  Sewall,  2d,  U.  S. 
N.  R.  F.;  Emma  Kaiulani  Sewall;  and  Camila 
Loyall  Ashe  Sewall,  all  children  of  Harold 
Marsh  Sewall;  also  Arthur;  Margaret  (Mrs.  F. 
M.  Hector);  Dorothy  Sumner;  and  Lieutenant 
Suniner  Sewall,  late  Aviation  Corps  (American 
Ace),  children  of  William  D.  Sewall. 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


19 


HAROLD  MARSH  SEWALL  was  born  in 
Bath,  Maine,  January  3,  1860,  son  of  Arthur  and 
Emma  Duncan  (Crocker)  Sewall.  He  received 
from  Harvard  the  degrees  of  A.B.,  1882;  LL.B., 
1885,  and  from  Bowdoin  College  in  1919,  the 
honorary  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  Mr.  Sewall 
married,  September  14,  1893,  Camilla  Loyall  Ashe, 
of  San  Francisco,  daughter  of  Richard  Porter  and 
Caroline  Loyall  Ashe.  Mr.  Sewall  was  vice-consul 
at  Liverpool,  1885-87;  consul-general  at  Samoa, 
1887-89;  opposed  German  pretensions  at  Samoa; 
attache  of  commission  that  negotiated  Berlin 
Treaty  of  1889,  for  Joint  Government  of  Samoa 
by  the  Powers;  reappointed  consul-general  at 
Samoa,  1889-92;  secured  site  to  Naval  Station 
at  Pago-Pago;  admitted  to  Maine  bar,  1892; 
chairman  of  Maine  Republican  State  Conven- 
tion, 1896;  delegate  to  Republican  National  Con- 
vention, 1896;  member  of  Maine  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives, 1896;  United  States  Minister  to  Ha- 
waii, 1897;  received  transfer  Sovereignty  of 
Islands,  1898;  special  agent  of  United  States  until 
organization  of  the  Territory;  first  member  of 
the  Republican  National  Committee  for  Hawaii; 
member  of  M-aine  House  of  Representatives, 
1003-07;  Maine  Senate,  1907-09;  Republican'  can- 
didate for  Congress,  1914;  delegate-at-large  to 
Republican  National  Coavention,  1916;  chairman 
of  Maine  Committee  of  Public  Safety  through- 
out the  War  with  Germany. 


CHARLES  ALLCOTT  FLAGG— The  literate 
of  the  world  are  indebted  to  the  painstaking 
labors  and  industries  of  the  librarians  of  the 
country.  Among  the  latter  none  have  been  more 
prominently  identified  with  genealogical  and  his- 
torical researches  than  Charles  Allcott  Flagg. 
He  was  born  at  Sandwich,  Massachusetts,  Octo- 
ber i,  1870,  the  son  of  Samuel  Benjamin  and 
Anna  Bigelow  (Allcott)  Flagg. 

His  early  education  was  obtained  at  the  pub- 
lic schools,  he  was  fitted  for  college  and  grad- 
uated A.B.  from  Bowdoin  College  in  the  class 
of  1894.  In  that  year  he  turned  his  attention  to 
teaching  and  for  one  year  was  principal  of  the 
High  School  at  Hopedale,  Massachusetts.  At 
this  period  Mr.  Flagg  commenced  his  life's  work 
as  librarian,  entering  the  New  York  State  Li- 
brary School  at  Albany,  the  first  school  for  li- 
brarians ever  established.  In  1896,  after  civil 
service  examinations,  he  became  assistant  and 
later  sub-librarian  in  charge  of  history  and 
genealogy  at  the  New  York  State  Library  at 
Albany,  New  York.  He  resigned  this  position 
in  1000  to  accept  the  charge  of  American  His- 


tory in  the  Catalogue  Division  of  the  Library 
of  Congress,  Washington,  District  of  Columbia. 
Here  he  remained  until  1913,  when  he  was  called 
to  assume  charge  of  the  Public  Library  of  Ban- 
gor,  Maine,  which  was  soon  to  remove  into  its 
new  and  attractive  building.  The  task  of  re- 
building a  library  which  had  been  destroyed 
by  fire  was  a  herculean  one,  but  Mr.  Flagg  was 
equal  to  the  occasion  and  through  his  efforts  the 
library  is  already  second  in  size  and  circulation 
among  the  public  libraries  of  the  State;  and,  be- 
ing exceptionally  strong  in  reference  material, 
has  extended  its  usefulness  all  over  Eastern 
Maine. 

The  breadth  of  his  interest  in  library  matters 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  he  has  been  for  several 
\ears  a  member  of  the  Maine  Library  Commis- 
sion, and  an  active  member  of  the  Maine  Library 
Association,  having  served  the  latter  as  its  presi- 
dent. 

Mr.  Flagg  received  the  degree  of  B.L.S.  in 
1899  from  the  New  York  State  Library  School, 
and  in  1902  the  George  Washington  University 
conferred  on  him  the  degree  of  M.A.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  American  Library  Association, 
the  New  England  Historic  and  Genealogical  So- 
ciety, the  American  Historical  Association,  mem- 
ber of  standing  committees  of  Maine  Historical 
Society  and  Bangor  Historical  Society,  and  a 
member  of  the  college  fraternities,  Delta  Kappa 
Epsilon  and  Phi  Beta  Kappa.  A  Republican  in 
his  political  affiliations,  he  has  never  been  an 
aspirant  for  civic  honors.  He  is  an  attendant  of 
the  Unitarian  church. 

Mr.  Flagg  married  at  Washington,  District  of 
Columbia,  February  18,  1909,  Ethel  M.  Flincler, 
a  resident  of  that  city. 


HUGH  J.  CHISHOLM— Among  the  names  of 
the  great  leaders  and  captains  of  industry  asso- 
ciated with  the  material  development  of  Maine 
during  the  generation  just  passed,  none  holds  a 
more  prominent  place  than  that  of  Hugh  J. 
Chisholm,  whose  activities  seemed  ever  to  be  di- 
rected more  to  the  advancement  of  the  welfare 
of  the  community  than  to  the  accomplishment 
of  his  own  advantage,  and  who  came  to  be  re- 
garded by  all  who  came  in  contact  with  him 
with  feelings  of  affection  and  veneration,  not 
often  the  lot  of  men.  Mr.  Chisholm  was  a  mem- 
ber of  one  of  the  old  noble  families  of  Scotland, 
his  ancestors  having  been  the  Chisholms  of 
Eichless  Castle,  in  Inverncsshire,  who  bore  the 
following  arms- 


20 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Arms— Gules,  a  boar's  head  erased  argent. 

Crest— A  dexter  hand  holding  a  dagger  erect 
proper,  on  the  point  a  boar's  head  couped  gules. 

Supporters — Two  naked  men  wreathed  about,  the 
loins,  with  clubs  on  their  shoulders  proper. 

Mottoes—  Vvtut  Virtue,  and  above  the  crest, 
Feros  Feris. 

The  line  of  descent  of  the  Chisholm  family 
may  be  traced  back  unbrokenly  to  the  year  1300, 
at  which  time  the  Clan  Chisholm  made  their 
headquarters  at  Strathglass  in  the  Scottish  High- 
lands, and  the  family  is  still  powerful  and 
numerous  in  that  part  of  the  old  country. 

The  American  branch  of  the  family  was 
founded  by  Alexander  Chisholm,  who  was  born 
in  the  town  of  Inverness,  Scotland,  April  9,  1810, 
and  came  'to  Canada  early  in  his  youth.  He 
eventually  settled  in  the  town  of  Niagara  Falls 
on  the  Canadian  side  of  the  border  between  that 
country  and  the  United  States,  and  there  con- 
tinued to  make  his  home  until  the  close  of  his 
life.  He  married  there,  Mary  Margaret  Phelan, 
a  native  of  the  town,  born  March  18,  1822. 

Born  May  2,  1847,  at  Niagara,  Canada,  Hugh 
J.  Chisholm,,  son  of  Alexander  and  Mary  Mar- 
garet (Phelan)  Chisholm,  passed  his  childhood 
in  his  native  place,  and  up  to  the  time  of  his 
thirteenth  year  attended  the  local  public  schools. 
At  that  time,  however,  his  father  died,  and  the 
circumstances  of  the  family  were  such  that  the 
lad  was  obliged  to  abandon  his  studies  and  assist 
in  the  support  of  his  mother.  Feeling  that  there 
v/as  nothing  to  be  done  in  the  little  town  of 
his  birth  that  offered  much  opportunity  for  the 
future,  the  enterprising  lad  left  home  and  made 
his  way  to  the  nearby  city  of  Toronto,  where  he 
found  employment  as  a  newsboy  on  the  trains 
of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railroad,  the  main  route 
between  Toronto  and  the  city  of  Detroit,  Mich- 
igan. This  position  soon  led  to  a  business  that 
engrossed  the  major  part  of  Mr.  Chisholm's  time 
and  attention  until  his  coming  to  the  United 
States  many  years  later.  His  mind  even  as  a 
lad  was  of  the  original  type  that  naturally  de- 
velops new  ideas  and  plans,  and  it  soon  became 
obvious  to  the  lad  that  he  could  make  much  more 
for  himself  by  selling  his  own  papers  and  maga- 
zines than  as  the  agent  of  a  company  which  took 
most  of  the  profit.  Accordingly,  he  saved  up 
such  of  his  slender  earnings  as  were  not  neces- 
sary for  his  immediate  needs  and  soon  found 
himself  in  a  position  to  purchase  his  own  stock 
for  sale  upon  the  trains.  From  actually  carry- 
ing on  the  work  himself,  he  was  in  a  position  to 
gauge  very  accurately  the  tastes  and  wants  of 
the  traveling  public,  and  in  his  purchases 


showed  great  good  judgment  and  foresight  in 
this  matter,  so  that  there  was  but  little  waste 
in  his  stock  and  his  profits  grew.  Although  he 
was  working  hard  at  the  task  of  building  up  his 
business,  Mr.  Chisholm  was  so  ambitious  that, 
with  the  first  fifty  dollars  he  could  save,  he  paid 
for  his  tuition  at  the  Commercial  College  of 
Bryant  and  Stratton,  Toronto,  and  there  took  a 
business  course  after  hours.  While  making  his 
trips  between  Toronto  and  Detroit,  Mr.  Chisholm 
made  the  acquaintance  of  another  newsboy  who 
travelled  between  the  latter  point  and  Port 
Huron,  whose  name,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  has 
since  then  become  known  to  the  whole  world. 
When  only  sixteen  Mr.  Chisholm  purchased  the 
news  business  of  his  former  employer,  and  be- 
gan to  build  up  a  large  trade  that  gradually  ex- 
tended from  the  run  from  Toronto  to  Detroit 
to  other  parts  of  the  road,  and  eventually  to 
other  lines  until  it  embraced  most  of  the  railroads 
of  Canada  and  a  number  in  the  New  England 
States.  Indeed,  it  grew  so  large  that  it  became  one 
of  the  most  important  of  its  kind  in  the  country, 
and  known  from  one  end  of  it  to  the  other. 
Mr.  Chisholm  continued  to  display  the  same  abil- 
ity to  gauge  the  desires  of  his  patrons  as 
he  had  when  actually  selling  the  papers  himself 
and  the  business  grew  apace.  In  1861  he  took 
his  brother  into  partnership  and  the  firm  of 
Chisholm  Brothers  was  formed  which  continued 
active  for  many  years.  By  the  year  1866  this 
concern  employed  two  hundred  newsboys,  sel- 
ing  papers,  magazines,  books  and  other  similar 
articles  on  the  Grand  Trunk  between  Detroit 
and  Portland,  Maine,  also  between  Chicago  and 
points  as  far  east  as  Halifax,  and  on  the  prin- 
cipal lines  in  Maine,  New  Hampshire,  Vermont 
and  New  York  State,  embracing  above  five  thou- 
sand miles  of  road.  Besides  this  they  also  oper- 
ated on  many  of  the  principal  steamboat  lines 
in  the  same  region.  The  headquarters  of  the 
firm  was  at  Montreal,  but  there  were  also  branch 
offices  in  various  other  cities.  In  order  better 
to  meet  the  tastes  of  the  travelling  public,  which 
he  was  so  keen  in  gauging,  Mr.  Chisholm 
opened  a  publishing  business  in  connection  with 
his  trade  as  news  dealer.  He  was  the  first  to 
publish  railroad  and  tourists'  guides  and  also 
books  and  albums  with  descriptions  and  pictures 
of  the  various  routes  of  travel,  and  these  added 
greatly  to  the  volumes  of  his  sales. 

Mr.  Chisholm,  from  the  time  of  his  boyhood, 
always  felt  a  profound  interest  in  the  United 
States,  and  as  his  business  gradually  extended 
down  into  this  country,  and  he  grew  familiar 


'^^l ), 

v    0    ^ 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


21 


with  it  and  its  institutions,  the  idea  formed  itself 
in  his  mind  of  becoming  a  citizen.  He  was  keen- 
ly sympathetic  with  its  ideals  and  standards  and 
during  the  Civil  War,  although  surrounded  by 
many  sympathizers  of  the  Southern  S'tates,  was 
consistently  loyal  to  the  cause  of  the  Union.  It 
was  in  1872  that  he  finally  came  to  the  United 
States  and  located  at  Portland,  Maine,  and  short- 
ly after  he  became  a  citizen  of  this  country.  He 
sold  out  to  his  brother  his  Canadian  interests 
and  took  over  the  New  England  part  of  the 
business  which  he  continued  upon  a  larger  scale 
than  ever.  He  also  established  a  publishing 
business  in  Portland  and  made  a  specialty  of  fine 
lithographs,  producing  no  less  than  three  hun- 
dred separate  sets  of  albums  of  views  in  various 
parts  of  the  country,  ranging  in  size  from  small 
pamphlets  to  handsome  quarto  volumes.  Not 
only  Maine  and  the  New  England  States  were 
included  in  this  collection,  but  the  scenery  along 
most  of  the  great  transcontinental  railroads, 
especially  such  picturesque  roads  as  the  Denver 
and  Rio  Grande  and  the  Colorado  Midland. 
Among  his  publications  should  be  mentioned  a 
series  of  illustrated  descriptions  of  the  important 
cities  of  the  United  States.  Most  of  his  engrav- 
ing was  done  by  the  experts  of  Europe  and  was 
of  the  highest  quality  of  workmanship.  He  con- 
tracted with  a  number  of  the  largest  news  deal- 
ers in  the  country  to  handle  his  works  exclu- 
sively and  hundreds  of  thousands  of  them  were 
sold  in  all  parts  of  the  United  States. 

As  the  news  business  had  led  naturally  to  that 
of  publishing,  so  the  latter,  in  its  turn,  led 
to  that  of  the  manufacture  of  paper,  and  it  was 
not  long  after  his  coming  to  Portland  that  Mr. 
Chisholm's  attention  was  turned  to  the  question 
of  wood  pulp.  The  great  and  various  possibil- 
ities of  this  new  material  recommended  it  to  his 
interest  and  he  soon  became  an  active  promoter 
of  the  manufacture  of  this  material.  Besides 
paper  he  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  fibre 
ware,  and  was  one  of  the  first  patentees  of  th's 
material.  He  met  with  many  obstacles  in  the 
way  of  making  the  thing  practical,  but  eventual- 
ly surmounted  them  all  and  established  a  fac- 
tory at  Portland  which  turned  out  fibre  pails, 
tubs  and  similar  utensils  in  large  numbers. 
Shortly  after  the  plant  was  disposed  of  and  a 
new  one  at  Waterville  opened,  which  became  the 
first  permanent  manufactory  of  this  kind  of  ware. 
Still  another  plant  was  opened  by  Mr.  Chis- 
holm  and  a  number  of  associates  at  Wind- 
ham,  near  Portland,  which  was  soon  running 
on  a  paying  basis.  He  was  also  one  of  the 


organizers  of  the  Somerset  Fibre  Company  at 
Fairfield,  Kennebec  county,  Maine,  which  began 
operation  with  a  capital  stock  of  two  hundred 
thousand  dollars,  and  of  which  he  remained  a 
director  for  several  years.  It  was  in  the  year 
1881  that  Mr.  Chisholm  established  the  Umbagog 
Pulp  Company  of  Livermore  Falls,  Maine,  for 
the  manufacture  of  pulp  paper,  and  continued  the 
president  and  manager  of  that  concern  up  to  the 
time  of  his  death.  As  soon  as  this  enterprise 
was  fairly  started,  Mr.  Chisholm  sold  out  his 
interests  in  the  fibre  concerns,  and  from  that 
time  on  gave  his  entire  attention  to  the  manu- 
facture of  paper,  where,  with  his  unerring  fore- 
sight, he  perceived  the  greatest  future.  He 
founded  the  Otis  Falls  Pulp  Company  of  Liver- 
more  Falls  in  1887,  which  was  capitalized  at 
three-quarters  of  a  million  dollars,  and  with  Mr. 
Chisholm  as  treasurer,  general  manager  and  the 
principal  owner  of  the  plant.  This  concern,  one 
of  the  largest  of  its  kind  in  the  country,  even- 
tually became  a  constituent  of  the  great  Inter- 
national Paper  Company,  organized  in  the  year 
1898  by  Mr.  Chisholm  and  his  associates  and 
which  included  many  of  the  most  important 
paper  plants  then  in  existence  in  a  gigantic 
merger.  Of  this  Mr.  Chisholm  was  the  presi- 
dent until  1908. 

It  was  as  early  as  1882  that  Mr.  Chisholm  be- 
gan to  be  interested  in  what  is  probably  his 
greatest  single  achievement,  although  at  that 
time  it  is  doubtful  if  he  had  any  idea  of  what  his 
projects  would  develop  into.  This  was  the  great 
Rumford  Falls  development,  of  which  he  became 
the  virtual  parent,  the  creator  of  a  whole  town 
and  a  whole  group  of  great  industries  which 
are  so  related  to  it  that  their  existence  depends 
on  it  while  its  life  depends  on  them.  He  first 
began  his  work  at  this  place,  then  entirely  un- 
developed, in  association  with  Mr.  Charles  D. 
Brown,  buying  in  the  first  place  the  old  railroad 
line  running  from  Portland  to  the  Rumford  Falls 
brick  field,  both  road  and  brick  works  having 
fallen  into  disrepair.  He  at  once  set  about  re- 
organizing the  property  under  a  new  corpora- 
tion, gave  it  the  name  of  the  Portland  &  Rum- 
ford  Falls  Railroad  and  himself  became  its 
president  and  general  manager,  and  the  owner 
of  four-fifths  of  the  stock.  What  must  have  ap- 
peared to  less  clear  sighted  men  as  a  somewhat 
doubtful  investment  was  entered  into  by  Mr. 
Chisholm  with  the  most  complete  confidence,  for 
he  saw  clearly  the  great  opportunities  offered  by 
the  situation,  with  an  unlimited  supply  of  water 
power  and  easy  access  to  good  markets.  The 


22 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


possibilities  of  the  former  were  especially  appar- 
ent to  him  and  he  set  to  work  to  develop  them 
as  the  chief  factor  in  the  growth  of  the  future 
community  which  he  had  already  begun  to  plan. 
He  constructed  dams  and  open  way  canals  at 
different  levels  until  he  had  arranged  for  some 
fifty  thousand  horse  power,  and  he  then  inter- 
ested capital  to  organize  the  Oxford  Paper  Com- 
pany and  construct  plants  which  were  among 
the  largest  of  their  kind  in  the  United  States. 
The  company,  of  which  he  was  the  largest  owner 
and  the  manager,  continued  to  operate  success- 
fully and  on  an  ever  larger  scale  up  to  the  time 
of  his  death.  This  great  plant  had  an  auxil- 
liary  sulphide  pulp  plant  which  supplied  i't  with 
all  the  wood  pulp  needed  in  the  manufacture  of 
paper.  About  the  same  time  Mr.  Chisholm  was 
associated  with  others  in  establishing  the  Rum- 
ford  Falls  Sulphide  Company,  of  which  he  be- 
came the  treasurer  and  a  director.  With  com- 
mendable good  judgment  he  perceived  that  no 
community  should  depend  too  completely  upon 
the  success  of  any  single  industry  or  type  of  in- 
dustry, even  when  it  was  of  so  substantial  a 
character  as  that  he  had  here  established.  And 
accordingly  he  set  about  organizing  a  group  of 
enterprises  of  several  different  kinds  at  Rumford 
Falls.  Among  these  were  the  Woolen  Company, 
and  as  the  town  became  larger  the  Rumford 
Falls  Light  and  Power  Company,  and  several 
other  concerns,  in  all  of  which  he  was  a  large 
stockholder.  Another  venture  which  Mr. 
Chisholm  undertook  at  about  this  time,  and 
which,  like  all  that  he  was  connected  with,  was 
eminently  successful,  had  nothing  to  do  directly 
with  Rumford  Falls.  This  was  the  construction 
of  the  railroad  from  Mechanics  Falls  to  Auburn, 
Maine,  which  he  did  in  the  best  fashion,  putting 
in  fine  iron  bridges  and  heavy  steel  rails  for 
the  entire  distance,  and  fitting  it  with  first-class 
rolling  stock  so  that  it  was  one  of  the  best 
roads  in  the  entire  State. 

But,  although  Mr.  Chisholm  was  interested  in 
many  enterprises  throughout  this  region  of  the 
State,  undoubtedly  his  particular  interest  was 
centered  in  the  Rumford  Falls  development.  As 
the  town  grew  he  set  himself  the  task  of  provid- 
ing all  the  water  power  necessary  to  its  best  in- 
terests and  really  subordinated  all  his  other  ven- 
tures to  the  Rumford  Falls  Light  and  Power 
Company  which  was  to  furnish  this  essential 
commodity.  His  aims  and  purposes  were  highly 
altruistic  and  he  showed  a  keener  pleasure  in  the 
growth  of  the  town  itself  that  in  the  value  of  his 
own  investments.  He  spent  a  great  deal  of  time 


in  working  out  the  plans  for  the  prospective  city 
and  laid  out  the  property  in  accordance  witli  his 
idea  of  an  ideal  community.  He  firmly  believed 
that  one  of  the  chief  factors  in  the  future  of  a 
community  was  the  real  comfort  and  content- 
ment of  the  inhabitants,  and  with  this  end  in 
view  he  constructed  a  large  number  of  model 
houses  for  workers  with  small  means.  Strath- 
glass  Park  is  the  result  of  this  plan,  a  section 
of  the  city  laid  out  in  the  form  of  an  oval  with 
broad  streets  on  either  hand  and  charming  parks 
between.  Well  constructed  brick  houses  facing 
on  the  parks  were  then  erected  by  Mr.  Chisholm 
which  he  put  upon  the  market  at  a  figure  within 
reach  of  the  most  modest  incomes.  This  kind 
of  thing  has  been  attempted  frequently  elsewhere 
but  rarely  with  the  success  which  attended  Mr. 
Chisholm's  efforts,  for  to  his  idealism  in  the 
matter  he  brought  the  most  searching  practicality 
which  always  weighed  his  schemes  and  tested 
them  critically  before  he  put  them  into  effect. 
From  the  wilderness  that  marked  this  site  before 
Mr.  Chisholm  arrived  on  the  scene,  there  arose  a 
thriving  city  with  a  speed  and  promptness  that 
suggested  the  conjuror's  wand.  One  of  the  most 
typical  of  Mr.  Chisholm's  achievements  at  Rum- 
ford  Falls  was  the  establishment  of  the  club 
there  and  the  erection  of  the  club  house.  It  was 
his  intention  that  this  should  be  of  such  a  na- 
ture that  every  element  of  the  working  popula- 
tion should  be  attracted  to  it  and  he  set  about  it 
with  his  accustomed  foresight  and  skill.  It 
would  doubtless  have  been  easy  for  him  to  have 
put  his  hand  in  his  pocket  and  paid  for  it  him- 
self, but  this  did  not  form  a  part  of  his  plan. 
He  felt  that  this  would  smack  of  charity,  and 
that  he  strongly  disapproved  of  as  a  system, 
however  generous  he  might  be  in  individual 
cases.  In  order  to  overcome  this  difficulty  he 
organized  the  Mechanics'  Institute,  which  has 
been  paid  for  and  maintained  by  the  men  who 
have  actually  enjoyed  its  advantages,  its  member- 
ship representing  an  extraordinarily  large  portion 
of  the  community.  The  Mechanics'  Institute, 
of  which  Mr.  Chisholm  was  perhaps  proude: 
than  of  any  single  achievement,  has  played  a 
great  part  in  the  upbuilding  of  the  city  and  in 
raising  the  lives  of  its  people  above  the  sordid 
material  things  that  often  tend  to  become  the 
standard  in  purely  industrial  communities.  In 
view  of  his  great  services  to  the  entire  region, 
there  could  have  been  no  more  appropriate  ac- 
tion than  that  taken  by  Bowdoin  College  shortly 
before  his  death  in  conferring  upon  him  the  de- 
gree of  Master  of  Arts,  an  occasion  which  was 


• 
• 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


23 


taken  by  President  Hyde,  of  that  institution,  to 
refer  to  Mr.  (.'hisholm  as  a  "Far  sighted  and 
forceful  business  man,  who  had  sought  to  share 
his  prosperity  with  his  employees  and  to  help 
tl'ci.i  to  wholesome  and  happy  lives."  Mr. 
Chisholm's  death  occurred  July  I,  1912,  at  his 
home  on  Fifth  avenue,  New  York  City. 

Hugh  J.  Chisholm  was  united  in  marriage,  Sep- 
tember i,  1872,  at  Portland,  Maine,  with  Hen- 
rietta Mason,  a  native  of  this  city  and  a  daugh- 
ter of  Dr.  Edward  Mason,  at  one  time  a  well 
known  physician  here.  Mrs.  Chisholm  survives 
her  husband.  One  child  was  born  to  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Chishohn,  Hugh  J.,  Jr.,  whose  sketch'  fol- 
lows: 


HUGH  J.  CHISHOLM.  JR.— It  seems  to  be  a 
fact,  and  one  worthy  of  note,  in  viewing  the 
State  of  Maine  from  a  historic  standpoint,  that 
the  brains  of  comparatively  young  men  control 
the  most  important  affairs  of  State  and  Nation, 
and  that  the  successful  results  are  mainly  due  to 
them.  A  most  worthy  member  of  this  class  is 
the  man  whose  name  heads  this  biographical  rec- 
ord. 

Hugh  J.  Chisholm,  Jr.,  was  born  April  17,  1886, 
at  Portland.  Maine,  a  son  of  Hugh  J.  Chisholm, 
deceased,  whose  biographical  record  precedes 
this.  As  a  child  he  attended  the  public  schools 
of  Portland,  but  in  1898  his  parents  went  to 
New  York  and  made  their  home  on  Fifth  avenue 
during  the  winter.  The  lad  was  then  sent  to  a 
we!l-!:nown  private  school  there  and  prepared 
for  college.  He  matriculated  at  Yale  Univer- 
sity in  1904,  and  after  taking  the  usual  academic 
course  was  graduated  with  the  class  of  1908. 
He  then  entered  the  Harvard  Law  School  and 
graduated  from  "that  institution  in  1911.  Mr. 
Chisholm  did  not  practice  his  profession,  how- 
ever, but  quickly  identified  himself  with  the  great 
business  enterprise  which  his  father  was  then 
conducting.  Only  a  year  later,  however,  the 
death  of  the  elder  man  suddenly  transferred  the 
whole  of  the  great  responsibility  upon  the 
shoulders  of  the  son,  a  tremendous  burden  for 
so  young  a  mr.n  to  bear,  and  that  the  more  espe- 
cially as  his  intense  devotion  to  his  father  made 
the  latter's  death  a  severe  shock.  He  has  amply 
measured  up  to  the  task  thus  suddenly  thrust 
upon  him,  and  is  now  carrying  on  the  great  en- 
terprises of  his  father  with  the  same  success 
and  in  the  same  spirit  of  broad-minded  altruism 
which  characterized  that  remarkable  man.  Mr. 
Chisholm  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  impor- 
tant figures  in  the  business  world  of  Maine  to- 
dav. 


In  conclusion  we  may  say  of  Mr.  Chisholm 
that  success  has  crowned  his  efforts,  untiring  in- 
dustry, indefatigable  perseverance,  careful  atten- 
tion to  details,  painstaking  thoughtfulness,  have 
produced  the  results,  but  down  deep  below  all 
this  has  been  his  honesty  and  undeviating  de- 
votion to  principles  of  integrity  and  justice.  He 
is  always  willing  to  listen  to  and  respect  the 
opinions  of  others.  When  the  time  comes  for 
action  he  acts  according  to  his  own  judgment. 
His  accurate  estimates  of  men  enables  him  to  fill 
the  many  branches  of  his  business  enterprises 
with  employees  who  seldom  fail  to  meet  his 
expectations.  Happily  gifted  in  manner,  dis- 
position and  taste,  enterprising  and  original  in 
business  ideas,  personally  liked  by  those  who 
know  him  best  and  as  frank  in  declaring  his 
principles  as  he  is  sincere  in  maintaining  them, 
his  merited  success  is  marked  by  the  apprecia- 
tion of  men  whose  good  opinion  is  best  worth 
having. 


HENRY  CLAY  MERRIAM  was  born  at 
Houlton,  Aroostook  county,  Maine,  November  13, 
1837,  son  of  Lewis  and  Mary  (Foss)  Merriam, 
and  a  descendant  in  the  eighth  generation  of 
Joseph  Merriam,  Kent,  England,  who  came  to 
Massachusetts  in  1635,  and  settled  at  Concord, 
Massachusetts. 

Henry  C.  Merriam  was  graduated  at  Colby 
University  in  1864,  notwithstanding  he  had  ac- 
cepted a  commission  as  captain  in  the  Twentieth 
Maine  Regiment  in  1862.  The  battle  of  Antietam 
brought  him  the  brevet  of  lieutenant-colonel.  In 
1863  he  joined  General  Ulman's  expedition  to 
Louisiana  to  organize  colored  troops,  and  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  First  Louisiana  Native 
Guard,  already  organized,  the  oldest  black  regi- 
ment in  the  Federal  army.  This  regiment  was 
distinguished  at  Port  Hudson,  May  27,  1863,  and 
led  the  final  assault  on  Fort  Blakely,  Mobile, 
April  9,  1865,  the  result  being  the  capture  of 
the  fort  and  six  thousand  prisoners — Colonel 
Merriam  voluntarily  leading  the  charge  in  advance 
of  orders.  This  was  the  last  assault  of  the  Civil 
War,  and  for  it  he  received  the  Congressional 
medal  of  honor,  and  was  breveted  colonel  in  the 
volunteer  and  regular  army.  He  was.  mustered 
out,  October  24,  1865,  and  resumed  the  study  of 
law.  On  July  28,  1866,  he  was  appointed  major 
of  the  Thirty-eighth  Infantry,  regular  army,  and 
during  April-June,  1867,  he  commanded  the  in- 
fantry reserve  battalion  of  Custer's  Indian  cam- 
paign in  Kansas.  He  commanded  Fort  Mcln- 
tosh,  1876,  during  the  last  Mexican  Revolution; 
bombarded  the  Mexican  Federal  force  of.-Col- 


v 


24 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


onel  Pablo  Quintana,  April  10,  redressing  out- 
rages against  the  Americans;  crossed  the  Rio 
Grande,  August  22,  and  rescued  United  States 
Commercial  Agent  Haines,  who  had  been  cap- 
tured by  a  band  of  Revolutionists.  He  was 
promoted  lieutenant-colonel,  Second  Infantry, 
June  10,  1876,  and  was  assigned  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  the  Columbia  during  the  Nez  Perce  War 
of  1877.  For  his  services  in  Idaho  and  Wash- 
ington, and  for  his  successful  management  of  the 
various  Indian  tribes  of  that  region,  resulting  in 
gathering  the  Indians  upon  reservations  and 
opening  vast  tracts  to  settlement,  Colonel  Mer- 
riam  received  the  highest  official  commendation 
of  his  department  commanders,  Generals  How- 
ard and  Miles,  and  of  the  State  authorities. 
Promoted  colonel  of  the  Seventh  Infantry,  July 
10,  1885,  he  commanded  Fort  Laramie,  Wyoming, 
until  October  15,  1889,  when  his  command  was 
ordered  to  Fort  Logan,  Colorado.  During  the 
Sioux  campaign  of  1890-91  General  Merriam  com- 
manded all  troops  along  the  Cheyenne  river, 
South  Dakota,  and  disarmed  nearly  three  hun- 
dred of  Sitting  Bull's  followers  during  their 
stampede  after  the  death  of  their  chief. 

Appointed  brigadier-general,  June  30,  1897,  he 
was  assigned  to  the  Department  of  the  Colum- 
bia, which  included  Alaska,  and  was  charged 
with  the  work  of  organizing  a  relief  expedition 
to  pierce  that  frozen  region  in  midwinter  to  res- 
cue starving  miners.  When  war  with  Spain 
was  declared,  he  was  made  a  major-general  of 
volunteers  and  his  command  increased  to  include 
the  entire  Pacific  Coast  and  Hawaii.  He  was 
also  called  upon  to  organize,  equip,  instruct  and 
forward  across  the  Pacific  the  troops  operating 
in  the  Philippines  under  Generals  Merritt  and 
Otis.  In  January,  1899,  he  was  relieved  by 
Major-General  Shafter,  and  assigned  to  command 
the  Departments  of  the  Colorado  and  the  Mis- 
souri, and  in  1901  he  was  retired  by  age  limit 
7/ith  the  rank  of  brigadier-general,  and  advanced 
to  the  rank  of  major-general  by  special  act  of 
Congress,  approved  February  5,  1903.  General 
Merriam  is  the  inventor  of  the  infantry  "pack" 
bearing  his  name,  for  which  he  was  awarded  a 
gold  medal  by  the  French  Academy  of  Inventors. 

General  Merriam  married  at  Fort  Brown, 
Texas,  1874,  Una,  daughter  of  Judge  John  Mac- 
pherson,  of  Jamaica,  West  Indies.  Their  family 
consisted  of  three  sons  and  two  daughters.  Gen- 
eral Merriam  died  November  12,  1912. 


JAMES     WARE     BRADBURY— The     name 
Bradbury  belongs  to  that  great  group  which  have 


had  their  origin  in  earlier  place  names  and  is 
undoubtedly  of  Saxon  origin.  Its  most  probable 
derivation  is  from  the  early  form  of  the  word 
"broad"  and  that  very  common  suffix  "bury," 
which  has  been  defined  variously  as  meaning  a 
hill,  a  domain,  a  house  and  a  town.  Like  al- 
most all  the  early  names  we  find  it  under  a  great 
variety  of  spellings  and  the  forms  Bradberrie, 
Bradberrye,  Bradberry,  and  Bradbury  are  com- 
mon. As  nearly  as  we  can  speak  of  any  form 
being  correct  in  those  days  of  loose  orthography, 
the  latter  is  probably  the  best  usage,  and  it  is 
certainly  the  one  adopted  by  the  founder  of  the 
family  in  this  country  and  pretty  closely  followed 
by  his  descendants.  We  do  not  find  the  name 
mentioned  prior  to  the  year  1433,  A.  D.,  but  in 
that  year  there  were  living  among  the  gentry  at 
Ollersett  in  the  parish  of  Glossop,  Derbyshire, 
England,  Roger  de  Bradbury  and  Rodolphus  de 
Bradbury,  and  this  place  seems  to  have  been  the 
ancient  home  of  the  family  from  which  all  its 
branches  subsequently  came.  The  Bradburys  of 
the  United  States  are  descended  from  a  line 
which  probably  originated  with  one  Edward 
Bradbury,  of  Ollersett,  Derbyshire,  who  married 
Eleanor  Shakerly,  a  daughter  of  Thomas  Shaker- 
ly,  of  Longson.  This  Edward  Bradbury  had  two 
sons,  one  by  the  name  of  Ottiwell  and  the  sec- 
ond Robert.  The  line  may  be  traced  unbroken- 
ly  to  one  Robert  Bradbury  who  was,  in  all  prob- 
ability, the  second  son  of  the  Edward  Bradbury 
mentioned  above,  but  of  this  fact  there  is  no 
direct  evidence. 

(I)  Robert  Bradbury,  of  Ollersett,  Derbyshire, 
married    a    daughter    of    Robert    Davenport,    of 
Bramhall,   in   the    County   of    Chester,   and    they 
were  the  parents  of  the  following  children:    Wil- 
liam,  mentioned   below,   and   Thomas,   who   was 
inducted  rector  of  Meesden,  in  Essexshire,  Feb- 
ruary 6,  1486,  and  died  in  1513. 

(II)  William   Bradbury,   son   of   Robert   Brad- 
bury,  of    Braughing,    Hertfordshire,    was    patron 
of    the    church    of    Westmill    in    that    county,    in 
1462,   and   married    Margaret    Rockhill,   daughter 
of    Geoffry    Rockhill,    of    Wormingford.       They 
were  the  parents  of  the  following  children:  Rob- 
ert, mentioned  below;  Thomas,  who  became  Sir 
Thomas    Bradbury,    sheriff    of    London    in    1498, 
Lord  Mayor  of  London  in  1509,  and  Lord  of  sev- 
eral  manors   in   Hertfordshire,   Essex  and   Kent; 
George,  who  was  a  prosperous  merchant  of  Lon- 
don; Henry  and  Phillippa,  who  became  the  sec- 
ond wife  of  John  Jocelyn,  of  High  Roding,  Es- 
sexshire. 

(III)  Robert    (2)    Bradbury,    son    of    William 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


25 


and  Margaret  (Rockhill)  Bradbury,  was  named 
in  the  inquisition  of  his  brother,  Sir  Thomas 
Bradbury,  then  dead  (Supposed  Justice  of  the 
Assize,  Isle  of  Ely,  February  4,  1486,  witness  to 
will  of  George  Nicholl,  of  Littlebury,  December 
2,  1484,  died  1489,  and  buried  in  Church  of  Grey 
Friars,  London).  He  is  said  to  have  married 
Anne  Wyant,  a  daughter  of  Infans  Wyant.  They 
were  the  parents  of  one  child,  William,  men- 
tioned below. 

(IV)  William  (2)  Bradbury,  son  of  Robert  (2) 
Bradbury,  was  born   in  the  year   1480,  and   suc- 
ceeded his  uncle,  Sir  Thomas  Bradbury,  as  Lord 
of  the  Manor  of  Mancenden  and  other  great  es- 
tates.    He  acquired  the  Manor  of  Catmere  Hall 
in  Littlebury,  Essexshire,  in  1543,  and  was  buried 
at   Littlebury,  June   15,   1546.      It  is   not   known 
whom    he    married,    although    he    is    incorrectly 
stated  to  have  wed  Joan   Fitzwilliams,  daughter 
of   Sir   John    Fitzwilliams,    Lord    of    Elmyn   and 
Spottsbury,  and   widow   of  Thomas   Bendish,  of 
Bowre  Hall,  in  Steeple  Bumstead.     Whoever  his 
wife  was,   they  were  the  parents  of  the   follow- 
ing  children:     William,   who   married   Helen    or 
Eleanor    Fuller;    Fhillipa,    who    married    (first) 
Michael   Welbore    or    Pondes    in    Clavering,    Es- 
sexshire,  and    (second)   John   Barlee,   of   Staple- 
ford,    Abbots,    Essexshire;    and    Matthew,    men- 
tioned below. 

(V)  Matthew    Bradbury,    son    of    William    (2) 
Bradbury,   was    Lord   of   the    Manor   of   Wicken 
Hall,   in    the    Parish    of   Wicken    Bonant,    which 
he  acquired  by  purchase  in  1557.      He  also  pu;- 
chased  the  Manor  of  Grange  at  Thaxted,  Essex- 
shire, in   1551,  but   sold  it   the   next   year.      His 
death  occurred  June   19,   1585,  and  his  son  Wil- 
liam  was   appointed   administrator   of   his   estate. 
He    married    Margaret    Rowse,    of    the    city    of 
Cambridge,  and  they  were  parents  of  the  follow- 
ing children:     William,  mentioned  below;  Thom- 
as,  who   married    Dorothy   Southwell;    and    Bar- 
bara, who  married  (first)  Sir  Henry  Cults,  (sec- 
ond)   Sir   Thomas    Fludd,    (third)    Edward    Gill, 
Esq.,     (fourth)     Walter    Covert,    of     Boxley    in 
Kent. 

(VI)  William    (3)    Bradbury,   son   of   Matthew 
and    Margaret    (Rowse)    Bradbury,   inherited   his 
father's  Manor  of  Wicken  Bonant,  and  is  named 
in   the   wills   of   his   cousin    Robert   and   brother 
Thomas.      He  died  November  30,  1622,  and  was 
buried  at  Wicken.      He  married  Anne  Eden,  the 
daughter  and  heir  of  Richard  Eden,  Esq.,  LL.D., 
of  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  SufFolkshire,  and  they  were 
the  parents  of  the  following  children:    Matthew, 
mentioned    below;    Wymond,    mentioned    below; 


Henry,  who  died  in  early  youth;  Thomas,  who 
died  in  early  youth;  Thomas  (2),  who  died  in 
early  youth;  Bridget,  who  became  the  wife  of 
Francis  Bridgewater;  Anne,  who  became  the  wife 
of  Thomas  Kinethorpe,  of  Louth,  Lincolnshire; 
Alice,  who  was  baptized  at  Newport  Pond,  Feb- 
ruary 23,  1572-73,  and  married  (first)  George 
Yardley,  of  Weston,  Hertshire,  and  (second) 
Thomas  Wadeson. 

(VII)  Matthew  (2)  Bradbury,  son  of  William 
(3)  and  Anne  (Eden)  Bradbury,  inherited  the 
Manor  of  Wicken  Bonant,  where  he  lived  and 
died  September  22,  1616.  He  married  Jane  Whit- 
gift,  daughter  of  William  Whitgift,  of  Claver- 
ing, Essexshire,  and  his  marriage  settlement  is 
dated,  June  6,  1594.  They  were  the  parents  of 
the  following  children:  Matthew,  Edward,  Phil- 
lippa,  Barbara,  Margaret,  Elizabeth  and  Martha. 

(VII)  Wymond  Bradbury,  son  of  William  (3) 
and    Anne    (Eden)    Bradbury,    also    resided    at 
Wicken  Bonant  during  his  early  youth,  but  after- 
wards  removed  to  the  Parish  of  White   Chapel, 
in   the   County   of   Middlesex,   where   he   died   in 
1650.      He  was  baptized  at  Newport  Pond,  May 

16,  1574,  and  was   residing  in   London,   October 

17,  1628.       He   married   Elizabeth   Whitgift,    sis- 
ter of  the  wife  of  his  brother  Matthew,  who  died 
June   26,    1612,   at   the   age   of   thirty-eight   years 
and  three  months,  and  was  buried  at  Croyden  in 
the  County  of  Surrey.    They  were  the  parents  of 
the    following    children:      William,    baptized    at 
Newport  Pond,  September  28,  1607,  and  probably 
born  September  13  in  that  year;  Thomas,  men- 
tioned below;  James,  baptized  at  Wicken  Bonant, 

June  21,  1616;  Anne,  who  married  (first)  

Troughton,  and  (second)  Stubbles. 

(VIII)  Thomas  Bradbury,  second  son  of  Wy- 
mond  and    Elizabeth    (Whitgift)    Bradbury,   was 
baptized  at  Wicken  Bonant,  Essexshire,  England, 
on  the  last  day  of  February,  1610-11.      Early  in 
1634    he    appeared    at    Agamenticus,    now    York, 
Maine,  as  the  agent  or  steward  of  Sir  Ferdinando 
Gorges,  the  proprietor  of  the  Province  of  Maine. 
Thomas   Bradbury  was  one  of  'ihe  original  pro- 
prietors of  the  ancient  town  of  Salisbury,  Maine, 
and  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  there,  becoming 
in  time  a  very  prominent  citizen.     He  was  made 
a   freeman   in    1640,   and   held   several   important 
offices,   including  schoolmaster,   town   clerk,  jus- 
tice of  the  peace,  deputy  to  the  General   Court, 
associate  judge  and  captain  of  the  military  com- 
pany.     He  must  have  been  a  man  of  much  cul- 
ture and  enlightenment,  and  described  as  having 
an  easy,  graceful  and  legible  hand,  and  a  clear 
and  concise   style  of  expression.      There   is  still 


26 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


extant  a  copy  of  his  will,  which  is  phrased  in  the 
quaint  old  diction  of  those  days.  He  married, 
in  1636,  Mary  Perkins,  a  daughter  of  John  and 
Judith  Perkins,  of  Ipswich.  She  was  one  of 
those  who  was  tried  and  convicted  of  witch- 
craft, but  was  fortunate  enough  to  escape  punish- 
ment. Mr.  Bradbury  died  March  16,  1695,  and 
his  wife,  December  20,  1700.  A  very  interesting 
and  moving  excerpt  from  the  testimony  of 
Thomas  Bradbury  during  his  wife's  trial  for 
witchcraft  has  come  down  to  us,  and  reads  as 
follows: 

Concerning  my  beloved  wife,  Mary  Bradbury,  this 
Is  what  I  have  to  say:  We  have  been  married  twenty- 
five  years,  and  she  has  been  a  loving  and  faithful  wife 
unto  me  unto  this  day.  She  hath  been  wonderful 
laborious,  diligent  and  industrious  in  her  place  and 
employment  about  the  bringing  up  of  our  family, 
which  have  been  eleven  children  of  our  own  and  four 
grandchildren.  She  was  both  prudent  and  provident, 
of  a  cheerful  spirit,  liberal  and  charitable.  She  be- 
ing now  very  aged  and  meek,  and  grieved  under  af- 
flictions, may  not  be  able  to  speak  much  for  herself 
not  being  so  free  of  speech  as  some  others  might  be. 
I  hope  her  life  and  conversation  among  her  neigh- 
bors has  been  such  as  gives  a  better  or  more  real 
testimony  than  can  be  expressed  by  words. 

Thomas  and  Mary  Bradbury  were  the  parents 
of  the  following  children:  Wymond,  mentioned 
below;  Judith,  born  October  2,  1638,  married,  Oc- 
tober 9,  1665,  Caleb  Moody;  Thomas,  born  Jan- 
uary 28,  1641;  M,ary,  born  March  17,  1643,  mar- 
ried, December  17,  1663,  John  Stanyan,  of  Hamp- 
ton, New  Hampshire;  Jane,  born  May  n,  1645, 
married,  March  15,  1668,  Henry  True;  Jacob, 
born  June  17,  1647,  died  at  Barbadoes;  William, 
born  September  15,  1649,  married,  March  12, 
1672,  Rebecca  Maverick. 

(IX)  Wymond   (2)    Bradbury,  son   of  Thomas 
and  Mary  (Perkins)  Bradbury,  was  born  April  I, 
1637,  and   died   April   7,    1669,   on   the    Island   of 
Nevis,  in  the  West  Indies.      He  married,  Sarah 
Pike,  a  daughter  of  Robert  and  Sarah  (Sanders) 
Pike,  May  7,  1661,  and  they  were  the  parents  of 
the    following    children:     Sarah,    born    February 
26,  1662,  and  became  the  wife  of  Abraham  Mer- 
rill; Anne,  born  November  22,  1666,  and  became 
the  wife  of  Jeremy   Allen,   and  Wymond,   men- 
tioned below. 

(X)  Wymond   (3)   Bradbury,  son  of  Wymond 
(2)  and  Sarah   (Pike)   Bradbury,  was  born  May 
13,  1669,  and  died  in  York,  Maine,  April  17,  1734. 
He  married  Mariah,  daughter  of  the   Rev.  John 
and   Joanna    (Rosetter)    Cotton,   who   was    born 
January    14,    1672.      Her   father   was    the    son    of 
the  Rev.  John  and  Sarah  (Story)  Cotton.     They 
were  the  parents  of  the  following  children:  Jabez, 
born  January  26,   1693,  died  January    13,    1781,  a 
resident   of   Boston;    Wymond,   born    August    18, 


1695,  married  Phebe  Young;  John,  mentioned  be- 
low; Rowland,  born  December  15,  1699,  married 
Mary  Greenleaf;  Ann,  born  March  9,  1702,  be- 
came the  wife  of  Jabez  Fox,  of  Falmouth; 
Josiah,  born  July  25,  1704,  married  Anna  Stevens; 
Theophilus,  born  July  8,  1706,  married  Ann 
Woodman;  Maria,  born  1708,  became  the  wife  of 
Samuel  Service,  of  Boston;  Jerusha,  born  July  5, 
1711,  became  the  wife  of  John  Pulling,  of  Salem. 

(XI)  John    Bradbury,    son    of    Wymond     (3) 
and    Maria    (Cotton)    Bradbury,   was    born    Sep- 
tember 9,  1697,  and  died  December  3,  1778.      He 
was  the  founder  of  the  York  family  of  Bradbury, 
and  was  a  prominent  man  in  the  affairs  of  that 
community  and  of  the  Presbyterian  church  there, 
of  which   he  was   an  elder.      He   was  an  ardent 
patriot  during  the  Revolution,  and  it  is  said  that 
on  one  occasion  he  rebuked  his  minister  in  open 
meeting  for  sentiments  disloyal  to  the  colonies, 
expressed   in   his   sermon.      He   married   Abigail 
Young,  daughter  of  Lieutenant  Joseph  and  Abi- 
gail   Donnell    Young,    of    York,    who    died    Sep- 
tember  28,    1787.      He   served   for   several   years 
as   a   member   of   the    Provincial    Legislature,   as 
well   as   on   the   Executive    Council,  and   he   was 
also   judge   of  probate.      He   and  his   wife   were 
the   parents    of   the    following   children:     Cotton, 
mentioned  below;   Lucy,  born  January   18,   1725; 
Bethulah,  born  March  30,   1727,  and  became  the 
wife   of   James   Say  ward;    Mariah,   born   April    5, 

1729,   and   became    the   wife   of  Simpson; 

Abigail,   born   August    12,    1731;    Elizabeth,   born 
January  5,  1734;  John,  born  September  18,  1736, 
married   Elizabeth   Ingraham;   Joseph,   born   Oc- 
tober 23,  1740,  married  Dorothy  Clark;  and  Anne, 
born  June  2,   1743,  married  -         -  Moulton. 

(XII)  Cotton  Bradbury,  son  of  John  and  Abi- 
gail   (Young)     Bradbury,    was    born    October    8, 
1722,  at  York,  Maine,  and  resided  at  that  place. 
He    married    Ruth    Weare,    a    daughter    of    Elias 
Weare,  of  York,  and  died  June  14,  1806.     He  and 
his  wife  were  the  parents  of  the  following  chil 
dren:     Lucy,  born  June  20,  1754,  became  the  wife 
of    Nathaniel    Moulton;    Edward,    born    May    20, 
1757,     married     Eunice     Berry,    and    died     May, 
1828;  Daniel,  born  April  7,  1759,  married  Abigail 
Junkins;    Betsey,   born    December    10,    1760,   mar- 
ried Daniel  Knight;  Abigail,  born  December   16, 
1765,   married   Elihu    Bragdon;    Olive,   born   Jan- 
uary 3,  1768,  married,  January  15,  1795,  Nathaniel 
Dorman,  of  Arundell;  Joseph,  born  May  i,  1770, 
married  Jerusha  Harmon;  James,  mentioned  be- 
low;  and   Ruth,   born    October   19,    1774,   became 
the  wife  of  Joseph  Haley. 

(XIII)  James    Bradbury,    son    of    Cotton    and 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


27 


Ruth  (Weare)  Bradbury,  was  born  April  24, 
1772,  at  York,  Maine.  As  a  young  man  he 
studied  for  the  medical  profession,  and  after 
graduation  practiced  for  a  year  at  Ossipee,  New 
Hampshire.  In  1798  he  settled  at  Parsonsfield, 
Maine.  He  soon  had  an  extensive  practice  and 
continued  actively  engaged  thus  for  nearly  half 
a  century.  When  an  old  man,  he  removed  to 
Windharrt,  so  that  he  might  be  near  his  only 
daughter,  who  had  married  and  resided  there. 
His  death  occurred  February  7,  1844.  While 
practicing  at  Parsonsfield,  Dr.  Bradbury  had  a 
large  number  of  medical  students  attached  to 
his  office,  and  among  them  several  men  who 
became  distinguished  in  medical  societies  in 
Maine.  He  was  himself  a  first-class  physician 
and  was  greatly  respected  and  honored  through- 
out this  entire  region.  He  was  always  upright  in 
all  his  dealings  with  his  fellows,  and  possessed 
of  an  exceedingly  courteous  and  attractive  man- 
ner. He  joined  the  Free  Baptist  church  in  1816 
and  continued  a  member  until  the  time  of  his 
death.  Dr.  Bradbury  married,  in  1800,  Ann  Moul- 
ton,  a  daughter  of  Samuel  Moulton.  She  was 
born  September  2,  1777,  and  they  were  the  par- 
ents of  the  following  children:  James  Ware, 
mentioned  below;  Samuel  Moulton,  born  August 
22,  1804,  married  (first)  Susan  Bracket!  and  (sec- 
ond) Elizabeth  Brackctt,  and  died  September  22, 
1888;  Clarissa  Ann,  born  June  19,  1807,  became 
the  wife  of  Dr.  Charles  G.  Parsons,  of  Windham. 
(XIV)  Hon.  James  Ware  Bradbury,  LL.D.,  son 
of  James  and  Ann  (Moulton)  Bradbury,  was 
born  June  10,  1802,  at  Parsonsfield,  Maine.  As 
a  lad  he  attended  the  public  schools  of  his  na- 
tive place,  and  afterwards  studied  for  a  few 
terms  at  the  academies  of  Saco,  Limerick  and 
Effingham,  New  Hampshire,  and  completed  his 
preparatory  course  at  Gorham  Academy.  Upon 
completing  his  studies  at  the  last  named  insti- 
tution, he  entered  the  sophomore  class  at  Bow- 
doin  College  in  1822  and  graduated  from  that 
institution  with  one  of  the  most  famous  classes 
ever  graduated  there,  that  of  1825.  Among  his 
classmates  were  Henry  W.  Longfellow,  Josiah 
Stover  Little,  Jonathan  Cilley,  Nathaniel  Haw- 
thorne, John  S.  C.  Abbott,  and  George  B. 
Cheevcr.  Among  all  these  brilliant  men,  Josiah 
S.  Little  took  the  highest  honors  for  scholar- 
ship, and  at  the  commencement  three  English 
orations  were  assigned,  tlic  valedictory  to  Little 
and  the  other  two  to  Bradbury  and  Longfellow. 
Upon  completing  Ins  course  at  Bowdoin,  Mr. 
Bradbury  was  offered  the  post  of  principal  of 
the  academy  at  Hallowell,  and  accepted  the  offer, 


coming  to  that  place  to  take  up  his  new  duties. 
At  that  time  no  town  in  Maine  was  more  distin- 
guished for  culture  and  literary  attainments.  To 
it  had  recently  come  Dr.  Benjamin  Vaughan, 
formerly  a  member  of  the  English  parliament 
who,  with  his  family,  gave  a  high  tone  to  the 
society  there,  while  the  good  doctor  was  ever 
doing  some  kind  act  to  improve  the  condition 
in  all  classes.  Dr.  Bradbury,  however,  remained 
but  one  year  there,  having  determined  to  make 
the  profession  of  law  his  career  in  life.  With 
this  end  in  view,  he  entered  the  law  office  of  the 
Hon.  Rufus  Mclntire,  of  Parsonsfield,  where  he 
studied  for  a  time,  and  later  the  office  of  the 
Hon.  Ether  Shepley,  of  Portland,  subsequently 
the  chief  justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court 
of  Maine.  Here  Dr.  Bradbury  continued  his 
studies  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  Between 
the  date  of  his  having  completed  his  studies  and 
his  admission  to  the  bar,  however,  the  young 
man  had  opened  a  school  for  the  instruction  of 
teachers  at  Effingham,  New  Hampshire.  This 
was  an  innovation  at  the  time  and  he  was  able 
to  draw  a  large  class  of  fifty  or  more  who  de- 
sired to  be  drilled  in  the  practice  of  this  profes- 
sion. Dr.  Bradbury  conducted  his  class  in  a 
very  original  manner  and  indeed  may  be  said 
to  have  formed  a  model  for  the  various  normal 
institutions  which  have  since  sprung  up  through- 
out this  country.  Mr.  Bradbury  removed  to 
Augusta  in  the  year  1830,  where  he  opened  an 
office  for  the  practice  of  the  law.  At  that  time 
the  Kennebec  county  bar  was  famous  for  the 
ability  and  brilliancy  of  many  of  its  members, 
among  which  were  numbered  Peleg  Sprague, 
George  Evans,  Reuel  Williams,  Frederick  Allen, 
Henry  W.  Fuller,  William  Emmons,  Timothy 
Boutelle,  Samuel  Wells  and  Hiram  Belcher.  In 
spite  of  the  difficulty  of  gaining  a  conspicuous 
place  amid  such  a  galaxy  this  feat  was  accom- 
plished by  young  Mr.  Bradbury,  who  soon  began 
to  attract  the  attention,  not  only  of  his  profes- 
sional colleagues,  but  of  the  entire  community. 
He  was  unusually  well  qualified  for  his  profes- 
sion, and  was  devoted  to  it  in  a  manner  typical 
of  the  best  traditions  of  the  bar.  The  law  it- 
self was  his  mistress  and  not  used  by  him  as 
by  so  many  lesser  men,  as  the  mere  stepping 
stone  to  political  preferment.  After  four  years 
hard  work,  he  had  developed  a  large  practice 
which  he  continued  to  increase  up  to  the  time  of 
his  nomination  and  election  to  the  United  States 
Senate  in  1846.  During  the  sixteen  years  that 
he  was  thus  activeljr  engaged  in  practice,  he 
handled  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  impor- 


28 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


tant  litigation  of  the  region,  and  no  law  office 
in  Kennebec  county  was  busier  than  his.  He 
was  in  great  demand  as  a  trial  lawyer  and  was 
frequently  retained  by  other  prominent  attor- 
neys as  counsel  in  their  important  cases.  His 
unusually  profound  knowledge  of  the  principles 
of  the  law,  together  with  an  amazing  quickness 
and  alertness  of  intellect,  made  him  unusually 
effective  in  court,  and  there  were  very  few  attor- 
neys who  cared  to  meet  and  oppose  him  under 
these  conditions.  In  1833  he  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  Mr.  Horatio  Bridge  which,  however, 
only  lasted  a  year,  but  in  1838  Richard  D.  Rice, 
later  associate  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
Maine,  became  a  student  in  Mr.  Bradbury's  of- 
fice, and  upon  his  admission  to  the  bar  was 
taken  into  partnership  by  the  elder  man.  This 
continued  until  1848,  when  Mr.  Rice  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  bench  by  Governor  Dana.  Mr. 
Bradbury  then  formed  a  partnership  with  the  late 
Lott  M.  Merrill,  and  during  this  partnership  Mr. 
Mjorrill  was  elected  State  Senator  and  three 
times  Governor  of  Maine.  After  Mr.  Brad- 
bury's return  to  his  practice,  upon  his  retirement 
as  United  States  Senator,  he  formed  a  partner- 
ship in  1856  with  Joseph  H.  Meserve,  who  re- 
mained a  member  of  the  firm  until  his  death  in 
1864.  Mr.  Bradbury  then  admitted  his  son,  James 
Ware  Bradbury,  Jr.,  into  partnership.  He  was 
himself  practically  ready  to  retire  at  this  time, 
but  continued  to  keep  up  the  firm  for  the  pur- 
pose of  establishing  his  son  in  practice  here  and 
was  indeed  still  active  up  to  the  time  of  his 
death  in  1876. 

Upon  first  coming  to  Augusta,  Mr.  Bradbury 
edited  for  about  one  year  a  Democratic  journal 
called  the  Maine  Patriot.  He  was  a  staunch  ad- 
herent to  the  principles  and  policies  of  the  Demo- 
crat party,  although  absolutely  independent  of 
mind,  and  his  judgments  were  formed  wholly 
upon  honest  thought  and  conviction  and  without 
regard  to  partisan  consideration.  Although 
never  anxious  to  hold  public  office,  and  never 
allowing  political  matters  to  interfere  with  his 
legal  practice,  such  were  the  abilities  of  Mr. 
Bradbury  that  it  was  very  difficult  for  him  to 
remain  altogether  outside  the  arena  of  public 
life.  In  1835  he  was  appointed  county  attor- 
ney by  Governor  Dunlap  and  accepted  this  post 
as  being  in  line  with  his  regular  professional  ac- 
tivities. Upon  certain  occasions,  however,  he 
was  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  political  cam- 
paigns of  his  day,  this  being  the  case,  especially 
when  what  he  considered  important  principles 
were  at  stake.  He  was  a  strong  supporter  of 


Andrew  Jackson  as  against  Mr.  Van  Buren,  and 
when  at  the  Baltimore  convention  of  1844  James 
K.  Polk  was  offered  as  a  compromise  candidate, 
he  departed  from  his  usual  custom  and  spoke 
in  favor  of  that  gentleman's  candidacy  through- 
out the  campaign.  It  was  at  the  1846  session 
of  the  Maine  Legislature  that  Mr.  Bradbury  was 
chosen  United  States  Senator  for  the  term  of  six 
years,  and  at  the  commencement  of  the  session 
of  1847  he  took  his  seat.  His  entrance  into  the 
Senate  occurred  at  a  very  critical  and  interesting 
period  in  the  history  of  the  United  States,  and 
he  found  himself  working  among  such  men  as 
Daniel  Webster,  Henry  Clay,  John  C.  Calhoun, 
Thomas  H.  Benton,  Lewis  Cass,  Stephen  A. 
Douglass,  William  H.  Seward,  Salmon  P.  Chase 
and  other  of  the  giants  of  that  time.  The  coun- 
try was  in  the  midst  of  its  war  with  Mexico,  and 
Mr.  Bradbury  at  once  became  a  staunch  and 
patriotic  supporter  of  the  administration  in  its 
efforts  to  sustain  and  equip  the  little  American 
army,  then  operating  in  the  heart  of  Mexico  and 
surrounded  by  hostile  forces  greatly  superior  to 
itself.  At  this  time,  too,  the  question  of  slavery 
was  becoming  more  and  more  a  vital  issue  be- 
fore the  country,  and  Mr.  Bradbury  became  a 
powerful  champion  of  the  right  of  the  Congress 
to  legislate  upon  the  question  of  slavery  in  the 
territories.  Throughout  his  long  and  important 
association  with  the  body,  Mr.  Bradbury  main- 
tained a  standard  of  disinterestedness  and  en- 
lightenment surpassed  by  very  few,  and  his  at- 
titude on  the  great  public  question  of  the  day 
might  well  have  served  as  a  model  for  many  of 
his  fellow  whose  power  and  influence  was  even 
greater  than  his.  He  served  as  chairman  of 
the  committee  on  printing,  and  was  also  a  mem- 
ber of  the  judiciary  committee  and  the  commit- 
tee on  claims.  He  continued  to  be  devoted  to 
the  principles  of  democracy,  and  throughout  his 
life  regarded  the  administration  of  President 
Polk  as  the  most  important  in  our  history.  His 
name  was  continually  identified  with  reform  leg- 
islation, and  he  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
effective  speakers  and  readiest  debaters  of  the 
Senate.  After  the  termination  of  his  office,  he 
refused  reelection  to  same  and  retired  to  pri- 
vate life  and  the  resumption  of  his  legal  prac- 
tice. 

Mr.  Bradbury  always  maintained  a  wide  and 
enlightened  public  interest  in  all  questions  af- 
fecting the  welfare  of  his  home  community.  He 
was  keenly  interested  in  Bowdoin  College  and 
served  for  a  number  of  years  as  a  member  of  its 
board  of  overseers  and  for  thirty  years  as  a 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


29 


member  of  its  board  of  trustees.  He  was  also 
interested  in  local  history  and  was  a  member  of 
the  Maine  Historical  Society  and  its  president 
from  1873  to  1889.  In  his  religious  belief  he 
was  a  Congregationalist,  attending  the  church  of 
that  denomination  at  Augusta  and  liberally  sup- 
porting its  work  here.  He  was,  however,  ex- 
ceedingly tolerant  of  the  beliefs  of  other  men 
and  felt  a  broad  charity  and  fellowship  for  all 
denominations  of  Christians.  At  a  dinner  given 
by  the  Maine  Historical  Society  on  the  occasion 
of  Mr.  Bradbury's  eighty-fifth  birthday,  the  fol- 
lowing remarks  concerning  him  were  made  by 
Professor  Chapman: 

We  are  here  today  in  grateful  recognition  of  tbe 
debt  we  owe  to  the  fidelity  and  wisdom  of  one  who 
has  been  so  many  years  our  sachem — our  esteemed 
and  honored  president.  We  all  know,  gentlemen,  his 
mis.-liisli  devotion  to  the  welfare  of  the  society;  his 
:iiu!  watchful  care  over  Its  varied  interests;  the 
kimlly  courtesy  of  his  official  and  personal  relations 
with  us.  It  is  n  great  pleasure  to  us  to  give  some 
outward  expression  to  the  honor  which  our  hearts 
have  all  along  yielded  to  him.  And  In  order  to  em- 
phasize the  feeling  that  prompted  this  gathering,  we 
have  been  glad  to  Invite  and  welcome  here  the  repre- 
sentatives of  sister  societies  to  unite  with  us  in  this 
tribute  of  esteem.  We  may  thus  confirm,  by  living 
contact  and  fellowship,  the  sympathies  that  run  along 
the  obscure  lines  of  antiquarian  research,  and  bind  us 
together  in  the  ties  of  common  or  similar  pursuits. 

Nor  do  we  forget  that  the  day  is  one  that  permits 
as  to  add  to  this  token  and  assurance  of  our  associated 
regard  the  kindly  congratulations  and  good  wishes 
which  belong  to  a  personal  anniversary  an  anni- 
versary, it  may  be  said,  that  recurs  with  startling  fre- 
quency in  all  our  lives.  Whatever  that  was  cherished 
and  valuable,  the  passing  years  may  have  taken  away 
from  our  revered  president,  who  today  reaches  another 
milestone  on  his  journey,  they  have  not  taken  away 
from  him  the  continued  power  and  privilege  of  serving 
his  fellowmen  in  many  noble  ways.  They  cannot  take 
away  from  him  the  record  of  that  for  which  we  honor 
him — a  life  distinguished  by  important  duties  worthily 
performed,  by  high  trusts  faithfully  discharged,  by 
great  privilege!  blamelessly  enjoyed.  And,  on  the 
other  hand,  they  have  brought  to  him  in  their  swift 
passage, 

That  which  should  accompany  old  age, 

As  honor,  love,  obedience,  troops  of  friends. 
James  Ware  Bradbury  was  united  in  marriage, 
November  25,  1834,  with  Eliza  Ann  Smith,  a 
daughter  of  Thomas  Westbrook  and  Abigail 
(Page)  Smith,  of  Augusta,  who  was  born  March 
18,  1815.  Mr.  Smith,  the  father  of  Mrs.  Brad- 
bury, was  a  prominent  merchant  and  business 
man  of  Augusta.  Mrs.  Bradbury  was  a  woman 
of  unusually  beautiful  character  and  noteworthy 
talents  and  abilities.  She  was  very  charitable 
and  an  active  worker  in  many  philanthropic 
movements  in  this  region.  Her  death  occurred 
suddenly  on  January  29,  1879,  and  the  epitaph 
engraved  upon  her  tombstone  is  admirably  ap- 
propriate, both  in  its  simplicity  and  the  senti- 
ment it  conveys: 

She  loved  to  do  good. 


Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bradbury  were  the  parents  of 
the  following  children,  all  born  in  Augusta:  I. 
Henry  Westbrook,  born  February  10,  1836,  mar- 
ried in  1878,  Louisa  Hoffman  Gregorie,  who  died 
in  1912;  they  were  the  parents  of  two  daughters: 
Alice,  who  died  in  infancy;  and  Lila,  who  mar- 
ried (first)  in  February,  1904,  Dallett  H.  Wil- 
son, of  Baltimore,  (second)  Edward  S.  Rand,  of 
New  York;  by  her  first  marriage  she  had  two 
children,  Louise  Bradbury,  born  in  November, 
1904,  and  James  Ware  Bradbury,  born  in  1006; 
by  her  second  marriage  she  has  two  daughters, 
twins,  Lila  Bradbury  and  Josephine  Lindsay, 
born  in  July,  1916.  2.  James  Ware,  Jr.,  men- 
tioned below.  3.  Thomas  Westbrook  Smith,  born 
July  24,  1841,  died  May  I,  1868;  a  young  man  of 
fine  character  and  many  abilities,  whose  early 
death  was  greatly  lamented.  4.  Charles,  born 
March  31,  1846,  married,  November  8,  1870,  Eva 
A.  Lancaster,  of  Augusta,  and  makes  his  home 
at  Boston. 

(XV)  James  Ware  (2)  Bradbury,  son  of  the 
Hon.  James  Ware  (i)  and  Eliza  Ann  (Smith) 
Bradbury,  was  born  July  22,  1839,  at  Augusta, 
and  died  September  21,  1876.  He  was  a  grad- 
uate of  Bowdoin  College  in  the  class  of  1861, 
and  upon  completing  his  studies  there  he  en- 
tered the  office  of  Bradbury,  Morrill  &  Meserve 
to  take  up  the  study  of  law.  Upon  his  admis- 
sion to  the  bar  he  was  taken  into  partnership 
by  his  father  and  for  a  number  of  years  he  car- 
ried on  a  very  successful  practice  here.  At  the 
time  of  his  premature  death  the  future  seemed 
to  promise  the  brightest  prospects  and  he  was 
universally  mourned  as  a  valuable  element  in  the 
community.  He  was  city  solicitor  of  Augusta 
in  1868,  and  was  appointed  United  States  com- 
missioner in  1869,  holding  that  office  until  his 
decease  and  discharging  his  duties  with  great 
independence  and  capability.  He  was  keenly 
interested  in  public  affairs,  and  like  his  father 
a  staunch  advocate  of  Democratic  principles.  Of 
him  Professor  Packard  remarked  at  the  time  of 
his  death:  "He  left  with  us  the  impression  that 
he  possessed  intellectual  powers  which  promised 
much  for  his  friends  and  for  the  public." 


OLIVER  AND  FRANK  OLIVER  MOSES— 
Bath,  Maine,  has  been,  perhaps,  of  all  the 
towns  of  the  State,  the  most  closely  identified 
with  that  most  romantic  of  industries,  shipbuild- 
ing, during  the  great  days  when  American  ships 
were  fashioned  from  the  pine  forests  of  the 
neighborhood  in  such  numbers  and  won  for  this 
country  a  foremost  place  among  the  mercantile 
nations  of  the  world.  The  sailing  vessels  of 


30 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


all  kinds  built  here,  and  especially  the  clipper 
ships,  rivaled,  if  they  did  not  surpass,  the  finest 
vessels  on  earth  and  carried  the  starry  flag  to 
every  port  of  importance  on  the  seven  seas.  And 
if  Bath  was  thus  distinguished  among  its  fel- 
low towns,  the  name  of  Moses  holds  a  not  less 
conspicuous  place  among  those  of  the  men  who 
were  the  designers  and  builders  of  those  wonder- 
ful ships  which,  though  they  trusted  to  the 
wind  alone  for  their  motive  power,  and  were 
innocent  of  any  steel  or  iron  in  their  construc- 
tion, braved  every  peril  of  the  deep  and  estab- 
lished some  records  for  speed  that  compared 
not  unfavorably  with  all  but  the  modern  "grey- 
hounds." 

The  Moses  family  is  one  of  the  oldest  in  New 
England,  having  been  founded  here  some  time 
prior  to  1632,  when  there  was  a  colonist  of  the 
name  of  John  Moses  at  Plymouth,  but  the  earliest 
record  of  one  of  the  immediate  line  with  which 
we  are  concerned  was  in  1646,  where  there  was 
another  John  Moses  living  at  Portsmouth,  New 
Hampshire.  This  Sergeant  John  Moses,  as  he 
was  called,  was  a  Scot  and  owned  land  in  the 
suburbs  of  Portsmouth,  which  is  still  in  the  pos- 
session of  his  descendants  after  the  lapse  of 
more  than  two  hundred  and  sixty  years.  It  was 
George  Moses,  the  great-grandson  of  the  immi- 
grant ancestor,  who  founded  the  Scarborough, 
Maine,  branch  of  the  family,  to  which  Oliver 
Moses  and  his  sons  belonged.  This  George 
Moses  was  born  at  Portsmiouth  and  there  bap- 
tized, July  5,  1722.  He  removed  from  Ports- 
mouth and  settled  on  a  farm  at  Scottow's  Hill, 
near  Scarborough  in  1754,  and  there  resided  until 
his  death. 

Oliver  Moses  was  born  at  Scarborough,  Maine, 
May  12,  1803,  a  son  of  Nathaniel  and  Elizabeth 
(Milliken)  Moses,  old  and  highly  respected  resi- 
dents of  that  place.  When  still  little  more  than 
a  youth,  he  left  the  parental  roof  and  went  to 
Portland,  where  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  tin- 
smith and  learned  that  trade.  In  the  month  of 
February,  1826,  he  went  to  Bath,  which  there- 
after was  his  residence  until  the  day  of  his  death 
and  here  engaged  in  business  at  the  craft  he  had 
learned.  He  was  joined  shortly  after  by  his 
brother,  William  V.  Moses,  who  had  also  taken 
up  the  trade,  and  the  two  young  men  entered 
into  a  partnership  in  their  business.  The  first 
shop  operated  by  them  was  situated  on  Vine 
street,  Bath,  but  shortly  after  they  removed  to 
Water  stret,  where  the  Bath  Iron  Works  was 
first  located,  and  there  the  firm  of  W.  V.  and  O. 
Moses  prospered  greatly.  They  were  both  en- 


terprising men  who  were  always  on  the  alert  for 
new  business  openings  and  when,  not  long  after, 
stoves  began  to  be  introduced  to  the  local  mar- 
ket they  at  once  added  them  to  their  stock,  to- 
gether with  iron  goods  in  general,  and  were 
among  the  first  dealers  in  this  commodity  in  the 
neighborhood.  To  the  business  of  dealing  in 
iron  and  tin  goods,  they  then  added  that  of  the 
manufacture  of  iron  castings,  and  gradually  spe- 
cialized in  that  type  used  in  the  construction  of 
railroads.  A  foundry  was  secured  and  operated 
which  turned  out  these  things  with  great  rapidity, 
and  as  the  railroads  of  the  State  were  then  in 
the  process  of  their  most  rapid  development,  this 
line  soon  exceeded  all  other  branches  of  the 
business,  and  the  house  began  to  gain  a  State- 
wide reputation.  The  building  of  ships  was  al- 
ready one  of  the  greatest  in  Maine  at  this  time, 
and  Mr.  Moses  determined  to  become  connected 
with  it.  Accordingly,  he  constructed  a  ship  yard 
at  the  foot  of  Pearl  street  in  Bath,  and  there 
began  building  his  vessels.  A  great  number  were 
built  by  them,  all  of  which  were  of  the  highest 
type  ship  then  constructed,  the  performance 
of  which  under  the  actual  test  of  service  soon 
brought  well  deserved  fame  to  their  designer. 
Mr.  Moses  had  by  this  time  come  to  be  regarded 
as  one  of  the  most  successful  and  substantial 
men  in  the  community,  and  his  extraordinary  or- 
ganizing and  executive  ability  was  recognized 
to  such  an  extent  that  his  services  were  desired 
by  many  enterprises,  the  affairs  of  which  re- 
quired the  control  of  a  master  mind.  He  thus 
became  interested  in  many  concerns,  the  suc- 
cess of  which  was  important  to  the  community, 
and  among  these  the  growing  railroad  system  of 
the  State.  It  was  Oliver  Moses  that  superin- 
tended the  construction  of  the  Androscoggin 
Railroad,  and  he  was  one  of  the  directors  of 
the  company  and  a  large  shareholder,  besides 
for  a  time  holding  the  office  of  president.  He 
was  also  president  of  the  Knox  and  Lincoln 
Railroad,  and  managed  the  construction  of  that 
important  line.  Mr.  Moses  was  the  founder  of 
the  First  National  Bank  at  Bath,  one  of  the 
first  established  in  Maine  and  the  sixty-first  in 
the  entire  United  States,  and  became  its  first 
president  upon  its  organization,  holding  that  of- 
fice until  his  death.  The  Bath  Savings  Institu- 
tion was  one  of  the  institutions  which  he  was 
instrumental  in  founding,  and  of  this  he  was  a 
director  during  the  remainder  of  his  life.  An- 
other achievement  of  Mr.  Moses  was  that  in 
connection  with  the  building  up  and  develop- 
ment of  the  community  in  which  he  played  a 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


31 


prominent  part.  He  interested  himself  in  the 
matter  of  the  city  real  estate  and  owned  much 
valuable  property  here,  which  he  developed  high- 
ly, much  to  his  own  and  the  community's  ad- 
vantage. Columbian  Hall  Hotel  was  erected  by 
him  as  were  also  Church  block  and  Bank  block, 
the  building  in  which  the  First  National  Bank 
was  first  housed,  while  he  was  one  of  the  chief 
contributors  to  the  building  of  the  Universalist 
church,  Washington  street.  Mr.  Mloses  was  a 
Universalist  in  his  religious  belief  and  attended 
the  Washington  Street  Church,  which  he  had 
been  so  largely  instrumental  in  erecting.  In 
1863  he  started  the  Little  River  Manufacturing 
Company,  which  in  1865  was  changed  to  the 
Worombo  Manufacturing  Company,  the  mill  sit- 
uated at  Lisbon  Falls,  Maine,  a  firm  which  has 
ever  since  continued  to  make  the  finest  woolen 
goods  in  the  country.  He  was  its  president  until 
his  death  and  made  it  his  most  important  under- 
taking. 

Although  his  abilities  were  of  a  kind  to  emi- 
nently fit  him  for  success  in  public  life,  Mr. 
scs  was  in  no  sense  a  politician  and  his  am- 
bition for  public  office  or  honor  of  any  kind  did 
not  exist.  But,  although  he  kept  consistently  out 
of  politics,  he  was  a  staunch  Democrat  and  an 
earnest  and  effective  supporter  of  its  principles. 
Mr.  Moses  was  unquestionably  one  of  the  most 
enterprising  and  influential  citizens  of  Bath, 
and  few  men  of  his  generation  did  so  much  to- 
wards building  up  its  industries  and  advancing 
its  general  welfare.  He  took  a  deep  interest  in 
tin1  oily  and  its  affairs,  its  people  and  institu- 
tions, and  left  no  stone  unturned  to  contribute 
to  their  advantage  and  happiness. 

Oliver  Moses  was  united  in  marriage,  July  9, 
1829,  with  Lydia  Ham  Clapp,  a  daughter  of 
Charles  Clapp.  They  were  the  parents  of  the 
following  children:  Francis,  died  in  infancy; 
Frank  Oliver,  mentioned  below;  Galen  Clapp, 
the  subject  of  extended  mention  elsewhere  in 
this  work;  Harriet  Sylvester,  who  became  the 
wife  of  George  Knight,  of  Portland,  now  de- 
ceased; Anna  Elizabeth,  who  became  the  wife  of 
J'x'njamin  F.  Harris,  of  Portland;  Julia,  died  in 
early  youth;  Wealthy  Clapp,  who  became  the 
wife  of  John  W.  Hinds,  of  Allston,  Massachu- 
setts, now  deceased. 

Frank  Oliver  Moses,  second  son  of  Oliver  and 
Lydia  Ham  (Clapp)  Moses,  was  born  September 
19,  1833,  at  Bath,  Maine,  and  as  a  lad  attended 
the  local  schools.  Upon  completing  his  education 
he  was  taken  as  a  partner  into  the  shipbuilding 
establishment  of  Stephen  Larrabee,  who  after- 


wards became  his  father-in-law,  and  there  re- 
ceived his  business  training,  and  a  better  school 
it  would  have  been  difficult  for  him  to  have 
found.  Later  on,  having  become  thoroughly  fa- 
miliar with  every  branch  and  aspect  of  ship- 
building, he  engaged  in  the  same  line  on  his  own 
account,  and  in  a  few  years  became  one  of  the 
largest  and  best  known  builders  of  vessels  in  the 
country.  Some  of  the  ships  that  were  launched 
from  his  ways  were  among  the  most  famous  of 
their  class  that  came  from  the  State  or  that 
ever  sailed  the  seas.  Among  them  should  be 
recorded  the  Oliver  Moses,  the  Robert  Cushman, 
the  Frank  Boult,  the  Joint  Carver,  the  H.  V. 
Baxter,  the  James  Wright,  the  barks  Andaman, 
Niphon  and  Ami,  and  the  schooner  Orvillc.  Mr. 
Moses  continued  in  active  business  until  the  year 
1876,  when  he  retired  to  a  well-earned  leisure 
Mr.  Moses  was  also  one  of  the  organizers  of  the 
Arctic  Ice  Company,  in  which  enterprise  he  was 
associated  with  Edward  Sewall,  the  business  being 
the  shipping  of  ice  from  Maine  to  the  Southern 
and  other  States.  Mr.  Moses  was  a  staunch 
Democrat  in  politics,  and  attended  the  Univer- 
salist church,  taking  an  active  part  in  the  work 
of  his  church  of  which  he  was  for  many  years  a 
trustee.  He  was  a  Mason  and  Knight  Templar. 

Mr.  Moses  was  a  man  of  unusually  strong  char- 
acter and  attractive  personality,  an  enterprising 
man,  who  like  his  father  always  kept  the  inter- 
est of  the  community  in  which  he  dwelt  close 
to  his  heart  and  did  a  great  deal  to  advance  its 
growth  and  prosperity.  He  died  March  n,  1895, 
at  the  age  of  sixty-one  years,  venerated  and  be- 
loved, not  only  by  his  immediate  relatives  and 
friends,  but  by  the  community-at-large  in  a 
manner  that  rarely  falls  to  the  lot  of  men.  He 
was  laid  to  rest  in  the  New  Cemetery  at  Bath. 

Frank  Oliver  Moses  was  united  in  marriage, 
October  16,  1855,  at  Bath,  with  Ann  Maria  Lar- 
rabee, a  native  of  this  city  and  a  daughter  of 
Stephen  and  Nancy  Blackston  (Allen)  Larrabee, 
the  former  a  well  known  citizen  of  Bath.  Mrs. 
Moses  survived  her  husband  but  little  more  than 
a  year,  her  death  occurring  August  19,  1896.  A 
devoted  wife  and  mother,  she  was  a  sterling 
Christian  character,  and  the  long  years  of  her 
marriage  with  Mr.  Moses  were  unusually  happy 
and  harmonious  ones.  They  were  the  parents 
of  the  following  children:  i.  Orville  Bowman, 
deceased;  he  married  Jane  O.  Gate,  of  Dresden, 
Maine,  and  they  had  two  children:  Frank  Oliver, 
who  married  Edna  Pettigrew,  of  Groton,  Con- 
necticut, by  whom  he  had  one  child,  Ann  Maria' 
and  Sally  Pearson,  who  makes  her  home  at  Bos- 


32 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


ton.  2.  Emma  Pedrick,  who  resides  in  the  old 
Moses  homestead  at  Bath.  3.  Lydia  Clapp,  who 
resides  with  her  sister  in  the  old  homestead.  4. 
Oliver,  a  well-known  manufacturer  of  Bath, 
where  he  resides;  he  married  Augusta  Plummer, 
of  Lisbon  Falls,  Maine,  and  they  are  the  parents 
of  the  following  children:  Helen  Larrabee,  born 
June  5,  1894,  became  the  wife  of  Walter  Shaugh- 
nessy,  to  whom  she  has  borne  one  child,  Frances 
Anna;  Frances  Plummer,  born  November  2, 
1896;  and  Oliver,  born  April  28,  1899. 


CYRUS  HERMANN  KOTZSCHMAR  CUR- 
TIS— While  the  fame  of  Cyrus  H.  K.  Curtis  se- 
curely rests  upon  his  own  achievement,  it  is  also 
an  interesting  truth  that  he  descends  from,  an 
ancient  English  family  and  one  of  the  oldest 
in  the  United  States.  The  surname  Curtis  is 
derived  from  a  Norman-French  word,  Curteis 
or  Curtois,  meaning  courteous,  civil.  The  name 
is  supposed  to  have  been  brought  to  England 
in  the  eleventh  century  by  the  Normans  in  the 
train  of  William  the  Conqueror.  The  family  has 
been  traced  definitely  to  Stephen  Curtis,  of  Ap- 
pledore,  in  Kent,  England,  to  about  the  middle 
of  the  fifteenth  century.  In  America  the  family 
is  traced  to  the  year  1631,  twelve  years  after  the 
landing  of  the  Pilgrims.  The  name  in  early 
New  England  records  is  found  as  both  Curtis 
and  Curtiss,  both  spellings  being  yet  retained 
in  different  branches  of  the  family.  The  coat-of- 
arms  of  the  Curtis  family  of  Kent  and  Sussex, 
England,  from  whom  William  Curtis  descended 
is: 

Arms — Argent  a  chevron  sable  between  three  bulls' 
heads  cabossed,  gules. 

Crest — A  unicorn  passant  or  between  four  trees 
proper  . 

(I)  The  family  name  was  brought  to  America 
by  William  Curtis,  who  settled  in  Scituate,  Mas- 
sachusetts,  coming   in   the   ship   Lion,  on   her   first 
voyage.       His    father,    William    Curtis,    came    a 
year    later,    but    in    the    same    ship,    settling    in 
Roxbury.      He   was    accompanied    by    his    three 
brothers — Richard,  who  settled  in  Scituate,  Mas- 
sachusetts; John,  left  no  descendants;  and  Thom- 
as, who  later  settled  in  York,  Maine.      William 
Curtis  was  also  accompanied  by  his  wife,  Sarah 
(a  sister  of  Rev.  John  Eliot,  the  Indian  apostle), 
and   four   children.      He    was   born   in    England, 
1590. 

(II)  William  (2)  Curtis,  eldest  son  of  William 
(i)   Curtis,  born  in  England,   1611,  preceded  his 
father  to  this  country  in  1631,  settling  at  Scituate, 
where  his  later  life  was  spent  on  his  North  river 
farm,  where  he  died  leaving  issue. 


(III)  Benjamin  Curtis,  second  son  of  William 
(2)   Curtis,  was  born  in  Scituate,  January,   1667. 
He   built,   owned  and   operated   the   Curtis   Mills 
on   Third   Herring   pond.       He   married,   in    1689, 
Mary  Sylvester,  and  died  leaving  issue. 

(IV)  Benjamin   (2)   Curtis,  eldest  son  of  Ben- 
jamin  (i)   Curtis,  was  born  in  Scituate,   Decem- 
ber 14,  1692,  died  in  Hanover,  that  State,  Febru- 
ary  21,    1756.       He    married,    December    13.    1716. 
Hannah  Palmer,  and  had  male  issue. 

(V)  Thomas    Curtis,   second   son   of   Benjamin 
(2)    Curtis,   was   baptized   September  4,    1720,   at 
Scituate,    but    spent    his    life    in    Hanover.      His 
first  wife,   Sarah   (Utter)    Curtis,  died  December 
28,   1753,  and  he  married   (second)    February  26, 
1756,  Ruth,  daughter  of  Thomas  and  Faith  Rose. 
He  had  issue  by  both  wives. 

(VI)  Thomas    (2)    Curtis,   son   of  Thomas    (I) 
Curtis,  and  his   first  wife,   Sarah    (Utter)    Curtis, 
was  baptized  June  10,  1749,  at  Hanover,  and  like 
his    father    was    a    shipmaster.       He    settled    in 
Maine   with    his    wife,   Abigail    (Studlcy)    Curtis, 
of   Hanover,   to   whom   he   was   married   June   6, 
1770. 

(VII)  Rev.  Reuben  Curtis,  son  of  Thomas  (2) 
Curtis,  was  born  in  Maine,  in   1788,  and  became 
an   ordained  minister  of  the   Baptist  church,   la- 
boring many  years  as  an  evangelist  in  his  native 
State.      He   married,   December   i,   1808,   Abigail, 
daughter  of  Nathan  and  Elizabeth  (Foster)  Saf- 
ford.     She  was  born  May  22,  1791,  survived  him, 
and  married  a  second  husband. 

(VIII)  Cyrus     Libby    Curtis,    second    son    of 
Rev.  Reuben  Curtis,  was  born  in  Maine,  January 
7,   1822,  and  was  a  resident  of  Portland  in   that 
State.       He    was    a    decorator,    and    well   known 
locally  as  a  musician.      He  married,  July  3,  1844, 
Salome  Ann,  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Salome 
(Coombs)   Cummings.     She  was  born   1819,  died 
1897,  leaving  a  son,  Cyrus  H.   K.,  and  a  daugh- 
ter, Florence  G.,  who  was  born  in  August,   1855, 
died  1888. 

(IX)  Cyrus   H.   K.   Curtis,   only   son   of   Cyrus 
Libby    Curtis,   and   now   the   world-famous    pub- 
lisher    of     the     Curtis     publications — The     Ladies' 
Home    Journal,    the    Saturday    Evening    Post,    the 
Country    Gentleman,    and    the    Philadelphia    Public 
Ledger,   was    born    in    Portland,    Maine,    June    18,. 
1850.      He   attended   the   public   schools    of   that 
city  until  he  was  sixteen  years  of  age,  and  then 
left  high  school  to  engage  in  business,  although 
he    had   been    since    1862   a    newsboy,    and    since 
1863  had  published  in  his  own  amateur  printing 
office    a    boys'    paper  called    Young    America.      In 
1866    occurred    the    great    Portland    fire,    causing 
enormous  losses,  but  none  more  severe  than  that 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


33 


of  the  young  publisher,  who  saw  his  entire  plant 
destroyed.      He    settled   in    Boston    in    1869,   and 
was    publishing    papers,    continuing    there    until 
1876,    when    he    came    to    Philadelphia,    Pennsyl- 
vania,  where   his   great   work   in   journalism,  has 
been  accomplished.      He   founded  the   Tribune  and 
Fanner,   a    weekly    publication.       Expansion    seem.; 
a   part  of  Mr.   Curtis'   nature,  and  everything  in 
time  becomes  too  small  to  fit  his  ambition.     He 
had   the    Tribune  and   Fanner   on   a   paying   basis, 
and  then  sought  a  new  outlet.     This  came  in  the 
form    of    The    Ladies'    Home    Journal,    first    pub- 
lished   in    1883    for    the    benefit    of    his    woman 
readers.     The  child  soon  outstripped  the  parent, 
and   from   its   first   year's   circulation   of   twenty- 
five   thousand   copies   has   grown   to  be   ..he   lead- 
ing woman's  journal  of  the  country,  with  a  cir- 
culation of  over  two  million  copies  monthly,  and 
read     wherever     English-speaking     women     are 
found.      The   Tribune  and  Fanner,  having   served 
its    purpose    of    introducing    its    offspring.       The 
Ladies'    Home   Journal,    was    sold,    the    new    jour- 
nal absorbing  for  a  time  the  great  energy  of  its 
owner.      But    with     The    Journal    completely    or- 
ganized, with  a  capable  head  in  every  department, 
Mr.    Curtis    sought    new    fields    to    conquer,   and 
found    it    in    The    Pennsylvania    Gazette,    then    a 
paper  with   a   weekly   circulation   of   three   thou- 
sand    five     hundred     copies.       The     Gazette     was 
founded  in   1728  under  the  name  of  The  Universal 
Instructor  in  all  Arts  and   Sciences  and  Pennsyl- 
vania   Gacclti-,    by    Samuel    Keimer,   the    first    em- 
ployee   of    Benjamin     Franklin    in    Philadelphia. 
The  latter  became  the  owner  of  the  paper  in  the 
following    October,    and    dropped     the     cumber- 
some   title,    retaining    only    PtmuyfooHta    Gazette. 
In  1897,  when  Mr.  Curtis  purchased  the  paper,  it 
had  a  circulation  of  two  thousand.      The  circula- 
tion   of    the    Satunliiy    l:.rciinig    Post,,  successor   to 
Tlie  Pennsylvania   Gazette,   is   now   over  two  mil- 
lion two  hundred  thousand  copies  weekly.     Noth- 
ing better  shows  the  business  acumen  and  vitaliz- 
ing energy  of  the   principal   owner  of  this  great 
publication  than  the  above  figures.      How  it  was 
done  and  how  it  is  still  being  done  forms  mate- 
rial for  a  volume.      There  is  nothing  in  the  his- 
tory  of   journalism    that    can    compare   with    the 
world-wide  enthusiastic  organization   that   forced 
the  circulation  of   The  Post  to  this   enormous  fig- 
ure in  a  few  years.      From  an  unknown  publica- 
tion, a   demand  was   created   that   forced   hostile 
news   companies   and   dealers   to   add   it    to   their 
list  or  lose  a  host  of  customers.     Now  it  can  be 
purchased  everywhere   every  Thursday   morning. 
While  Mr.  Curtis  would  be  the  last  man  to  say 

V.K.  ~i—3 


"I  did  it,"  there  is  the  fact — that  as  the  head 
of  the  Curtis  Publishing  Company  he  did  do  it 
by  surrounding  himself  with  a  corps  of  heads 
of  departments  ready  and  eager  to  work  out  the 
plans  of  their  chief.  The  Home  Journal  is  still 
the  leader  in  the  field  of  women  and  the  home, 
but  has  many  imitators.  The  Post,  a  man's  jour- 
nal, is  supreme  and  alone  in  its  field.  While  its 
circulation  department  is  the  greatest  in  the 
world,  The  Post  has  gained  its  position  through 
the  excellence  of  its  editorial  department  and 
policy.  Whether  in  science,  discovery,  politics, 
or  fiction,  the  articles  and  stories  are  from  the 
most  eminent  in  their  several  fields.  The  adver- 
tising is  most  artistic  and  carefully  chosen,  an- 
other innovation,  and  the  fact  that  the  adver- 
tisement appears  in  The  Post  is  a  guarantee  to 
the  reader  that  the  firm  advertising  is  a  reputable 
one. 

With  the  two  leading  periodicals  of  the  coun- 
try, a  monthly  and  a  weekly,  beautifully  housed 
in  a  specially-designed  and  imposing  building  on 
Independence  and  Washington  Square,  Philadel- 
phia, one  would  suppose  Mr.  Curtis  would  find 
full  vent  for  his  energy.  But  not  so,  there  was 
still  another  field  that  offered  him  an  irresistible 
inducement,  that  of  the  farm,  field  and  country 
home.  He  purchased  The  Country  Gentleman 
and  to  this  is  being  applied  the  same  principles 
that  succeeded  so  well  with  the  The  Home  Jour- 
nal and  Post.  This  property  was  purchased  in 
1912  and  has  responded  to  the  application  of 
Curtis  methods  with  gratifying  promptness,  and 
with  a  weekly  sale  up  in  the  hundreds  of  thou- 
sands. To  these  publications,  all  published  in 
the  new  building,  each  covering  its  own  special 
field,  Mr.  Curtis,  in  1913,  bought  The  Philadel- 
phia Public  Ledger,  and  within  a  short  time  has 
caused  it  to  more  than  regain  the  proud  position 
in  daily  journalism  it  held  for  so  many  years 
under  the  late  George  W.  Childs.  In  the  field 
of  journalism  it  stands  pre-eminent  among  Phila- 
delphia papers. 

While  for  many  years  the  business  has  been 
incorporated  as  the  Curtis  Publishing  Company, 
Mr.  Curtis,  as  president,  has  had  entire  super- 
vision, and  while  he  has  built  up  a  wonderful 
organization,  editorial  and  advertising,  he  has 
furnished  the  policy  that  must  be  followed  and 
selected  the  men  to  act  as  his  lieutenants.  He  is 
a  thorough  master  of  the  detail  of  the  publish- 
ing business,  and  has  a  secure  position  in  the 
journalistic  hall  of  fame. 

The  building  that  Mr.  Curtis  has  erected  as  a 
c    ii.     }.'..   T  ;:u-:  i  ;iscs  deserves   mention        Al- 


34 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


ways  solicitous  for  the  welfare  of  his  people, 
it  is  nowhere  shown  so  strikingly  as  in  the  mod- 
ern character  of  the  arrangement  of  rooms  to 
get  the  best  light  and  the  sanitary  arrangement 
of  the  departments.  Experience  and  modern 
science  have  taught  many  valuable  lessons,  dem- 
onstrating the  value  of  light,  sanitation,  nourish- 
ing food,  suitable  clothing,  proper  exercise  and 
physical  recreation  in  raising  the  standard  of 
employees  and  in  arousing  an  ambition  to  excel, 
each  in  his  field  of  effort.  Here  the  Curtis 
methods  should  serve  as  an  object  lesson  to 
every  employer.  The  standard  of  its  work  is 
patent  to  all,  but  the  excellence  of  the  methods 
by  which  an  army  of  employees  is  kept  cheerful, 
happy,  contented  and  loyal  has  been  often  over- 
looked, but  is  a  direct  result  of  a  Curtis  method 
of  securing  efficiency,  as  marked  as  its  policy  of 
themselves  giving  the  highest  grade  of  service  to 
their  employers,  the  reading  public. 

The  thorough  business  qualifications  of  Mr. 
Curtis  have  caused  his  services  to  be  much  in 
demand  on  boards  of  directors  of  various  insti- 
tutions, and  his  public  spirit  has  led  him  to  ac- 
cept of  many  such  trusts.  He  is  a  director  of 
the  First  National  Bank  of  Philadelphia  and  the 
Real  Estate  Trust  Company,  and  a  trustee  of  the 
Mutual  Life  Insurance  Company  of  New  York, 
and  an  investor  in  many  Philadelphia  enterprises 
and  companies.  He  is  a  Republican  in  political 
preference,  but  takes  no  active  part  in  politics 
and  opens  his  columns  to  representative  men  01 
all  parties.  During  the  campaign  of  1912  articles 
appeared  from  each  of  the  three  leading  can- 
didates for  president.  He  is  a  well-known  club- 
man, belonging  in  Philadelphia  to  the  Union 
League,  Manufacturers',  City,  Franklin  Inn,  Poor 
Richard,  Automobile,  Corinthian  Yacht  and  Hunt- 
ingdon Valley  Hunt  clubs.  His  love  of  yachting 
is  shown  by  membership  in  the  Columbia  Yacht 
Club  of  New  York,  the  Eastern  Yacht  Club  of 
Boston,  the  Portland  Yacht  Club  of  Portland, 
Maine,  the  Megomticook  Country  and  Yacht 
Club  of  Camden,  Maine.  His  New  York  clubs 
are:  Aldine,  New  York,  Yacht,  Press  and  Adver- 
tising. 

During  the  many  years  of  Mir.  Curtis'  business 
activity  he  steadily  maintained  the  habits  of  close 
and  systematic  application  which  were  formed  in 
early  youth  and  might  be  said  to  constitute  the 
cornerstone  of  his  extraordinary  success.  He 
is  a.  fine  type  of  the  broad-gauge  business  man, 
of  clear  vision,  sound  judgment  and  remarkable 
capacity  for  detail.  Also,  he  is  a  man  of  kind 
feelings  and  generous  impulses,  making  due  al- 


lowance for  the  failings  of  his  fellow-men  while 
demanding  of  them  the  same  strict  devotion  to 
duty  which  he  has  always  exacted  from  himself. 
All  this  appears  in  the  portrait  which  accom- 
panies this  biography  and  without  which  the  tes- 
timony furnished  by  the  printed  page  would  be 
extremely  inadequate.  He  looks  the  man  he  is. 

In  March,-  1875,  Mr.  Curtis  married  (first)  in 
Boston,  Massachusetts,  Louise  Knapp,  born  in 
that  city,  October  24,  1851,  daughter  of  Hum- 
phrey C.  and  Mary  (Barbour)  Knapp;  she  died 
in  February,  1910.  Their  only  child:  Mary 
Louise,  married,  in  October,  1896,  Edward  W. 
Bok,  the  talented  editor  of  The  Ladies'  Home 
Journal.  Their  children  are :  Curtis  and  Gary. 
Mr.  Curtis  married  (second)  Kate  S.  Pillsbury, 
of  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin.  The  Curtis  home,  in 
the  suburbs  of  Philadelphia,  is  one  of  the  show 
places  of  the  State. 

Throughout  his  career  Cyrus  H.  K.  Curtis  has 
been  animated  by  the  spirit  of  progress,  ever 
pressing  forward  and  seeking  to  make  the  good 
better  and  the  better  best.  He  has  furnished  a 
true  picture  of  the  ideal  business  man,  one  who 
creates  and  adds  to  the  wealth  of  nations  while 
advancing  his  own  interests.  The  great  organ- 
ization which  he  has  founded  and  developed  is 
a  monument  to  his  far-sighted  business  ability, 
but  no  less  is  it  a  monument  to  his  philanthropy. 
He  has  given  to  hundreds  employment  and  op- 
portunities for  self-culture  and  self-development, 
and  the  wealth  which  has  come  to  him  he  has 
held  in  trust  for  the  less  fortunate  of  his  fel- 
lows. While  increasing  the  material  prosperity 
of  the  community,  he  has  labored  for  its  moral 
and  spiritual  betterment.  Publisher,  business 
man,  philanthropist — he  is  one  of  those  of  whom 
future  generations  will  say:  "The  world  is  bet- 
ter because  he  lived." 


JUDGE  LUERE  B.  DEASY— When  on  Sep- 
tember I,  1918,  Governor  Milliken  appointed 
Lucre  B.  Deasy  to  succeed  George  E.  Bird,  of 
Portland,  as  Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Ju- 
dicial Court  of  the  State  of  Maine,  it  was  de- 
served recognition  of  the  ability  and  learning 
of  one  of  the  leading  lawyers  of  the  State.  Not 
that  former  recognition  had  been  denied  him,  for 
he  is  rich  in  the  honors  of  his  profession,  and 
in  public  life  has  both  accepted  and  declined  sev- 
eral important  positions.  While  for  more  than 
thirty  years  Bar  Harbor  has  claimed  him  as  her 
own,  his  reputation  as  a  lawyer  is  State-wide. 
He  is  learned  in  the  law  and  his  successful  ca- 
reer at  the  bar  is  a  guarantee  that  he  will  as 


^L^^O 


X^  —  * 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


worthily  adorn  the  Supreme  bench  of  his  native 
State.  He  is  a  son  of  Daniel  and  Emma 
(Moore)  Deasy,  of  Prospect  Harbor,  in  the  town 
of  Gouldsboro,  Hancock  county,  Maine,  Prospect 
Harbor  Village  being  located  on  an  arm  of  the 
sea  twenty-four  miles  from  Ellsworth. 

Lucre  B.  Deasy  was  born  in  Gouldsboro, 
Maine,  February  8,  1859,  and  there  obtained  his 
early  public  school  education.  He  completed  the 
courses  of  Eastern  State  Normal  School  at  Cas- 
tine,  with  graduation,  and  began  preparation  for 
the  profession  of  law  in  the  office  of  former  Chief 
Justice  Lucillius  A.  Emery,  completing  his 
studies  at  Boston  University  Law  School.  He 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Hancock  county, 
Maine,  in  1884,  and  in  1886  opened  an  office  in 
Bar  Harbor.  He  practised  alone  for  one  year, 
then  formed  a  partnership  with  John  T.  Higgins 
(now  deceased),  practising  as  Deasy  &  Higgins 
from  1889  until  1896.  He  again  was  in  practice 
alone,  1896-1905,  when  he  entered  into  partner- 
ship with  A.  H.  Lyman,  of  Bar  Harbor,  the  firm, 
Deasy  &  Lyman,  continuing  until  the  elevation 
of  the  senior  partner  to  the  Supreme  bench. 
Judge  Deasy  practised  in  all  State  and  Federal 
courts  of  the  district,  and  through  his  frequent 
appearances  became  well  known  in  the  court  of 
which  he  is  now  an  honored  associate  judge. 
He  is  a  member  and  formerly  president  of  the 
Hancock  county  and  Maine  State  Bar  Associa- 
tion, a  member  of  the  American  Bar  Association, 
and  highly  regarded  by  his  professional  brethren. 
His  practice  was  not  confined  to  Bar  Harbor  or 
Hancock  county,  but  was  State-wide.  This  fact, 
coupled  with  his  prominence  in  public  life,  his 
unusual  prominence  as  a  campaign  orator  and 
public  speaker,  kept  him  continuously  in  the 
public  eye.  Thus  when  Governor  Milliken  nomi- 
nated him  for  associate  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Judicial  Court  there  was  practically  no  dissent 
from  the  Governors'  choice,  and  the  new  justice 
was  overwhelmed  with  congratulations  which 
were  brought  in  person,  sent  in  by  wire,  or 
spoken  through  the  medium  of  the  telephone. 

In  addition  to  the  law  business,  Judge  Deasy 
was  one  of  Bar  Harbor's  able  business  men  and 
most  public  spirited  citizens,  ever  ready  to  give 
of  his  time  and  ability  to  any  movement  affect- 
ing the  public  good.  He  was  president  of  the 
Bar  Harbor  Banking  and  Trust  Company  at 
the  time  of  his  appointment,  was  for  many  years 
president  of  Bar  Harbor  Village  Improvement 
Association,  and  president  of  the  Hancock 
County  Bar  Association.  He  was  also  identified 
with  other  business  interests  of  Bar  Harbor,  and 


(luring  the  European  war  period  served  for  some 
time  as  chairman  of  the  Exemption  Board  of  the 
first  Maine  district,  and  was  chairman  of  the  Bar 
Harbor  branch  of  the  American  Red  Cross.  In 
politics  a  Republican,  he  represented  his  district 
in  the  Maine  Legislature,  and  in  1909  was  presi- 
dent of  the  Senate.  He  was  appointed  by  Gov- 
ernor Haines  chairman  of  the  Maine  Public  Util- 
ities Commission,  but  that  honor  was  declined. 
He  has  always  ranked  as  an  orator  of  unusual 
ability  and  as  a  public  speaker  is  in  constant  de- 
mand. He  is  a  member  of  Bar  Harbor  Lodge, 
Free  and  Accepted  Masons;  Mount  Kebo  Chap- 
ter, Royal  Arch  Masons,  and  Blanguefort  Com- 
mandery,  Knights  Templar. 

Judge  Deasy  married,  December  25,  1885, 
Emma  M.  Clark,  of  Gouldsboro,  Maine,  and  they 
are  the  parents  of  two  daughters:  Blanche,  mar- 
ried Asa  Hodgkins,  of  Bar  Harbor;  and  Louise, 
a  graduate  of  Wellesley  College,  and  a  teacher 
in  Bar  Harbor  High  School. 


PRENTISS  MELLEN  was  born  in  Sterling, 
Massachusetts,  October  11,  1764,  son  of  the  Rev. 
John  (1722-1807)  and  Rebecca  (Prentiss)  Msllen; 
grandson  of  Thomas  Mellen,  a  farmer  in  Hop- 
kinton,  Massachusetts,  and  of  the  Rev.  John 
Prentiss,  of  Lancaster,  Massachusetts. 

He  was  prepared  for  college  by  his  father,  and 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  with  his  brother 
Henry  in  1784,  his  brother  John  having  grad- 
uated in  1770.  He  was  tutor  in  the  family  of 
Joseph  Otis  at  Barnstable,  Massachusetts,  1784- 
85;  studied  law  under  Shearjashub  Bourne  in 
Barnstable,  1785-88;  and  practiced  at  Sterling, 
Massachusetts,  1788-89;  at  Bridgewater,  1789-91; 
at  Dover,  New  Hampshire,  1791-92;  at  Bidde- 
ford,  1792-1806;  and  at  Portland,  1806-40.  He 
was  married  in  May,  1795,  to  Sallie,  daughter 
of  Barzillai  Hudson,  of  Hartford,  Connecticut. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Massachusetts  Exec- 
utive Council,  1808-09  and  1817;  presidential  elec- 
tor on  the  Monroe  and  Tompkins  ticket  in  1817, 
and  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate  as 
successor  to  Eli  P.  Ashmun,  who  resigned  in 
1818,  and  he  served  until  1820,  when  Maine  be- 
came a  separate  State  and  he  was  made  chief 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  State.  He 
retired  in  1834  on  reaching  the  age  of  seventy 
years.  He  was  chairman  of  the  committee  to 
revise  and  codify  the  public  statutes  of  Maine 
in  1838.  He  received  the  degree  of  LL.D.  from 
Harvard  and  from  Bowdoin  in  1820,  an3  was  a 
trustee  of  Bowdoin,  1817-36.  His  decisions  are 


36 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


in  Maine  reports  (vols  I-XI).     He  died  in  Port- 
land, Maine,  December  31,  1840. 


JUSTICE  WILLIAM  PENN  WHITE- 
HOUSE — Few  American  families  can  point  to 
so  many  men  of  great  distinction  as  can  that  of 
Whitehouse.  The  stock  has  produced  eminent 
churchmen,  distinguished  jurists  and  men  of  af- 
fairs and  philanthropists  that  have  had  a  na- 
tional reputation,  but  none  among  them  have 
more  worthily  borne  the  name  and  upheld  the 
tradition  than  has  William  Penn  Whitehouse, 
formerly  chief  justice  of  the  State  of  Mkine.  A 
man  of  the  widest  and  most  generous  culture, 
his  legal  acumen  and  his  fairmindedness  together 
with  a  sense  of  duty  which  has  a  certain  Roman 
quality  have  eminently  fitted  him  for  his  life- 
work  of  the  law.  He  unites  a  wide  outlook  and 
a  scholarly  culture  with  a  keen  and  ready  mind 
that  has  never  lost  its  cutting  edge.  His  gra- 
cious and  urbane  manners  appear  the  natural 
fruit,  as  indeed  they  are,  of  his  character  and 
attainments.  In  honoring  him  the  State  of 
Maine  honored  herself,  for  such  men  are  the  con- 
summate flowering  of  all  that  is  best  in  Ameri- 
can life. 

The  Whitehouses  of  Maine  have  been  noted  as 
jurists,  and  are  descended  from  Thomas  White- 
house  who  married  a  daughter  of  William'  Pom- 
fret,  of  Dover,  New  Hampshire,  in  1682,  the  line 
coming  down  through  Thomas  (2),  Pomfret, 
Thomas  (3),  Daniel,  Edmund,  John  Roberts  to 
William  Penn,  the  subject  of  this  biographical 
sketch,  and  lastly  to  his  son,  Robert  Treat 
Whitehouse. 

Among  the  eminent  men  of  the  name  should 
be  mentioned  the  Rt.  Rev.  Henry  John  White- 
house,  born  in  1803,  and  died  in  1874,  second 
bishop  of  Illinois,  and  the  fifty-fifth  in  succession 
in  the  American  episcopate.  He  was  a  graduate 
of  Columbia  College,  and  of  the  General  Theo- 
logical Seminary;  served  as  rector  of  St.  Thom- 
as' Church,  New  York  City,  from  1844  to  1851, 
and  was  successor  to  Bishop  Chase  in  Illinois. 
He  was  the  first  bishop  in  the  American  church 
to  advocate  the  cathedral  system  in  the  United 
States.  Sent  to  the  Lambeth  Conference  held 
in  England,  he  preached  at  the  invitation  of  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury  the  first  sermon 
preached  before  that  body.  He  received  the 
degree  of  S.T.D.  from  Oxford  University  in 
1867,  having  received  that  of  LL.D.  from  his 
alma  mater,  Columbia,  in  1865,  and  from  the  Uni- 
versity of  Cambridge  in  1867.  James  Horton 
Whitehouse  is  another  name  that  adds  lustre 


to  the  race  from  which  he  sprang.  He  was  born 
in  Staffordshire,  England,  in  1833,  and  designed 
for  Tiffany  &  Company  the  Bryant  Vase  now  in 
the  Metropolitan  Museum  in  New  York.  An- 
other is  William  Fitzhugh  Whitehouse,  born  in 
1877,  a  noted  explorer  and  hunter  of  big  game 
in  Somaliland,  Abyssinia,  British  East  Africa  and 
Uganda.  He  was  the  first  white  man  in  the  un- 
known region  south  of  the  chain  lakes,  and  the 
result  of  his  discoveries  was  given  out  in  the 
book  Through  the  Country  of  the  King  of  Kings, 
published  by  Scribners  in  1902.  Still  another 
of  the  name  was  Henry  Remsen  Whitehouse,  a 
noted  diplomat  and  author  who  was  decorated 
by  King  Humbert  of  Italy  with  the  Cross  of  the 
Commander  of  St.  Maurice  and  St.  Lazarus.  He 
was  a  distinguished  student  of  literature  and  in- 
vestigator of  historical  sources. 

But  among  the  men  who  have  added  distinc- 
tion to  the  name  of  Whitehouse  none  has  carried 
it  to  a  higher  place  than  the  Hon.  William  Penn 
Whitehouse,  formerly  Chief  Justice  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  the  State  of  Maine.  He  was 
born  in  Vassalboro,  Maine,  April  9,  1842,  the  son 
of  John  Roberts  and  Hannah  (Percival)  White- 
house,  and  was  thus  of  the  eighth  generation 
from  the  first  American  founder  of  the  family. 
He  began  preparation  for  college  at  the  China 
Academy  while  still  working  on  his  father's 
farm.  In  February,  1858,  while  a  lad  of  six- 
teen, he  entered  upon  an  intensive  course  for  hi» 
college  entrance  examinations,  and  made  such 
good  progress  that  he  was  able  to  enter  Colby 
College  without  condition  in  September  of  that 
year.  In  1863  he  was  graduated  with  class 
honors,  delivering  the  English  oration  at  com- 
mencement. Among  his  classmates  at  college 
were  Governor  Marcellus  L.  Stearns,  Colonel  F, 
S.  Hazeltine  of  the  Boston  bar,  Dr.  John  O. 
Marble  of  Worcester,  Massachusetts,  and  Judge 
Bonney,  late  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Cumber- 
land county,  Maine.  Mr.  Whitehouse  received 
his  bachelor's  degree  in  arts  in  1863,  and  his  mas- 
ter's degree  in  1866.  He  taught  for  a  time  after 
leaving  college  and  during  the  year  1863-64  was 
principal  of  the  Vassalboro  Academy.  Having, 
however,  decided  upon  the  profession  of  the  law 
as  a  life  work,  he  entered  the  office  of  the  late 
Sewall  Lancaster,  of  Augusta,  and  afterwards 
continued  his  studies  with  ex-Senator  Hale  of 
Ellsworth.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Ken- 
nebec  county  in  October,  1865,  and  his  first  year 
of  practice  was  in  the  city  of  Gardiner  in  part- 
nership with  Lorenzo  Clay.  In  December  of 
1866  he  removed  to  Augusta  and  formed  a  part- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


37 


nership  with  George  Gifford,  which  lasted  until 
June,  1867,  when  the  latter  entered  the  field  of 
journalism  in  Portland. 

For  four  years  Judge  Whitehouse  was  city  so- 
licitor of  Augusta,  for  seven  years  attorney  for 
Kennebec  county,  and  for  twelve  years  judge  of 
the  Superior  Court  of  Kennebec  county.  In  1890 
he  was  apointed  associate  justice  of  the  Su- 
preme Judicial  Court  of  Maine,  holding  that  of- 
fice until  July  26,  1914,  when  he  became  chief 
justice,  in  which  capacity  he  served  until  1916. 
when  he  resigned.  A  profound  knowledge  of 
the  law,  a  ripe  and  scholarly  culture  and  trench- 
ant mind  were  in  him  associated  with  a  balance 
and  sanity  of  temperament  and  a  judicial  habit 
of  weighing  evidence  in  its  minutest  detail.  No 
man  who  has  occupied  the  Supreme  bench  of 
the  State  of  Maine,  rich  as  has  been  its  history, 
has  by  character  or  attainments  more  nobly  car- 
ried out  its  highest  traditions. 

Upon  his  retirement  he  resumed  his  profession 
as  counsellor-at-law  at  Augusta,  and  commands 
an  important  and  distinguished  practice.  He  is 
a  Republican  in  his  political  opinions.  In  1888 
he  became  a  trustee  of  the  Kennebec  Savings 
Bank,  and  in  1907  of  the  State  Trust  Company. 
He  served  as  chairman  of  the  committee  on  the 
new  Hospital  for  the  Insane,  and  wrote  a  mono- 
graph against  the  cottage  system  which  was  pub- 
lished by  the  State.  His  services  to  the  State 
and  to  the  legal  profession  received  acknowl- 
edgment from  his  alma  mater,  Colby  College,  by 
the  bestowal  of  the  degree  of  LL.D.  in  1896, 
and  from  Bowdoin  College  in  1912. 

Chief  Justice  Whitehouse  married,  June  24, 
1869,  Evelyn  M.,  daughter  of  Colonel  Robert 
Treat,  of  Frankfort,  Maine,  who  was  a  direct 
descendant  in  the  seventh  generation  from  Col- 
onel Robert  Treat,  who  was  colonial  Governor 
of  Connecticut  for  twenty-five  years.  Their  son 
and  only  child  is  the  Hon.  Robert  Treat  White- 
house,  of  Portland,  a  sketch  of  whom  follows. 


ROBERT  TREAT  WHITEHOUSE— Ad- 
mitted to  the  Cumberland  County  bar  in  1894, 
Mr.  Whitehouse  during  the  quarter  century 
which  has  since  elapsed  has  risen  to  high  and 
honorable  position  as  lawyer,  public  official  and 
author  of  standard  law  books. 

Robert  Treat  Whitehouse,  eldest  son  of  Wil- 
liam Penn  and  Evelyn  M.  (Treat)  Whitehouse, 
was  born  in  Augusta,  Maine,  March  27,  1870.  He 
completed  public  school  courses  in  Augusta,  and 
in  1887  was  graduated  from  Congregational  high 
school.  He  pursued  classical  courses  at  Harvard 


University,  gaining  his  A.B.  at  graduation  in 
1891.  He  then  entered  Harvard  Law  School, 
whence  he  was  graduated  LL.B.  class  of  1893. 
He  was  associated  with  the  law  office  of  Sym- 
onds,  Cook  and  Snow,  Portland,  Maine,  and  in 
1894  was  admitted  to  the  Maine  bar.  He  con- 
tinued in  private  practice  in  Augusta,  Maine,  until 
1900,  when  he  was  elected  county  attorney,  an 
office  he  held  for  four  years.  On  January  16, 
1905,  he  was  appointed  United  States  District  At- 
torney for  the  State  of  Maine,  an  office  which  he 
has  since  filled  with  credit  and  honor.  He  is 
the  author  of  "Equity,  Jurisdiction,  Pleading  and 
Practice,"  published  in  1900,  and  Whitehouse's 
"Equity  Practice"  in  three  volumes,  published  in 
1913,  works  of  standard  value  to  the  profession. 
Mr.  Whitehouse  was  a  member  of  the  school 
committee  of  the  city  of  Portland,  1894-1898,  is 
a  Republican  in  politics  and  prominent  in  party 
councils.  He  is  a  member  of  Ancient  Landmark 
Lodge,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons;  the  Lincoln 
Club,  president  1894-08;  the  Cumberland  Coun- 
try and  Fraternity  Clubs  of  Portland;  and  president 
of  the  Economic  Club.  He  is  also  at  tEe  pres- 
ent time  president  of  the  Maine  State  Board  of 
Charities  and  Corrections.  He  married,  June  18, 
1894,  Florence  Brooks,  daughter  of  Samuel  Spen- 
cer and  Mary  Caroline  (Wadsworth)  Brooks  of 
Augusta.  Mrs.  Whitehouse  was  educated  in 
Portland  city  public  schools  and  St.  Catherine's 
Hall,  later  under  private  instruction  in  Boston, 
perfecting  herself  in  music,  languages,  drawing 
and  painting.  She  was  a  member  of  the  Rossini 
Musical  Club,  and  the  author  of  "The  God  of 
Things,"  Little,  Brown  &  Thompson,  Boston, 
1902;  the  same  house  publishing  in  1904  her 
work,  "The  Effendi."  She  is  also  the  author  of 
several  plays  which  have  been  produced,  and  in 
1891-92  toured  the  art  centres  of  Europe,  also 
exploring  the  antiquities  of  Syria  and  Egypt. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Whitehouse  are  the  parents  of 
three  sons:  William  Penn  (2),  born  August  9, 
1895;  Robert  Treat  (2),  January  11,  1897;  Brooks, 
April  21,  1904.  The  family  home  is  at  108 
Vaughan  street,  Portland,  Maine. 


GEORGE  ROWLAND  WALKER,  although  a 
native  of  Maine,  has  been  identified  with  New 
York  City  for  a  number  of  years.  He  was  born 
at  Oxford,  Maine,  August  28,  1879,  the  son  of 
George  F.  and  Frances  Melissa  (Chadbourne) 
Walker.  His  early  education  was  gained  in  the 
local  schools,  from  which  he  went  to  the  Port- 
land High  School,  and  was  graduated  in  1898. 
He  then  entered  Bowdoin  College,  where  his 


38 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


record  was  one  of  great  distinction,  and  the  de- 
gree of  Bachelor  of  Arts,  which  he  received  in 
1902,  was  suinma  cum  laude.  He  took  as  high  a 
rank  among  his  associates  in  the  student  body 
as  with  the  faculty,  and  by  the  former  he  was 
elected  Class  Day  Orator.  He  was  also  the 
manager  of  the  Athletic  Association,  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Intercollegiate  Debating  Team,  as  well 
as  a  commencement  speaker.  After  leaving 
Bowdoin  College,  he  entered  the  Harvard  Law 
School,  and  graduated  in  1905  with  the  degree 
of  Bachelor  of  Laws. 

Since  his  graduation,  Mr.  Walker  has  practised 
in  New  York,  making  a  specialty  of  corporation 
and  financial  law.  During  the  war,  in  1918,  he 
gave  much  of  his  time  and  attention  to  work  for 
the  Alien  Property  Custodian,  making  investiga- 
tions and  assisting  in  acquiring  enemy  proper- 
ties; and  serving  as  president  and  later  as  re- 
ceiver of  Alsen's  American  Portland  Cement 
Works.  He  is  a  director  of  the  Connecticut 
Brass  Corporation  .and  of  other  industrial  cor- 
porations. He  is  also  a  director  of  the  New 
York  County  National  Bank.  In  politics  Mr. 
Walker  is  a  Republican.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Delta  Kappa  Epsilon  fraternity,  of  the  Phi  Beta 
Kappa,  of  the  New  York  State  and  the  Ameri- 
can Bar  associations,  and  of  the  Association  of 
the  Bar  of  the  City  of  New  York.  He  is  a 
trustee  of  the  Maine  Society  of  New  York,  and 
is  the  secretary  of  the  Bowdoin  College  Alumni 
Association  of  New  York  and  its  vicinity.  He 
belongs  to  the  Harvard  Club  of  New  York,  to 
the  Reform  Club,  to  the  Ardsley  Club,  to  the 
Lawyers'  Club,  to  the  University  Club  of  New 
York,  and  to  the  Delta  Epsilon  Club  of  New 
York. 


FRANCES  MELISSA  WALKER— The  career 
of  Frances  Melissa  Walker  has  been  one  of  ex- 
ceptional activity  and  usefulness,  and,  although 
now  of  an  advanced  age,  she  gave  to  the  Govern- 
ment loyal,  patriotic  service  during  the  recent 
W»rld  War,  doing  personal  work  as  chariman 
and  captain  in  Liberty  Loan  and  Red  Cross 
drives,  also  continuing  to  use  her  influence  in 
speaking  and  writing  on  the  uses  and  abuses  of 
the  American  flag,  and  for  the  promotion  of  all 
patriotic  activities. 

Frances  Melissa  Walker  was  born  in  Oxford, 
Maine,  February  9,  1844,  daughter  of  Samuel  Hil- 
born  and  Charlotte  Tewksbury  (Washburn)  Chad- 
bourne,  her  mother  a  daughter  of  Ephraim  and 
Sarah  (Sally)  (Perkins)  Washburn,  whose  an- 
cestors both  came  to  Maine  from  Bridgewater, 


Massachusetts,  after  the  Revolutionary  War  or 
in  about  1796.  Ephraim  Washburn,  grandfather 
of  Frances  Melissa  Walker,  was  a  seaman  on 
board  the  brig,  Dash,  served  under  Captain  Por- 
ter in  the  War  of  1812.  The  Dash  was  lost  at 
sea  about  January  27,  1815,  Mr.  Washburn  going 
down  with  the  ship. 

Samuel  Hilborn  Chadbourne  was  born  in  Ox- 
ford, Maine,  October  2,  1810,  son  of  Zebelan  and 
Mary  (or  Polly)  (Staple)  Chadbourne.  He 
married,  January  3,  1832,  Charlotte  Tewksbury 
Washburn,  of  Oxford,  Maine,  born  February  6, 
1813,  at  Oxford,  Maine,  died  January  20,  1897, 
and  settled  on  a  farm  on  Pigeon  Hill,  a  part  of 
Oxford,  a  merchant  and  nurseryman,  was  promi- 
nent in  public  affairs  in  town  and  State,  serving 
as  justice  of  the  peace,  constable,  selectman; 
was  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church,  and  identified  with  the  early  temperance 
reform  movement.  At  the  time  of  the  so-called 
"Aroostook  War"  (the  bloodless  war),  he  was 
elected  and  served  as  first  lieutenant  in  Com- 
pany A,  of  Light  Infantry,  First  Regiment,  First 
Brigade,  Sixth  Division  of  Maine  Militia.  Later 
he  was  commisisoned  captain  of  the  same  com- 
pany to  rank  from  September  10,  1841.  He  held 
that  rank  until  April  18,  1845,  when  he  was  hon- 
orably discharged,  having  previously  sent  in  his 
resignation.  His  original  commission  as  lieuten- 
ant was  signed  June  8,  1838,  by  the  then  Gover- 
nor of  Maine,  Edward  Kent.  During  the  first 
two  years  of  the  Civil  War  Mr.  Chadbourne  was 
a  drill  master  and  recruiting  officer,  but  in  the 
autumn  of  1862  he  enlisted  as  a  private  in  Com- 
pany H,  Fourteenth  Regiment,  Maine  Volunteer 
Infantry.  He  became  regimental  commissary, 
and  was  holding  that  rank,  November  30,  1863, 
the  date  of  his  death  in  a  military  hospital  at 
Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana.  Samuel  H.  and  Char- 
lotte Tewksbury  Washburn  were  the  parents  of 
seven  children. 

Zebelan  Chadbourne  was  born  in  Kittery, 
Maine,  in  1774,  married  Mary  (or  Polly)  Staples, 
born  in  1779.  They  settled  in  Oxford,  Maine, 
where  their  eight  children  were  born.  Zebelan 
Chadbourne  was  a  farmer,  a  Democrat  in  poli- 
tics, and  in  religious  faith  a  Methodist.  During 
the  War  of  1812-14,  he  enlisted  in  Captain  Sam- 
ual  Robinson's  company  (raised  in  Hebron, 
Maine),  Lieutenant-Colonel  William  Ryerson's 
regiment,  and  was  in  service  at  Portland,  Maine, 
from  September  14,  to  September  24,  1814. 

On  the  Washburn  side  Frances  Melissa  Walker 
traces  to  John  Washburn,  the  founder  of  the 
family  in  New  England,  who  settled  in  Dux- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


39 


bury,  Massachusetts,  in  1632.  He  traced  his  an- 
cestry through  eleven  generations  to  Sir  Roger 
Washburn,  of  Little  Washbourne,  Worcester- 
shire, England,  who  is  mentioned  in  the  Inquisi- 
tion of  1259,  and  was  living  in  1299.  John 
Washburn  and  his  son,  John,  were  among  the 
fifty-four  original  progenitors  of  Bridgewater, 
Massachusetts,  in  1645.  He  married  Margery 
Moore.  The  line  of  descent  is  through  their 
eldest  son,  John  (2),  who  came  to  New  Eng- 
land with  his  father.  John  (2)  Washburn  mar- 
ried Elizabeth  Mitchell,  daughter  of  Experience 
and  Jane  (Cook)  Mitchell;  Jane  (Cook)  Mitchell 
was  the  daughter  of  Francis  Cook,  who  came 
over  in  the  Mayflower;  their  son,  John  (3)  ;  their 
son,  Ephraim  (l);  their  son,  Manasseh,  born  in 
1769,  married  Sylvia  Caswcll,  born  in  1771,  died 
in  1869;  their  son,  Ephraim  (2),  who  came  from 
Bridgewater  to  Maine  with  his  four  brothers. 
Ephraim  (2)  and  Stephen  Washburn  settled  in 
Shepherdsfield,  now  Oxford,  the  other  two 
brothers  settling  in  Paris,  Maine.  Ephraim  Wash- 
burn,  born  October  i,  1789,  died  January  27,  1815, 
at  sea,  serving  his  country  in  the  War  of  1812. 
He  married  Sarah  (or  Sally)  Perkins,  born  July 
24,  1785,  died  in  1869,  at  Oxford.  They  were 
the  parents  of  two  children.  Sally  Perkins  was 
a  daughter  of  Joseph  Perkins,  who  settled  in 
Hebron,  Maine  (Oxford),  in  1797.  He  was  a 
soldier  of  the  Revolution,  his  pension  allowed 
in  1819  being  granted  for  service  in  the  Massa- 
chusetts Continental  Line.  He  died  January  18, 
1836. 

Frances  Melissa  Walker,  daughter  of  Samuel 
Hilborn  and  Charlotte  Tewksbury  (Washburn) 
Chadbourne,  was  educated  in  Oxford  public 
schools,  the  Douglas  Private  School  at  Harri- 
son, Maine,  and  is  a  graduate  of  the  Chautauqua 
Literary  and  Scientific  Institute,  completing  a 
four  years'  course  with  the  class  of  1885.  For  a 
number  of  years  prior  to  her  marriage  she 
taught  in  public  and  private  schools  in  and 
around  Oxford,  Maine.  She  married,  May  I. 
1866,  in  Oxford,  Maine,  George  F.  Walker,  born 
in  Westbrook,  Maine,  in  1842,  son  of  Isaac  New- 
ton Walker,  born  in  1816,  died  in  1895,  a  farmer 
and  musician,  who  came  from  Westbrook  and 
settled  in  Portland,  Maine.  Isaac  N.  Walker 
was  a  son  of  Isaac  Gibbs  Walker,  born  in  Hop- 
kinton,  Massachusetts,  in  1786,  and  died  in  l86j. 
Isaac  G.  Walker  was  a  son  of  Timothy  Walker, 
of  Hopkinton,  born  in  1753,  died  in  1834,  a  pri- 
vate of  the  Revolution,  serving  under  Captain 
Pope  under  date  of  July  21,  1780.  Timothy 
Walker  married,  in  1777,  Lois  Gibbs,  born  in 


1756,  and  they  were  the  parents  of  fifteen  chil- 
dren. Isaac  Newton  Walker  married,  in  1837, 
Relief  Brown,  born  in  1820,  died  in  1890,  and  they 
were  the  parents  of  ten  children. 

George  F.  Walker,  a  merchant,  built  a  house 
in  the  village  of  Oxford,  nearly  opposite  the  old 
brick  school  house  which  was  the  family  home 
until  1888.  Mr.  Walker  for  several  years  served 
the  First  parish  as  treasurer,  Mrs.  Walker  at 
the  same  time  fulfilling  the  duties  of  clerk 
Both  had  a  genius  for  village  improvement  and 
were  prime  factors  in  the  social  life  of  the  town. 
They  continued  in  Oxford  until  1888,  when  they 
moved  to  Portland  for  the  purpose  of  giving 
their  children  better  educational  advantages. 

Mrs.  Walker  has  always  been  active  in  social, 
benevolent  and  patriotic  work.  In  1900  she  was 
one  of  the  seven  women  who  organized  the  Stat; 
of  Maine  Society,  United  States  Daughters  of 
1812,  and  in  1906-08  and  1915-17  served  that  so- 
ciety as  its  president.  She  is  also  a  member 
of  the  National  Society  United  States  Daughters 
of  1812,  which  was  organized  in  1892,  and  has 
held  offices  in  that  body.  At  the  annual  meet- 
ing held  in  Washington  on  April  23,  1919,  Mrs. 
Walker  was  elected  curator  of  this  society.  This 
office  carries  a  two-year  term,  and  is  one  of  the 
important  offices  in  the  National  organization. 
She  has  been  a  member  of  and  has  taken  an  ac- 
tive part  in  the  work  of  numerous  women's 
clubs  in  Portland,  and  after  the  opening  of  the 
Wadsworth-Longfellow  house  on  Congress 
street,  Portland,  she  with  other  women  of  the 
city  gave  a  great  deal  of  time  to  the  work  of 
keeping  this  now  famous  house  open  for  pub- 
lic inspection.  She  was  actively  engaged  in  this 
work  for  a  considerable  part  of  nine  years,  until 
conditions  arose  which  resulted  in  turning  the 
house  over  to  the  Maine  Historical  Society. 
Mrs.  Walker  is  one  of  the  few  women  who  are 
members  of  the  Maine  Historical  Society,  that 
membership  resulting  from  her  keen  interest  in 
all  matters  historical,  particularly  those  relat- 
ing to  the  State  of  Maine  and  New  England. 
Her  particular  theme  is  the  War  of  1812,  of 
which  she  has  made  exhaustive  study,  her  work 
In  this  line  resulting  in  her  being  instrumental 
in  having  memorial  tablets  subscribed1  for  and 
placed  in  Portland  in  commerrtoration  of  im- 
portant historical  spots.  She  is  a  member  of 
High  Street  Congregational  Church,  Portland, 
and  bears  her  full  part  in  church  work  and  ac- 
tivities. Recent  war  conditions  called  forth  all 
her  patriotism  and  she  gave  herself  freely  to 
every  movement  or  drive  in  aid  of  Government 


40 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Loans,  Red  Cross,  and  similar  objects,  at  the 
same  time  not  relaxing  her  efforts  to  promote 
general  respect  for  the  American  flag  and  to 
foster  all  patriotic  activities.  In  addition  to  the 
societies  named  she  is  a  member  of  the  Port- 
land Society  of  Arts  and  Crafts,  and  the 
Woman's  Literary  Union. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walker  are  the  parents  of  five 
children:  Walter  Washburn,  died  in  infancy; 
Millicent  Georgiana,  a  teacher;  Charlotte  Re- 
lief, a  teacher;  George  Rowland,  a  lawyer;  Es- 
tella  Augusta,  married  George  William  Gordon. 


FRED  ALLISTON  GILBERT— From  Eng- 
land came  Charles  Dupris  dit  Gilbeit,  he  set- 
tling near  St.  Francis,  Province  of  Quebec,  Can- 
ada, and  there  his  son,  Jean  Gilbert,  was  born, 
Jean,  the  father  of  Thomas,  and  grandfather  of 
Fred  Alliston  Gilbert,  of  Bangor,  Maine,  man- 
ager of  the  spruce-wood  and  timber  lands  de- 
partment of  the  Great  Northern  Paper  Company. 

Jean  Gilbert,  son  of  the  pioneer  settler,  was 
born  near  St.  Francis,  Quebec,  Canada,  and  is 
believed  to  have  gone  to  England,  as  he  held 
the  rank  of  corporal  in  the  English  army,  and 
was  married  in  that  country.  He  learned  the 
blacksmith's  trade,  but  was  also  a  carpenter  and 
stonemason,  three  widely  separated  trades,  but 
in  each  he  was  proficient.  After  his  marriage 
he  returned  to  Canada,  coming  thence  to  the 
United  States,  later  than  1843.  His  first  set- 
tlement was  in  Norridgewock,  Maine,  his  next 
in  Waterville,  but  in  1850  he  moved  to  Orono, 
Maine,  where  he  resided  until  his  death  in  1856. 
While  he  was  a  man  of  fair  education,  reading 
and  writing  French,  he  was  especially  noted  for 
his  physical  perfection,  standing  six  feet  two 
inches  in  height  and  finely  proportioned.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Roman  Catholic  church 
and  reared  his  family  in  that  faith.  Jean  Gil- 
bert married,  in  1822,  Cecile  Mercier,  who  died 
in  Orono,  Maine,  in  1864,  daughter  of  Augustin 
Mercier.  They  were  the  parents  of  five  sons 
and  seven  daughters,  one  of  his  sons  serving  in 
the  Union  Army  during  the  Civil  War.  This 
review  follows  the  fortunes  of  Thomas,  one  of 
the  five  sons  of  Jean  and  Cecile  (Mercier)  Gil- 
bert. 

Thomas  Gilbert  was  born  in  St.  Francis,  Que- 
bec, Canada,  November  15,  1841,  and  there  spent 
the  first  nine  years  of  his  life,  coming  to  Orono, 
Maine,  with  his  parents,  in  1850.  His  school 
years  were  few,  but  he  improved  the  oppor- 
tunities offered  him,  and  when  the  death  of  his 
father,  in  1856,  left  him  the  main  support  of  the 


large  family,  he  was  able  to  bear  the  burden. 
He  was  industrious  and  capable,  becoming 
known  as  an  expert  lumberman,  the  best  "gang- 
man"  on  the  Penobscot  river,  and  without  a  su- 
perior in  sawing  lumber  at  the  mill.  He  was 
ambitious,  and  when  offered  a  contract  to  fur- 
nish ties  for  the  European  &  North  American 
Railroad  he  accepted  and  found  the  business 
profitable.  Soon  afterward  he  began  driving  his 
own  logs  to  the  down  river  mills,  and  became 
one  of  the  well  known  and  substantial  men  of 
the  lumber  business.  He  has  always  retained 
his  residence  in  Orono,  and  is  highly  regarded 
by  all  who  know  him.  Regular  in  his  life  and 
temperate  in  all  his  habits,  optimistic  by  nature, 
and  very  friendly,  he  has  extracted  all  that  is 
best  in  life,  and  can  review  his  long  life  with 
satisfaction.  It  has  been  said  of  him:  "A  rail- 
road does  not  move  its  trains  with  more  reg- 
ular precision  than  he  orders  his  daily  life."  His 
success  has  been  fairly  won  and  is  richly  de- 
served. In  religious  faith  he  is  a  Roman  Cath- 
olic. 

Thomas  Gilbert  married,  July  7,  1864,  Esther 
Cordelia  Lyshorn,  born  at  Hudson,  Maine,  Jan- 
uary 2,  1845,  died  in  Orono,  Maine,  January  31, 
1894,  daughter  of  Ephraim  Hussey  and  Mary 
Ann  (Townsend)  Lyshorn.  Ephraim  was  a  son 
of  Antoine  Lyshorn  (also  written  LaChance), 
who  was  born  in  Quebec,  in  1750,  and  saw  serv- 
ice with  the  French  forces  under  Montcalm.  In 
1775  he  enlisted  in  the  American  Colonial  forces 
under  Colonel  Livingston,  of  General  Arnold's 
army,  was  taken  prisoner  in  1776,  escaped,  re- 
enlisted  in  1778,  going  to  the  Chandiere  as  a 
scout,  receiving  honorable  discharge  upon  his 
return.  He  again  enlisted,  serving  for  three 
months  on  the  Monmouth,  under  Captain  Ross, 
that  vessel  then  being  taken  to  Bangor  and 
burned.  In  1781  he  enlisted  in  Captain  Walker's 
company,  and  was  stationed  at  Castine,  under 
the  command  of  Major  Ullmer.  After  his  mar- 
riage Antoine  Lyshorn  moved  his  home  to 
Orono,  where  he  cleared  and  cultivated  for  half 
a  century  the  tract  now  occupied  by  the  Univer- 
sity of  Maine.  He  married,  at  Winslow,  Maine, 
Sarah  Buzze,  and  reared  a  large  family.  Some 
of  these  children  adopted  Antoine  as  their  sur- 
name, others  retained  LaChance,  and  still  others 
changed  it  to  Lyshorn.  Ephraim  Hussey  Ly- 
shorn, son  of  Antoine  LaChance  or  Lyshorn,  was 
born  in  Orono,  Maine,  March  10,  1815,  died  Jan- 
uary 27,  1000.  He  was  a  farmer  and  woodsman, 
a  Republican  in  politics,  and  a  member  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  church.  He  married  Mary 


/I 


(D^xuaix/t    /bv 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


41 


Ann  Townscnd,  born  May  30,  1816,  died  April 
20,  1893.  They  were  the  parents  of  nine  chil- 
dren: Sarah  Emma,  Albert  T.,  Alfreda  Jane, 
Hattie  Viola,  Fred  Alliston,  Susan  Angeline, 
Esther  Cordelia,  who  married  Thomas  Gilbert, 
Mary  Abbie,  and  Clara  Ella. 

Thomas  and  Esther  Cordelia  (Lyshorn)  Gil- 
bert were  the  parents  of  ten  children:  Fred 
Alliston,  of  further  mention;  Edith  Evelyn,  born 
August  7,  1867,  died  August  7,  1868;  Albion  Au- 
gustus, born  February  26,  1869;  Charles  Edward, 
born  February  22,  1872;  Grace  Etta,  born  Jan- 
uary 17,  1874,  died  December  23,  1876;  Thomas 
Herbert,  born  April  8,  1876;  Frank  Yuba,  born 
March  28,  1878;  Eugene  Clarence,  born  March 
31,  1881;  Daisy  Alberta,  born  July  1 1,  1884;  Alice 
May,  born  April  21,  1887.  Realizing  from  his 
own  experience  the  value  of  a  good  education, 
Thomas  Gilbert  gave  his  sons  and  daughters  all 
possible  educational  advantages.  The  daugh- 
ters all  attended  La  Salle  College  in  Massachu- 
setts, one  of  them  studying  also  at  tlie  Boston 
Conservatory  of  Music,  while  the  sons  are  all 
graduates  of  high  schools  or  colleges.  Mrs.  Gil- 
bert was  an  ideal  mother  and  a  true  helpmeet 
to  her  husband.  She  died  sincerely  mourned  by 
a  large  circle  of  friends  and  relatives. 

Fred  Alliston  Gilbert,  eldest  child  of  Thomas 
and  Esther  Cordelia  (Lyshorn)  Gilbert,  was  born 
at  Orono,  Maine,  April  2,  1866,  and  was  there 
educated  in  the  public  schools,  finishing  with 
high  school.  After  school  years  were  completed 
he  became  associated  with  his  father,  and  at 
the  age  of  twenty  was  admitted  a  member  of  the 
firm,  Thomas  Gilbert  &  Son.  This  association 
continued  twelve  years,  the  young  man  becoming 
thoroughly  familiar  with  every  detail  of  the 
lumber  business,  and  particularly  expert  as  a 
lumber  salesman.  In  1898  he  became  a  member 
of  the  firm,  Gilbert  &  McNulty,  but  in  1903  re- 
tired from  that  firm,  having  in  1900  accepted  his 
present  position,  manager  of  the  spruce-wood 
and  timber  land  department  of  the  Great  North- 
ern Paper  Company.  Since  1903  he  has  devoted 
his  time  entirely  to  the  interests  of  the  Great 
Northern,  his  duties  being  the  supplying  of  the 
many  mills  of  that  company  with  logs  for  pulp 
to  be  converted  into  paper.  This  requires  many 
millions  of  feet  of  logs  each  year,  and  to  keep 
up  that  supply  timber  tracts  must  be  purchased 
by  the  thousands  of  acres  that  there  may  never 
in  the  future  occur  a  scarctiy  of  the  proper  sort 
of  logs.  He  ranks  very  high  in  the  lumbet  busi- 
ness, and  was  selected  by  the  Governor  of  Maine 
as  commissioner  to  investigate  the  methods  of 


scaling  logs  and  lumber.  He  is  a  trustee  of  the 
Eastern  Trust  &  Banking  Company  of  Bangor, 
Maine,  and  of  The  Merrill  Trust  Company,  but 
he  has  surrendered  the  directorship  he  formerly 
held  with  The  Penobscot  Lumbering  Associa- 
tion; West  Branch  Driving  &  Reservoir  Dam 
Company;  Northern  Maine  Power  Packet  Com- 
pany; and  the  Great  Northern  Supply  Company. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  order,  affiliated 
with  Mechanics  Lodge,  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  of  Orono;  Mt.  Moriah  Chapter,  Royal 
Arch  Masons;  Bangor  Council,  Royal  and  Select 
Masters;  St.  John's  Commandery,  Knights  Tem- 
plar; Kora  Temple,  Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine, 
and  holds  the  thirty-second  degree  of  Eastern 
Star  Lodge  of  Perfection;  Palestine  Council, 
Princes  of  Jerusalem;  Bangor  Chapter  of  Rose 
Croix;  and  of  Maine  Consistory,  Ancient  Ac- 
cepted Scottish  Rite  of  Portland.  His  clubs 
are  the  Tarratine  and  Masonic  of  Bangor. 

Mr.  Gilbert  married,  in  New  Castle,  New 
Rrunswick,  Canada,  July  31,  1915,  Janet  Good- 
fellow  Williston,  born  February  10,  1882,  at  New 
Castle,  daughter  of  Robert  A.  and  Elmira  Eliza 
(McTabish)  Williston,  her  father  a  lumber 
woods  foreman.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Fred  A.  Gilbert 
are  the  parents  of  a  daughter,  Janet  Alliston  Gil- 
bert, born  August  29,  1917,  and  a  son,  Fred  Allis- 
ton Gilbert,  born  November  24,  1918.  The  family 
home  is  in  Hampden,  Maine. 


JOSIAH  HAYDEN  DRUMMOND,  LL.D.— 
Lawyer,  Representative,  Speaker  of  the  House, 
State  Senator,  and  Attorney-General,  and  holding 
the  highest  honors  of  all  grand  Masonic  bodies 
of  both  the  York  and  Scottish  rites  in  the  State 
of  Maine,  Josiah  Hayden  Drummond  was  promi- 
nently in  the  public  eye  during  practically  the 
entire  period  of  his  mature  life.  Such  honor* 
as  above  enumerated  are  not  bestowed  by  favor 
or  by  chance,  but  have  to  be  earned  and  deserved 
before  a  man  is  thus  singled  out  for  distinction. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Republican 
party  in  the  State  of  Maine,  and  one  of  its  stand- 
ard bearers  in  the  first  campaign  the  newly  born 
party  waged  in  the  State,  and  sat  as  a  Repub- 
lican in  the  Maine  House  of  Representatives  dur- 
ing the  session  of  1857.  In  Free  Masonry  he  held 
the  coveted  thirty-third  degree  of  the  Ancient 
Scottish  Maine  Consistory,  Northern  Jurisdiction 
of  the  United  States,  and  no  honor  of  Masonry 
which  his  brethren  could  bestow  was  denied  him. 
Besides  the  wonderful  record  he  compiled  as  a 
Mason,  his  memory  is  ever  kept  green  in  the 
order  through  his  authorship  of  that  standard 


42 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


work,  "Maine  Masonic  Textbook  for  the  Use 
of  Lodges."  Seventy-five  years  was  the  length 
of  his  span  of  life,  and  from  the  age  of  ac- 
countability they  were  lived  in  usefulness  and 
honor.  Another  Josiah  Hayden,  his  son,  has 
arisen  in  Waterville,  Maine,  also  a  lawyer,  and 
prominent  in  Maine  political  affairs,  serving  as 
representative  and  State  Senator.  The  son, 
Josiah  H.,  is  of  the  seventh  generation  of  the 
family  in  New  England,  the  American  ancestor, 
Alexander  Drummond,  a  Scotch-Irish  Presby- 
terian by  faith  and  inheritance,  who  came  with 
his  children  and  grandchildren  in  1729,  settling 
in  Georgetown,  Maine.  It  is  not  certain  whether 
he  was  born  in  Scotland  or  in  the  north  of  Ire- 
land, but  his  parents  were  Scotch,  and  until  1729 
he  lived  in  Coppa,  Ireland,  where  he  buried  his 
wife,  later  starting  on  his  long  journey  to  a 
home  in  the  new  world,  a  world  he  did  not  long 
live  to  enjoy,  dying  in  Georgetown,  Sagadahoc 
county,  Maine,  in  1730,  his  years  many.  De- 
scent in  this  branch  is  traced  through  Patrick, 
son  of  Alexander. 

Patrick  Drummond  was  born  in  Coppa,  Ire- 
land, June  n, -1694,  and  came  with  his  aged 
father  and  family  to  Georgetown,  Maine,  in  1729. 
Patrick  Drummond  married  (second)  Susanna 
Rutherford,  daughter  of  Rev.  Robert  Rutherford, 
a  Scotch  Presbyterian  clergyman,  a  pioneer  of 
that  denomination,  east  of  the  Kennebec  river, 
in  Maine.  She  was  of  the  same  family  as  Sam- 
uel Rutherford,  1600-61,  the  Scotch  theologian 
and  controversialist,  rector  of  St.  Andrews  Uni- 
versity, and  commissioner  to  the  Westminster 
Assembly,  who,  in  1636,  was  sentenced  and  ban- 
ished to  Aberdeen  for  preaching  against  "The 
Article  of  Perth."  Patrick  and  Susanna  (Ruth- 
erford) Drummond  reared  a  family  including  a 
son,  John,  head  of  the  third  generation  in  Maine. 
John  Drummond,  the  first  in  this  line  of  Ameri- 
can birth,  was  born  in  Georgetown,  Maine,  Sep- 
tember 27,  1744,  and  there  died  September  10, 
1771.  He  married  Mary  McFadden,  daughter 
of  Daniel  and  Margaret  (Stinson)  McFadden. 
He  died  at  the  age  of  twenty-seven  years,  and 
left  two  sons,  Rutherford  and  John  (2),  descent 
in  this  branch  being  traced  through  the  younger, 
John  (2),  a  posthurrtous  son. 

John  (2)  Drummond  was  born  in  Georgetown, 
Maine,  April  13,  1772.  He  remained  at  the  farm 
with  his  mother  and  brother,  Rutherford,  until 
June  10,  1793,  when  the  brothers  sold  their  prop- 
erty to  a  relative  and  located  on  a  tract  along 
Seven  Mile  Brook,  in  the  town  of  Anson,  there 
making  a  clearing,  and  planting  a  field  of  corn. 


On  the  night  of  August  31,  1794,  an  untimely 
frost  ruined  their  finely  growing  crop,  which  so 
disheartened  the  young  men  that  they  abandoned 
their  farm  and  returned  down  the  river,  where 
Rutherford,  on  July  24,  1795,  bought  a  farm  next 
to  the  Winslow  line,  his  the  most  northerly  farm 
in  the  town  of  Vassalboro,  John  Drummond 
went  over  the  boundary  into  the  town  of  Wins- 
low,  but  on  the  same  river-road,  about  one  mile 
distant  from,  his  brother,  and  bought  the  Parker 
farm.  Later  he  purchased  a  farm  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  further  north,  later  known  in  the  fam- 
ily as  The  Old  Farm.  There  John  (2)  Drum- 
mond died  December  24,  1857,  aged  eighty-five 
years.  He  married,  December  3,  1795,  Damaris 
Hayden,  daughter  of  Colonel  Josiah  and  Si- 
lence (Howland)  Hayden,  and  fifth  in  descent 
from  Richard  Williams  of  Taunton,  Massachu- 
setts. Damaris  Hayden  was  born  in  Bridge- 
water,  Massachusetts,  February  18,  1775,  died  in 
Winslow,  Maine,  September  3,  1857,  her  husband 
surviving  her  but  three  months.  Descent  is 
traced  in  this  line  from  Clark  Drummond,  the 
first  born  of  John  (2)  and  Damaris. 

Clark  Drummond  was  born  at  The  Old  Farm 
on  the  river-road,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Ken- 
nebec, town  of  Winslow,  Kennebec  county, 
Maine,  July  5,  1796,  and  there  died  in  the  house 
in  which  he  was  born  on  September  5,  1888,  aged 
ninety-two  years  and  two  months.  He  attended 
the  district  school  and  worked  on  the  farm  with 
his  father  during  his  youth,  later  in  addition  to 
cultivating  the  farm  being  engaged  as  a  lumber- 
man. While  still  a  young  man  he  bought  The 
Old  Farm,  and  there  brought  his  bride,  and  in 
the  same  house  as  himself  his  ten  children  were 
born,  also  grandchildren.  Clark  Drummond  was 
ensign  of  the  Winslow  Military  Company,  and 
during  the  War  of  1812  in  service  for  sixty 
days,  and  for  ten  years  he  drew  a  United  States 
pension  on  account  of  this  service.  He  was  for 
many  years  a  justice  of  the  peace  and  selectman 
for  the  town  of  Winslow.  In  politics  he  was  a 
Democrat;  in  religious  faith  a  Methodist.  Clark 
Drummond  married,  June  5,  1821,  Cynthia  Black- 
well,  born  in  Winslow,  Maine,  January  9,  1799, 
died  at  The  Old  Farm  in  Winslow,  Maine,  Feb- 
ruary 8,  1868,  her  husband  surviving  her  twenty 
years.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Captain  Mor- 
decai  and  Sarah  (Burgess)  Blackvvell,  of  Sand- 
wich, Massachusetts.  Clark  and  Cynthia  (Black- 
well)  Drummond  were  the  parents  of  ten  chil- 
dren, all  born  at  The  Old  Farm  in  Winslow: 
Josiah  Hayden,  to  whom  this  review  is  dedicated; 
John  Clark,  born  July  II,  1829;  Cynthia  Ann, 


^^^^^^i^^t^^i^^-^^ 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


43 


born  January  24,  1832;  Everett  Richard,  Septem- 
ber 14,  1834;  Sarah  Blackwell,  September  14, 
1836;  David  Hutchinson,  October  n,  1838;  Caro- 
line Redington,  August  ->3,  1841;  Charles  Lath- 
rop,  November  1 8,  1843. 

Josiah  Haydcn  Drimimond,  of  the  sixth  Ameri- 
can generation,  second  son  of  Clark  and  Cynthia 
(Blackwell)  Druntmond,  was  born  at  The  Old 
Farm  in  VVinslow,  Maine,  August  30,  1827,  died 
in  the  city  of  Portland,  Maine,  October  25,  1902. 
After  preparation  at  Vassalboro  (Maine)  Semi- 
nary he  entered  Waterville  (now  Colby)  Col- 
lege, whence  he  was  graduated  A.B.  class  of 
1846,  receiving  from  his  alma  mater  in  1871  the 
honorary  degree,  LL.D.  He  studied  nad  pre- 
pared for  the  profession  of  law,  was  duly  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar,  and  practised  for  many  years 
in  V,  a'crville  and  Portland,  Maine. 

With  the  formation  of  the  Republican  party 
with  its  platform  of  opposition  to  human 
slavery,  he  joined  with  that  organization,  and 
until  his  death,  almost  half  a  century  later,  he 
remained  a  devoted  adherent  of  that  party.  Dur- 
ing the  years,  1857-58,  he  represented  Waterville 
in  the  Maine  Legislature,  and  during  the  second 
term  was  Speaker  of  the  House.  The  follow- 
ing year  he  was  elected  State  Senator  but  re- 
signed this  seat  in  the  Senate  to  accept  appoint- 
ment as  attorney-general  of  the  State  of  Maine, 
an  office  he  held  continuously  from  1859  to 
1863,  inclusive.  In  1865  he  moved  his  residence 
to  Portland,  Maine,  and  in  1868  was  again  a 
member  of  the  Legislature  from  Portland  and 
Speaker  of  the  House.  His  record  as  a  lawyer 
is  one  of  painstaking  ability  and  devotion  to  a 
client's  interest,  while  as  attorney-general  he 
brought  all  his  learning  and  experience  to  the 
service  of  the  State,  and  gave  to  the  duties  of 
his  office  the  very  best  of  his  legal  acumen,  his 
record  teeming  with  valuable,  professional  serv- 
ice. He  was  a  member  of  the  usual  bar  asso- 
ciations and  societies,  and  was  highly  regarded 
by  his  brethren  of  the  profesion. 

At  an  early  age  Mr.  Drummond  sought  and 
gained  admission  to  the  Masonic  order.  He  was 
deeply  impressed  with  the  pure  teachings  and 
beautiful  symbols  of  the  order,  and  in  succes- 
sion passed  through  the  different  bodies  of  the 
York  and  Scottish  rites,  finally  attaining  the 
highest  degree  possible  to  attain  in  the  United 
States,  the  thirty-third,  a  degree  which  cannot 
be  applied  for,  it  only  being  conferred  for  "dis- 
tinguished service  rendered  the  order."  He  held 
the  chief  office  in  each  of  the  subordinate  bodies, 
and  in  turn  was  advanced  through  the  chairs  of 


the  Grand  bodies  until  his  collection  of  past  of- 
ficers' and  past  grand  officers'  jewels  was  one 
of  greatest  value.  He  was  past  grand  master 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine,  Free  and  Ac- 
cepted Masons;  past  grand  master  of  the  Grand 
Chapter  of  Maine,  Royal  and  Select  Masters; 
past  grand  thrice  illustrious  master  of  the  Grand 
Council  of  Maine,  Royal  and  Select  Masters;  past 
grand  eminent  commander  of  the  Grand  Com- 
mandery  of  Maine,  Knights  Templar;  past 
grand  high  priest  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter 
of  the  United  States  of  America  Royal  and  Se- 
lect Masters;  and  past  grand  commander  of  the 
Supreme  Council  of  the  Ancient  Accepted  Scot- 
tish Rite,  Thirty-third  Northern  Jurisdiction, 
United  States  of  America.  For  twenty-seven 
years  he  was  chairman  of  the  committee  on  for- 
eign correspondence  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  Maine 
Free  and  Accepted  Masons.  His -best  known 
contribution  to  the  literature  of  Masonry  is  the 
"Maine  Masonic  Textbook  for  the  Use  of 
Lodges."  His  college  fraternity  was  Delta 
Kappa  Epsilon;  his  club,  the  Portland. 

Mr.  Drummond  married  in  New  York,  Decem- 
ber 10,  1850,  Elzada  Rollins  Bean,  born  in  Mont- 
villc,  Maine,  March  2,  1829,  died  in  Portland, 
Maine,  June  25,  1907,  daughter  of  Benjamin 
Wadleigh  and  Lucetta  (Foster)  Bean.  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Drummond  were  the  parents  of  three 
daughters  and  a  son:  Myra  Lucetta,  born 
August  31,  1851;  Josiah  Hayden  (2)  of  further 
mention;  Tinnie  Aubigne,  born  April  17,  1863, 
married  Wilfred  G.  Chapman;  Marhelia  Bean, 
born  June  II,  1866,  deceased. 


JOSIAH  HAYDEN  (a)  DRUMMOND— As 
the  only  son  of  his  honored  parents,  Josiah  H. 
Drummond  had  the  benefit  of  his  father's  per- 
sonal companionship,  the  teaching  and  advice  to 
an  unusual  degree,  and  it  is  remarkable  how  the 
life  and  example  of  the  father  is  reflected  in  the 
life  character  of  the  son,  as  the  following  re- 
view of  his  career  will  show. 

Josiah  Hayden  (2)  Drummond  was  born  in 
Waterville,  Maine,  March  5,  1856,  and  there  the 
first  few  years  of  his  life  were  spent.  His  par- 
ents moved  to  Portland  in  1860,  and  there  he 
prepared  for  college  in  the  public  school,  finish- 
ing with  high  school.  He  then  entered  Colby 
University,  whence  he  was  graduated  A.B.,  and 
in  1879  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  He  began 
practice  in  Portland,  Mfaine,  and  there  continue1; 
until  the  present  (1919),  well  established  and 
prosperous.  He  is  a  member  of  the  bar  associa- 


44 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


tions,  and  ranks  with  the  leading  lawyers  of  his 
city. 

Mr.  Drummond  is  a  Republican  in  politics,  and 
in  1891  represented  his  district  in  tHe  Maine 
House  of  Representatives.  In  1897-99,  he  was 
a  member  of  the  State  Senate,  serving  with 
credit  in  both  branches  of  the  State  Legislature. 
His  college  fraternity  is  Delta  Kappa  Epsilon, 
Colby  University  Chapter;  his  clubs  the  Cumber- 
land, Portland  and  Athletic  of  Portland,  Maine, 
and  the  Republican  of  New  York  City. 

He  married  in  Jersey  City,  New  Jersey,  Sep- 
tember 17,  1883,  Sallie  Tucker  Blake,  daughter 
of  J.  H.  D.  and  Maria  (Coffin)  Blake.  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Drummond  are  the  parents  of  five  sons 
and  a  daughter:  Joseph  Blake,  born  July  12, 
1884;  Wadleigh  Bean,  September  10,  1885;  Dan- 
iel Tucker  Coffin,  July  18,  1887;  Elzada  Maria 
Wheeler,  September  2,  1891;  Robert  Rutherford, 
June  ii,  1894;  and  Ainslie  Hayden,  November 
30,  1897. 


THOMAS  CROCKER— The  annals  of  Paris, 
or,  as  often  written,  Paris  Hill,  the  capital  of 
Oxford,  Maine,  contain  the  life  story  of  many 
men,  some  of  them  remarkable  for  their  influence 
upon  the  times  during  which  they  flourished. 
Thomas  Crocker,  who  from  youthful  manhood 
until  his  death  resided  in  Paris,  came  of  ancient 
Colonial  family,  tracing  in  paternal  line  to  Wil- 
liam Crocker,  who  came  to  Barnstable,  Massa- 
chusetts, in  1630.  From  William  Crocker,  the 
founder,  the  line  of  descent  is  through  his  son, 
Eleazer,  his  son  Abel,  his  son  Daniel,  his  son 
Roland,  his  son  Thomas,  of  Paris,  Maine,  to 
whose  memory  this  review  of  an  honorable  up- 
right life  is  dedicated.  Through  maternal  lines 
Thomas  Crocker  traced  descent  from  John  Tilly 
and  John  Howland  of  the  Mayflower,  Elder  John 
Chipman,  and  Secretary  Nathaniel  Morton. 
More  than  thirty  years  of  the  life  of  Thomas 
Crocker  were  spent  as  a  merchant  in  Paris,  and 
in  the  early  period  of  raliroad  development  it 
was  largely  through  his  influence,  effort  and 
financial  support  which  gave  the  now  Grand 
Trunk  Railway  to  Oxford  county.  In  the  midst 
of  his  great  usefulness  he  was  stricken  with  a 
great  affliction,  and  during  the  last  years  of  his 
life  he  sat  in  darkness.  But  his  work  was  well 
done,  and  he  left  this  world  the  better  for 
his  life  and  work. 

The  Crocker  records  teem  with  military  serv- 
ice on  the  part  of  the  men  of  the  family,  and 
Thomas  Crocker  himself  was  a  son  of  a  Revo- 
lutionary veteran,  Roland  Crocker,  who  served 


three  years  and  six  months  in  the  Continental 
Army.  He  married  Mehitable  Merrill,  daugh- 
ter of  Lieutenant  Thomas  and  Mehitable  (Har- 
riman)  Merrill.  Lieutenant  Thomas  Merrill 
served  eight  months  and  eight  days,  beginning 
April  16,  1756,  in  Captain  John  Goff's  company, 
Colonel  Nathaniel  M^escrves  regiment,  raised  for 
the  Crown  Point  Expedition. 

Thomas  Crocker,  second  son  of  Roland  and 
Mehitable  (Merrill)  Crocker,  was  born  in  North 
Conway,  New  Hampshire,  April  14,  1788.  Owing 
to  the  scarcity  of  schools  his  education  was  ac- 
quired under  private  instruction  given  by  his 
maternal  grandfather,  Lieutenant  Thomas  Mer- 
rill, a  soldier  of  the  Revolution.  He  began  his 
business  career  in  Norway,  Maine,  as  clerk  in 
the  store  of  Increase  Robinson,  there  giving 
abundant  promise  of  business  ability,  prompti- 
tude, energy  and  fidelity  distinguishing  him  even 
at  that  early  age.  Later  he  came  to  Paris  Hill 
while  the  count}'  was  new,  and  in  the  midst  of 
the  thriving,  active  pioneer  population  laid  the 
foundation  of  his  character  and  fortune,  for  be- 
tween 1830  and  1835  his  store  was  a  centre  of 
trade  and  business,  not  alone  for  Paris  but  also 
for  the  adjoining  towns.  He  prospered  abund- 
antly in  all  his  enterprises,  his  broad  vision  and 
sound  judgment,  coupled  with  executive  and 
financial  ability,  insuring  him  success.  In  ad- 
dition to  his  mercantile  business  he  dealt  heavily 
in  timber  lands,  was  one  of  the  original  directors 
of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railroad,  and  through  his 
personal  efforts  and  investment  he  contributed 
largely  to  the  building  of  that  road.  It  was 
through  him  and  the  men  he  influenced  that  the 
present  location  of  the  road  was  secured  and  a 
great  benefit  derived  for  Oxford  county.  It  was 
perhaps  as  a  director  of  that  road,  then  the  At- 
lantic and  St.  Lawrence  Railway  Company,  that 
he  rendered  his  county  the  greatest  public  serv- 
ice. He  also  conducted  a  private  banking  busi- 
ness, and  was  one  of  the  most  influential  men  of 
his  district. 

With  his  business  ability  and  financial  stand- 
ing it  was  inevitable  that  he  should  be  called 
into  public  life  and  to  positions  of  trust.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Governor's  Council  in  1839, 
held  various  town  offices,  and  was  high  in  the 
councils  of  the  Democratic  party.  He  was  often 
selected  to  administer  estates  and  act  as  guardian 
of  minor  children.  In  1814  he  held  the  rank  of 
ensign  in  Captain  Stephen  Blake's  company. 
From  1854  until  his  death  in  1872,  Mr.  Crocker 
was  an  invalid.  Cataracts  formed  on  both  of 
his  eyes  and  seriously  interfered  with  his  vision. 


{•••••I 

Mrs.   Henry   W.   Lyon,   Photographer 
CROCKER    HOMESTEAD,    PARIS    HILL,    MAINE 


Mrs.  Henry  \V.  L.yon.  Photographer 

CROCKER  HOMESTEAD,  PARIS  HILL,  MAINE 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


45 


In  May,  1854,  one  eye  only  was  operated  upon 
with  such  disastrous  results  that  he  refused  to 
have  the  other  eye  touched.  During  the  last 
seventeen  years  of  his  life  he  was  totally  blind. 

Thomas  Crocker  married  (first)  Clarissa 
Stowell,  who  died  April  23,  1843,  daughter  of 
William.  Stowell,  of  Paris.  Children:  I.  Cath- 
erine N'.,  born  October  9,  1817,  died  October  17, 
1833.  2.  Thomas  S.,  born  August  27,  1819,  died 
November  21,  1830.  3.  Mary  Elizabeth,  born 
March  25,  1822,  married  Jesse  Philip  Daniel,  of 
Lafayette,  Alabama.  4.  Annette  Maria,  died 
aged  five  years.  5.  Charles  Henry,  born  July  30, 
1827.  6.  Thomas  M.,  born  June  I,  1831,  mar- 
ried Harriet  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  James  T. 
Clark,  and  settled  on  Paris  Hill;  his  daughter, 
Harriet  Clarissa  Crocker,  was  born  May  2,  1866. 
7.  Augustus  G.,  died  aged  four  years.  Thomas 
Crocker  married  (second)  Almira,  daughter  of 
Captain  Bailey  and  Hannah  (Swan)  Davis,  of 
Methuen,  Massachusetts.  Children:  I.  Mira  M., 
born  May  10,  1846,  married  T.  T.  Snow,  of  Port- 
land, whom  she  survives,  a  resident  of  Paris, 
Maine;  they  had  one  child,  Julia  C.  Snow,  who 
died  January  13,  1917.  2.  Augustus  L.,  born 
May  4,  1850,  a  graduate  of  Bowdoin  College,  and 
a  civil  engineer;  married,  January  4,  1883,  Clara 
Todd  Peabody,  of  Princeton,  Maine;  children: 
Ruth,  born  February  24,  1884,  died  Mjay  7,  1900; 
Katherine  M.,  born  January  22,  1887,  graduated 
from  University  of  Minnesota,  1916,  member  of 
honorary  society,  Phi  Beta  Kappa;  Thomas,  born 
May  22,  1888,  graduated  from  Macalester  Acad- 
emy, 1008,  third  in  his  class;  spent  three  and  a 
half  years  at  University  of  Minnesota;  left  col- 
lege, incompleted,  to  take  business  offer;  felt  call 
to  ministry;  returned  for  one  semester  to  Maca- 
lester College  for  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts, 
graduating  in  1916;  graduated  from  McCormick 
Theological  College,  1919. 

Mrs.  Almira  (Davis)  Crocker,  born  in  Methuen, 
Massachusetts,  December  30,  1814,  died  in  Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota,  December  30,  1894.  She 
was  a  granddaughter  of  Captain  John  Davis,  who 
commanded  the  Methuen  company  at  Lexington 
and  Bunker  Hill.  Her  ancestors  fought  in  all 
the  wars  of  the  new  country  from  King  Philip's 
War  down  through  the  Revolution.  They  were 
at  Louisburg.  Her  descent  was  from  Massa- 
chusetts Bay  Puritans. 


his  parents  moved  to  Gardiner,  on  the  Kennebec, 
and  three  years  later  they  left  Gardiner  and  set- 
tled on  a  farm  in  the  township  of  Bowdoin, 
Sagadahoc  county,  Maine.  Here  the  subject  of 
this  sketch  learned  what  he  knows  about  farm- 
ing— not  an  inconsiderable  amount  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  his  farm  experience  ended  at  the  age  of 
fourteen,  when  his  parents  removed  to  Lisbon 
Falls,  in  the  township  of  Lisbon,  on  the  Andros- 
coggin. 

It  is  Lisbon  Falls  that  Mr.  Munsey  thinks  of 
as  his  old  Maine  home.  Here  he  developed  into 
young  manhood,  and  here,  among  the  very  fine 
people  of  that  little  village,  friends  and  neigh- 
bors, his  formative  years  were  passed — that  lit- 
tle village  he  loved  as  he  loved  the  people  in  it, 
those  who,  with  his  family,  made  it  home  in  all 
that  the  word  expresses. 

But  Mr.  Munsey  regards,  and  has  always  re- 
garded, the  ten  boyhood  years  spent  on  the  farm, 
a  hard,  rocky,  crabbed  farm,  as  among  the  best 
training  years  of  his  life — foundational  years. 
From  early  boyhood  he  was  a  dreamer,  but, 
dreamer  that  he  was,  the  dominant  qualities  of 
his  mind  were  those  of  practical,  sound  sense. 
This  power  of  vision  has  served  him  well  in  the 
outworking  of  his  life.  Mr.  Munsey  spent  five 
years  (1877  to  1882)  in  Augusta,  as  manager  of 
the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company.  From 
there  he  went  to  New  York  to  enter  into  the 
process  of  establishing  a  publishing  house — his 
own  business.  The  record  shows  that  he  suc- 
ceeded. 

While  Mr.  Munsey  has  had  many  other 
activities,  he  considers  his  life  work  to  be  that 
of  editor  and  publisher.  Nothing  else  has  ever 
equaled  this  in  interest  for  him;  nothing  else 
has  given  him  the  same  measure  of  happiness, 
the  same  measure  of  satisfaction,  the  same  play 
for  his  energy,  imagination,  vision. 


FRANK  A.  MUNSEY  was  born  on  a  farm  in 
the  township  of  Mercer,  Somerset  county,  Maine, 
August  21,  1854.  When  he  was  six  months  old 


BENJAMIN  THOMPSON— For  thirty-seven 
years  Benjamin  Thompson  practiced  law  in  Port- 
land, and  while  he  conducted  a  large  general 
business  he  specialized  in  admiralty  law  and  be- 
came an  authority  in  that  branch  of  the  law. 
His  reputation  along  these  lines  extended  far 
beyond  State  or  sectional  limits,  and  his  opin- 
ion was  sought  in  very  important  matters  where 
a  deep  knowledge  of  admiralty  law  was  required. 
During  his  very  extensive  practice  he  compiled 
a  work  on  admiralty  practice  and  procedure,  in- 
cluding an  invaluable  set  of  forms.  He  had  also 
preserved  the  unpublished  admiralty  opinions  of 


46 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Judge  Nathan  Webb,  of  the  United  States  Dis- 
trict Court  of  Maine,  of  whom  Mr.  Thompson  was 
a  great  admirer  and  friend.  These  unpublished 
opinions  were  often  referred  to  by  Mr.  Thomp- 
son in  the  trial  of  admiralty  cases.  Mr.  Thomp- 
son won  the  honors  of  a  profession  ever  gen- 
erous to  her  talented  sons,  and  when,  during  the 
recent  World  War,  the  submarine  presented  new 
complications  and  the  commandeering  of  ves- 
sels by  our  own  and  allied  governments  con- 
stantly brought  fresh  questions  of  law  before 
the  attorneys,  he  was  turned  to  with  confidence 
that  his  deep  knowledge  of  marine  law,  national 
and  international,  would  guide  his  clients  aright. 
Mr.  Thompson  was  very  thorough  in  the  prep- 
aration of  his  cases,  and  cleared  up  every  clouded 
point  before  passing  it.  For  nearly  forty  years 
he  occupied  the  same  offices,  and  from  them 
cases  were  prepared  involving  losses  at  sea  in 
about  every  part  of  the  world,  and  he  was  con- 
cededly  one  of  the  best  poised  and  informed  law- 
yers in  his  special  branch  of  the  law  on  the  At- 
lantic coast. 

Benjamin  Thompson  was  a  son  of  Charles 
Lewis  Thompson,  born  in  Topsham,  Maine,  No- 
vember 12,  1825,  died  in  Portland,  Maine,  June 
23,  1897,  and  is  buried  in  Evergreen  Cemetery.  The 
latter  was  educated  in  the  public  schools,  learned 
the  carpenter's  trade,  also  the  ship  carpenter's, 
and  as  a  ship  and  house  carpenter  he  spent  his 
active  years.  He  was  a  resident  of  Topsham, 
1825-50;  of  Brunswick,  Maine,  1850-70;  then  until 
his  death  in  1897  resided  in  Portland,  Maine.  In 
politics  he  was  a  Democrat.  He  married  Octo- 
ber 13,  1853,  Clarissa  Dunning,  born  in  Bruns- 
wick, Maine,  November  24,  1829,  died  March  16, 
1888,  daughter  of  James  and  Elizabeth  T.  (El- 
kins)  Dunning,  granddaughter  of  Andrew  and 
Mrs.  Margaret  (Miller-Ramson)  Dunning,  great- 
granddaughter  of  Lieutenant  James  and  Martha 
(Lithgow)  Dunning,  and  a  great-great-grand- 
daughter of  Andrew  and  Susan  (Bond)  Dun- 
ning. Her  ancestor,  Andrew  Dunning,  was  born 
in  1664,  died  at  Maquoit,  Brunswick,  Maine,  June 
18,  1736.  His  gravestone,  yet  standing  in  the 
old  cemetery  below  Brunswick  village,  is  the 
oldest  stone  there,  and  it  is  said  to  have  been 
engraved  by  his  son,  Lieutenant  James  Dunning. 
Lieutenant  James  Dunning  was  "a  famous  In- 
dian fighter"  and  saved  many  lives  and  towns 
from  savage  foes. 

Benjamin  Thompson  was  born  in  Brunswick, 
Cumberland  county,  Maine,  October  13,  1857, 
and  died  in  the  city  of  Portland,  Maine,  De- 
cember 6,  1918.  He  completed  the  courses  of 


Brunswick's  public  school  system,  and  finished 
a  course  of  special  study  at  Lewiston  Business 
College,  Lewiston,  Maine,  then  spent  some  time 
on  sailing  vessels,  becoming  very  familiar  with 
the  construction,  operation  and  qualities  of  ships 
as  well  as  imbibing  a  knowledge  of  the  customs 
and  unwritten  law  of  the  seas.  He  was  an  able 
sailorman  and  won  a  number  of  small  yacht 
races.  Mr.  Thompson  was  one  of  the  two  Maine 
members  of  the  Maritime  Law  Association,  and 
a  member  of  a  committee  of  the  association 
which  urged  upon  Congress  the  necessity  of  a 
statute  giving  the  right  of  action  for  loss  of 
life  on  the  high  seas,  but  no  action  of  the  kind 
asked  for  has  yet  been  taken.  He  was  also  a 
member  of  the  Admiralty  Committee  of  the 
American  Bar  Association.  He  became  widely 
known  in  the  profession  and  was  often  called 
upon  for  opinions  in  matters  of  highest  impor- 
tance from  all  along  the  Atlantic  coast.  This 
was  especially  true  after  the  outbreak  of  the 
European  War  in  regard  to  a  breach  of  charter 
parties  due  to  the  German  submarines  sinking  so 
many  vessels  and  the  commandeering  of  vessels 
by  the  allied  governments.  While  still  a  very 
young  man  he  began  the  study  of  law  in  the 
office  of  the  late  Nathan  Webb,  who  later  be- 
came a  judge  of  the  United  States  District  Court 
of  Maine,  and  the  late  Thomas  H.  Haskill,  who 
became  judge  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court  of 
Maine.  Having  passed  satisfactorily  the  tests 
imposed  by  the  examining  board,  he  was  duly 
admitted  to  the  Maine  bar,  October  19,  1881, 
and  at  once  began  practice  in  Portland. 

Mr.  Thompson  applied  himself  closely  to  the 
upbuilding  of  a  clientele  along  general  lines  of 
law  business  and  was  very  successful  even  from 
his  earlier  years  as  a  practitioner.  His  practice 
became  very  large,  but  for  years  he  did  not  dis- 
criminate, then  his  natural  preference  for  mari- 
time affairs  began  to  dominate  and  he  became  a 
still  closer  and  more  careful  student  of  admiralty 
law.  Finally  he  confined  his  practice  to  such 
cases  in  the  Federal  courts  with  the  result  that 
during  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  cases 
growing  out  of  collisions  at  sea  and  other  acci- 
dents of  a  maritime  nature  employed  his  entire 
time.  He  delved  deep  into  the  law  governing 
the  cases  he  tried,  and  in  course  of  time  his  fame 
as  an  exponent  of  admiralty  law  became  widely 
extended. 

With  a  highly  trained  and  organized  mind,  Mr. 
Thompson  combined  a  perfectly  organized  sys- 
tem of  office  detail.  The  details  relative  to 
every  case  he  tried  were  typewritten,  indexed, 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


47 


and  filed  in  the  boxes  of  a  fireproof  vault,  thus 
preserving  a  reference  record  impossible  to 
properly  value.  Besides  the  State  and  national 
honors  he  bore,  Mr.  Thompson  was  president  of 
the,  Cumberland  County  Bar  Association  at  the 
time  of  his  death.  He  was  a  Republican  in 
politics,  and  in  1884  served  as  a  member  of  Port- 
land Common  Council,  representing  Ward  I.  In 
1889-90  he  served  upon  the  Board  of  Aldermen. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Maine  Historical  So- 
ciety, but  beyond  his  State  and  national  bar  as- 
sociation membership,  he  had  no  affiliation  with 
fraternal  orders,  societies  nor  organizations.  In 
religious  faith  he  was  a  Congregationalist,  and  a 
deacon  of  the  State  Street  Church.  He  was  rv 
generous  friend  of  all  good  causes  and  a  power- 
ful advocate  for  any  worthy  object  which  he 
championed.  He  was  one  of  the  world's  workers 
and  never  spared  himself  in  a  client's  cause.  He 
won  professional  fame  because  he  deserved  it, 
but  his  sole  thought  was  to  present  his  cause  in 
such  a  way  to  court  and  jury  that  no  matter  how 
the  verdict  was  rendered,  he  would  have  the 
consciousness  that  he  had  done  his  best.  Men 
admired  and  respected  him,  but  above  all  they 
trusted  him. 

Mr.  Thompson  married,  October  19,  1882, 
Emma  Stuart  Duffett,  born  in  Montreal,  Can- 
ada, February  9,  1859  (a  graduate  of  Portland 
High  School),  class  of  1877,  daughter  of  Walter 
White  and  Mary  Stuart  Duffett.  Her  father, 
Walter  White  Duffett,  was  of  English  birth,  and 
in  Montreal,  treasurer  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Rail- 
road Company.  Benjamin  and  Emma  Stuart 
(Duffett)  Thompson  were  the  parents  of  five 
children:  Marion  Stuart,  born  December  30, 
1884;  Eleanor,  born  March  13,  1891;  Clara  Dun- 
ning, April  7,  1894;  Nathan  Webb,  September  30, 
1895;  Helen  York,  June  3,  1899. 


WILLIAM  WHEELER  BOLSTER— Bolster 
is  a  name  which  has  long  been  associated  promi- 
nently with  the  State  of  Maine,  where  its  repre- 
sentatives have  resided  from  an  early  period. 
It  was  founded  in  this  State  by  Alvin  Bolster, 
who  came  here  from  Vermont  and  settled  in  the 
town  of  Rumford.  Here  he  kept  a  general  store, 
and  was  very  active  in  the  community's  affairs, 
and  particularly  in  niilitary  matters.  During  the 
Aroostook  War  he  held  the  rank  of  general. 

William  Wheeler  Bolster  is  a  son  of  William 
Wheeler,  Sr.,  who  was  a  native  of  Rumford, 
where  he  was  born,  July  6,  1823.  He  came  to 
Dixfield,  Maine,  as  a  young  man,  and  practiced 
law.  During  his  youth  he  had  received  an  excel- 


lent education,  which  was  completed  by  a  course 
in  law  at  the  Harvard  Law  School,  from  which 
he  graduated  in  1847  with  the  degree  of  Bachelor 
of  Laws.  For  a  time  he  practiced  at  Dixfield, 
but  afterwards  came  to  Auburn,  as  he  regarded 
that  city  as  offering  larger  opportunities  in  the 
profession  he  had  chosen.  He  was  a  staunch 
Republican  in  politics,  and  took  a  very  active 
part  in  local  public  affairs,  and  soon  became  one 
of  the  most  prominent  men  in  Auburn.  In  1893 
he  was  elected  mayor  of  that  city,  and  in  addi- 
tion to  this  held  nearly  all  the  important  county 
and  State  offices,  with  the  exception  of  gov- 
ernor. He  represented  Auburn  in  both  houses  of 
the  State  Legislature,  and  was  speaker  of  the 
House  and  president  of  the  Senate  for  a  number 
of  years.  From  1861  to  1864  he  was  county 
attorney  of  Oxford,  and  held  the  office  of  State 
bank  examiner  of  Maine  for  six  years.  It  was 
Mr.  Bolster,  Sr.,  who  compiled  the  book  on  tax 
collecting  which  is  now  used  in  all  the  States 
of  this  country.  In  addition  to  his  legal  and 
political  activities,  Mr.  Bolster,  Sr.,  was  also 
prominent  in  business  circles  in  Auburn,  was 
president  of  the  Little  Androscoggin  Water 
Power  Company,  and  was  affiliated  with  other 
concerns.  For  eight  years  he  was  trustee  of  the 
Reform  School  at  Auburn,  and  in  every  capacity 
proved  himself  a  most  efficient  executive.  He 
married  Florence  J.  Reed,  a  daughter  of  Lewis 
Reed,  a  prominent  merchant  of  Rumford,  Maine. 
Born  November  n,  1873,  at  Mexico,  Maine, 
William  Wheeler  Bolster  remained  but  a  very 
short  time  in  his  native  town.  He  was  still  an 
infant  when  removed  to  the  home  of  his  parents 
at  Auburn,  Maine,  and  it  was  with  this  city 
that  his  earliest  associations  were  formed.  Here, 
too,  it  was  that  he  received  his  education,  attend- 
ing for  this  purpose  the  local  public  schools,  and 
graduating  from  the  grammar  department  there, 
in  1886.  He  was  then  sent  by  his  parents  to 
the  Nickols  Latin  School  at  Lewiston,  where  he 
remained  for  three  years,  and  was  prepared  for 
college.  Immediately  after  his  graduation  from 
this  institution,  in  1890,  he  matriculated  at  Bates 
College,  from  which  he  graduated  with  the  class 
of  1895.  He  then  went  to  Harvard  University 
and  studied  at  the  school  of  physical  training  con- 
nected with  this  institution.  After  completing 
this  course,  Mr.  Bolster  returned  to  Bates  Col- 
lege, where  he  accepted  the  position  as  instructor 
in  physiology,  and  director  of  physical  training, 
a  post  which  he  continued  to  hold  for  ten  years. 
In  the  meantime,  however,  he  had  come  to  the 
conclusion  to  abandon  teaching  as  a  profession. 


48 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


and  as  his  interest  had  been  strongly  drawn  to 
medicine,  decided  to  study  this  and  make  it  his 
calling.  Accordingly  he  entered  the  medical  de- 
partment of  Bowdoin  College,  from  which  he 
graduated  in  1008  with  his  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Medicine.  The  theoretical  knowledge  gained  at 
this  institution  he  supplemented  by  practical  ex- 
perience as  an  interne  at  the  Central  Maine  Gen- 
eral Hospital.  He  occupied  this  post  for  one 
year,  between  July,  1908,  and  July,  1009,  and  then 
engaged  in  active  practice  at  Lewiston,  Maine. 
Dr.  Bolster  is  a  surgeon  and  specialized  in  this 
branch  of  his  work.  He  is  at  the  present  time 
adjunct  surgeon  of  the  Maine  General  Hospital. 
Dr.  Bolster  has  never  entirely  given  up  his  activi- 
ties as  teacher,  and  at  the  present  time  holds  the 
position  of  Assistant  Professor  of  Physiology  at 
the  Bowdoin  Medical  School.  Indeed,  he  con- 
tinues to  take  a  very  keen  interest  in  educational 
matters  generally,  and  for  some  years  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Auburn  School  Board.  He  is  now 
generally  recognized  as  one  of  the  leading  prac- 
titioners in  Lewiston  and  the  surrounding  region 
of  the  State.  Since  1918  he  has  held  the  posi- 
tion of  house  physician  at  Poland  Springs,  South 
Portland,  Maine. 

In  spite  of  the  demands  made  upon  Dr.  Bol- 
ster's time  and  attention  by  his  professional 
duties  he  manages  to  find  certain  opportunities 
to  indulge  in  what  he  calls  his  hobby.  This 
hobby  is  hunting  and  fishing,  and  he  manages  to 
slip  away  once  every  year  for  an  expedition 
which  includes  the  shooting  of  big  game.  He 
is  interested  in  Masonry,  having  been  Potentate 
of  Kora  Temple  in  1913. 

Lewiston,  Maine,  was  the  scene  of  Dr.  Bolster's 
wedding,  which  occurred  there  October  3,  1914, 
when  he  was  united  with  Maud  L.  Furbush,  a 
native  of  that  place,  and  a  daughter  of  George 
and  Josie  A.  (Leavitt)  Furbush,  old  and  highly- 
respected  residents.  Mr.  Furbush  was  for  many 
years  actively  engaged  in  business  at  Lewiston, 
and  is  now  retired.  He  and  his  wife  still  reside 
here.  To  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Bolster  one  child  has 
been  born,  a  daughter,  Barbara,  born  November 
21,  1915- 

During  the  many  years  of  his  residence  in 
Lewiston,  Maine,  Dr.  Bolster  has  been  looked 
up  to  as  have  few  other  men  in  the  community, 
not  only  with  respect  for  the  unimpeachable 
integrity,  the  clear-sighted  sagacity,  the  strong 
public  spirit  that  marks  him,  but  with  affection 
also,  for  his  tact  in  dealing  with  men,  his  spon- 
taneous generosity  and  the  attitude  of  charity 
and  tolerance  he  maintains  towards  his  fellow- 
men,  which  makes  him  easy  to  approach  and  a 


sympathetic  listener  to  all  the  humblest  as  well 
as  the  proudest. 


SAMUEL     LANCASTER     HUNTINGTON, 

who  for  many  years  has  been  closely  associated 
with  the  industrial  and  commercial  interests  of 
Augusta,  Maine,  and  who  is  a  prominent  and 
public-spirited  citizen  of  this  place,  is  a  member 
of  a  family  that  has  borne  an  honorable  name 
in  the  annals  of  this  country,  and  which  has  been 
represented  with  distinction  in  both  the  church 
and  civil  affairs.  He  is  a  descendant  of  Simon 
and  Margaret  (Baret)  Huntington,  who  came 
to  this  country  from  England  in  1633,  and  who 
were  the  ancestors  of  a  family  which  has  long 
made  its  home  at  Old  Hallowell,  on  the  Kennebec 
river,  in  this  State.  Among  his  other  ancestors 
is  the  Rev.  John  Mayo,  who  came  to  this  country 
from  England  about  1639,  and  who  was  the  first 
pastor  of  the  Old  North  Church,  now  known  as 
the  Second  Church,  of  Boston.  Through  his 
maternal  line  Mr.  Huntington  traces  his  descent 
from  Governor  Thomas  Prence,  Elder  William 
Brewster,  of  Mayflower  fame,  and  from  other 
worthies  of  the  Plymouth  Colony. 

Samuel  Lancaster  Huntington  is  a  son  of 
Samuel  Whitmore  and  Sally  Ann  (Mayo)  Hunt- 
ington, the  former  a  prominent  merchant  and 
manufacturer  of  Hallowell.  It  was  in  that  town 
that  Samuel  Lancaster  Huntington  was  born, 
October  22,  1843,  and  there  that  he  received  his 
education,  attending  for  this  purpose  both  the 
local  public  schools  and  the  Hallowell  Academy. 
Upon  completing  his  studies  at  the  last  named 
institution  Mr.  Huntington,  who  was  then  eight- 
een years  of  age,  became  associated  with  his 
father  in  the  manufacture  of  clothing  for  the 
Union  soldiers,  who  were  then  fighting  in  the 
Civil  War.  He  had  himself  endeavored  to  enlist, 
but  was  unable  to  pass  the  rigid  physical  exam- 
ination. Two  years  after  the  close  of  this  great 
struggle  he  entered  the  employ  of  the  firm  of 
Storer  &  Cutler,  of  Portland,  Maine,  where  he 
desired  to  learn  the  wholesale  dry  goods  business. 
In  1865  he  was  clothing  salesman  for  his  father 
and  uncle,  Samuel  W.  and  Benjamin  Huntington, 
at  Augusta,  Maine,  and  was  later  admitted  to  the 
firm  of  Huntington,  Nason  &  Company,  whole- 
sale and  retail  clothiers  of  this  city.  After  the 
dissolution  of  the  above  firm  Mr.  Huntington 
continued  in  business  on  his  own  account,  and 
in  1901  commenced  selling  clothing  specialties 
in  the  wholesale  market.  While  so  engaged  he 
designed  several  models  of  warm  coats  for  men's 
wear,  which  met  with  so  much  favor  he  obtained 
from  the  manufacturer  the  right  to  the  exclusive 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


49 


sale  of  them  in  the  United  States.  These  gar- 
ments, which  Mr.  Huntington  continues  to  sell 
at  the  present  time,  have  become  very  popular 
wherever  they  have  been  shown,  and  he  now  does 
a  large  business  in  this  line.  Mr.  Huntington 
has  been  a  conspicuous  figure  for  many  years  in 
the  general  life  of  the  community.  He  was  ad- 
mitted to  Augusta  Lodge,  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  in  1869,  and  shortly  afterwards  to  Jeru- 
salem Chapter,  Royal  Arch  Masons,  of  Hallo- 
well.  He  is  one  of  the  oldest  Knights  Templar 
in  Augusta,  having  been  a  member  of  Trinity 
Commandery  since  1871.  In  the  year  1892  he 
became  a  member  of  the  Ancient  Order  of  United 
Workmen.  Although  Mr.  Huntington  is  not  a 
member  of  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion he  is  eligible  to  become  one  through  his 
mother's  grandfather  and  great-grandfather,  Ebe- 
nezer  and  Thomas  Mayo,  both  of  whom  served 
in  the  war  for  American  independence.  Mr. 
Huntington  has  always  been  an  independent  in 
politics.  He  cast  his  first  vote  in  the  year  1864 
for  Abraham  Lincoln,  but  has  not  allied  himself 
with  any  party  since  that  time  except  the  Pro- 
gressive, preferring  to  retain  complete  independ- 
ence of  judgment  on  all  issues  and  in  the  choice 
of  candidates.  In  his  religious  belief  he  is  a 
Congregationalist. 

Samuel  Lancaster  Huntington  was  united  in 
marriage,  November  7,  1877,  at  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts, with  Nellie  A.  Yeaton,  a  daughter  of 
John  and  Abbie  (Rollins)  Yeaton,  of  Chelsea, 
Maine.  Mrs.  Huntington  died  in  1917.  Although 
Mr.  Huntington  is  a  resident  of  Augusta,  he 
and  his  daughter,  Mary  Wentworth,  spend  the 
most  of  their  time  at  his  charming  summer 
home  known  as  "Fairview,"  in  the  beautiful  vil- 
lage of  Damariscotta,  Maine. 


WILLIAM  WIDGERY  THOMAS— The 
Thomas  family  was  an  early  one  in  Portland, 
and  is  of  undoubted  Welsh  origin.  The  "History 
of  Cumberland  County"  states  that  before  1720 
Thomas  Thomas  had  built  his  house  on  the 
Neck,  in  what  is  now  the  City  of  Portland. 
Elias  Thomas  was  born  January  14,  1772,  in 
Portland,  was  a  merchant  in  that  city,  and  in 
1823  was  elected  State  Treasurer,  filling  that 
office  for  seven  years.  He  was  a  director  of  the 
Cumberland  Bank,  and  died  August  3,  1872,  at 
the  age  of  one  hundred  years  and  seven  months. 
He  married,  in  1801,  Elizabeth  Widgery,  born 
1778,  died  in  July,  1861,  daughter  of  Hon. 
William  Widgery,  a  prominent  citizen  of  Port- 
land. He  was  born  in  1752,  and  died  in  Portland, 

ME.— 1—4 


in  1822.  In  his  day  Maine  was  a  part  of  Massa- 
chusetts, and  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  conven- 
tion of  the  latter  State,  which  adopted  the  United 
States  Constitution  after  the  Revolution.  In  1787 
he  represented  the  town  of  New  Gloucester  in 
the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts,  and  con- 
tinued eight  years  in  that  capacity.  In  1794  he 
was  elected  to  represent  Cumberland  county  in 
the  State  Senate,  and  in  1810  was  a  member  of 
Congress.  In  this  body  he  acted  with  great  moral 
heroism.  Believing  that  the  War  of  1812  was 
necessary  in  order  to  establish  the  rights  of 
American  citizens,  he  voted  against  the  wishes 
of  his  constituents,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  it  was 
certain  to  inflict  great  loss  upon  himself  for  the 
prosecution  of  that  war.  His  grandson,  William 
Widgery  Thomas,  was  born  November  7,  1803, 
in  Portland,  and  became  a  prominent  citizen  of 
the  city  and  State.  He  began  his  business  career 
as  clerk  in  a  dry  goods  store  on  Exchange  street, 
and  before  he  was  nineteen  years  of  age  engaged 
in  business  for  himself  on  the  site  now  occupied 
by  the  First  National  Bank  of  Portland.  He 
continued  this  business  with  great  success  until 
1835,  after  which  he  gave  his  attention  to  bank- 
ing and  real  estate  operations.  He  represented 
Portland  in  the  Maine  House  of  Representatives 
in  1855,  in  the  Senate  in  1856,  and  was  elected 
State  Treasurer  in  1860,  but  declined  to  serve. 
As  a  good  citizen  he  served  in  both  branches 
of  the  city  government,  and  distinguished  him- 
self as  mayor  of  the  city  in  1861-62,  the  first  two 
years  of  the  Civil  War.  He  was  very  active  in 
caring  for  the  families  of  soldiers  who  went  to 
the  front,  and  was  everywhere  esteemed  as  a 
patriotic  and  useful  citizen.  For  twenty  years 
he  was  one  of  the  overseers  of  Bowdoin  Col- 
lege, for  thirty  years  a  corporate  member  of  the 
American  Board  of  Commissioners  of  Foreign 
Missions,  and  thirty  years  one  of  the  managers 
of  the  Portland  Benevolent  Society,  of  which  he 
was  twenty  years  president.  He  was  a  director 
of  the  Maine  General  Hospital,  in  1836  was 
elected  a  director  of  the  Canal  Bank,  in  1849 
was  made  its  president.  In  1876  he  was  one  of 
the  Presidential  electors-at-large  of  the  State 
of  Maine,  and  was  made  president  of  the  Elec- 
toral College.  He  was  one  of  the  organizers  of 
the  Portland  Temperance  Society  in  1827,  and 
in  the  same  year  became  a  member  of  the  Second 
Parish  Congregational  Church.  Throughout  his 
long  life  he  abstained  from  the  use  of  tobacco 
or  spirits. 

Mr.  Thomas  married,  March  5,  1835,  Elizabeth 
White    Goddard,   born    May   25,    1812,   in    Ports- 


50 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


mouth,  New  Hampshire,  daughter  of  Henry  God- 
dard,  long  a  merchant  of  Portland,  and  died  there, 
April  27,  1884.  Their  eldest  son,  Gen.  Henry 
Goddard  Thomas,  served  with  distinction  in  the 
Civil  War,  rising  from  a  private  to  the  brevet 
rank  of  major-general  of  volunteers.  Among  the 
ancestors  of  the  Thomas  family  was  George 
Cleve,  who  founded  Portland  in  1832,  and  was 
the  first  governor  of  Ligonia. 

William  Widgery  Thomas,  the  diplomat,  son 
of  William  Widgery  and  Elizabeth  W.  (Goddard) 
Thomas,  was  born  August  26,  1839,  in  Portland, 
and  was  reared  in  that  city,  entered  Bowdoin 
College,  from  which  he  was  graduated  with  the 
highest  honors  in  1860.  He  at  once  began  the 
study  of  law,  but  in  the  spring  of  1862  was  sent 
abroad,  and  as  United  States  bearer  of  despatches 
carried  a  treaty  to  Turkey.  Here  he  became 
Vice-Consul-General  at  Constantinople;  was  sub- 
sequently acting  Consul  at  Galatz,  Moldavia,  and 
before  the  close  of  the  year  was  appointed  by 
President  Lincoln  one  of  the  thirty  "war  con- 
suls" of  the  United  States  and  sent  to  Gothen- 
burg, Sweden.  He  received  from  Secretary 
William  H.  Seward  the  special  thanks  of  the 
Department  of  State  for  services  as  Consul. 
While  at  Gothenburg  he  mastered  the  Swedish 
language,  and  translated  Rydberg's  "Last  Ath- 
enian," for  which  he  received  the  King's  thanks. 
Fredrika  Bremer  wrote  a  special  introduction  to 
the  American  public  for  this  translation,  which 
was  published  in  four  editions  at  Philadelphia. 
In  December,  1865,  Mr.  Thomas  returned  to  his 
native  land,  completed  his  legal  studies  at  Har- 
vard, was  admitted  to  the  Maine  bar  in  1866, 
and  engaged  in  successful  practice.  In  the  effort 
to  prevent  the  decrease  of  population  in  his  native 
State,  he  earnestly  advocated  the  settlement  of 
Swedes  in  Maine,  presenting  in  his  report  as 
commissioner  on  the  settlement  of  public  lands 
the  first  definite,  practical  plan  for  Swedish  im- 
migration to  Maine.  The  Legislature  of  1870 
adopted  his  proposition,  and,  hastening  to  Swe- 
den, he  recruited  a  colony  of  fifty-one  Swedes 
— picked  men,  women  and  children — sailed  with 
them  over  the  ocean,  led  them  up  the  St.  John 
river  in  flat  boats  drawn  by  horses  on  the  bank, 
and  on  July  23,  1870,  just  four  months  after  the 
passage  of  the  act  authorizing  the  enterprise, 
founded  the  prosperous  colony  of  New  Sweden, 
in  the  primeval  forest  of  Maine.  Here  he  lived 
in  a  log  cabin  among  his  Swedish  pioneers  for 
the  better  part  of  four  years,  directing  all  the 
affairs  of  the  colony,  until  its  success  was  estab- 
lished. The  new  settlement  grew  and  prospered 


until  now  it  numbers  over  three  thousand  indi- 
viduals, the  only  successful  agricultural  colony 
planted  in  New  England  since  the  Declaration  of 
Independence,  with  foreigners  from  across  the 
sea.  This  beginning  drew  thousands  of  Scandi- 
navians to  settle  in  Maine  and  other  portions  of 
New  England,  and  has  given  to  the  State  many 
of  its  most  loyal,  industrious  and  thrifty  citizens. 
New  Sweden  enthusiastically  celebrated  the  tenth, 
twenty-fifth,  thirtieth  and  fortieth  anniversaries, 
of  its  founding.  At  each  of  these  festivities 
"Father  Thomas,"  as  his  Swedish  "children  in 
the  woods"  affectionately  call  the  founder  of  the 
colony,  was  orator  of  the  day. 

Mr.  Thomas  was  elected  to  represent  Portland 
in  the  State  Legislature,  where  he  served  from 
1873  to  1875,  and  during  his  last  two  terms  was 
Speaker  of  the  House,  was  State  Senator  in 
1879,  but  declined  a  re-election.  He  was  presi- 
dent of  the  Maine  Republican  convention  in 
1875,  and  a  delegate  to  the  memorable  Republican 
National  Convention  of  1880  which  nominated 
Garfield  for  the  Presidency.  In  1883  President 
Arthur  appointed  him  minister  resident  to  SWCT 
den  and  Norway  and  he  was  the  first  representa- 
tive of  this  country  to  address  the  Swedish  King 
in  the  latter's  native  language,  the  first  to  hoist 
his  country's  flag  at  Stockholm,  and  the  first  to 
successfully  assist  in  establishing  a  steamship 
line  between  the  United  States  and  Sweden.  In 
1885  he  was  recalled  by  President  Cleveland. 
This  departure  was  the  occasion  for  a  public 
farewell  banquet  given  him  by  the  citizens  of 
the  Swedish  capital.  In  1887  he  returned  to 
Sweden  on  a  mission  of  his  own  and  married 
Miss  Dagmar  Tornebladh,  a  Swedish  lady  of 
noble  birth.  Mr.  Thomas  was  very  welcome  at 
the  Swedish  court,  and  popular  among  the  people 
of  that  country,  as  well  as  among  the  Swedish 
population  in  the  United  States.  At  the  two 
hundred  and  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  settle- 
ment of  the  first  Swedish  colony  in  America — 
New  Sweden  on  the  Delaware,  founded  under 
the  plans  of  Gustavus  Adolphus — which  was  cele- 
brated at  Minneapolis,  in  September,  1888,  Mr. 
Thomas  was  chosen  as  the  orator  of  the  occa- 
sion. In  the  Presidential  campaign  of  that  year 
he  was  active  on  the  stump  among  the  Swedish 
settlements  from  Maine  to  Minnesota,  speaking 
chiefly  in  the  Swedish  language.  In  that  cam- 
paign Benjamin  Harrison  was  elected  President, 
and  immediately  upon  his  accession,  in  March, 
1889,  he  appointed  Mr.  Thomas  as  envoy  extraor- 
dinary and  minister  plenipotentiary  to  Stockholm, 
where  he  and  his  young  Swedish  wife  received 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


51 


a  welcome  that  amounted  to  an  ovation.  Dur- 
ing his  second  term  Mr.  Thomas  helped  secure 
the  appointment  of  a  Swedish  jurist  as  Chief 
Justice  of  Samoa,  under  the  treaty  of  Berlin,  and 
a  Norwegian  statesman  as  a  member  of  the  tri- 
bunal of  arbitration  between  the  United  States 
and  England,  on  the  question  of  the  fur  seal 
fisheries  in  Behring  Sea.  He  initiated  negotia- 
tions resulting  in  the  full  and  satisfactory  extradi- 
tion treaty  of  1893  between  the  United  States  and 
Sweden  and  Norway.  His  efforts  to  secure  a 
freer  market  for  American  products  were  also 
crowned  with  success,  the  Swedish  Riksdag  of 
1892  voting  to  reduce  the  duty  on  both  grain  and 
pork  by  one-half.  He  also  was  successful  in 
persuading  the  Swedish  people  to  make  a  large 
and  diversified  display  at  the  Columbian  Expo- 
sition at  Chicago,  in  1893.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
United  States  warship  Baltimore  at  Stockholm, 
in  September,  1800,  with  the  body  of  the  great 
Swedish-American,  John  Ericsson,  Mr.  Thomas, 
in  an  eloquent  address,  delivered  the  honored 
ashes  of  the  inventor  of  the  Monitor  to  the  King 
and  peopte  of  Sweden. 

Mr.    Thomas   was    recalled    from    his    post   by 
President    Cleveland    (for    the    second    time)    in 
1894.     At   a  farewell   audience   Mr.  Thomas   was 
presented    by    King    Oscar   with    his    portrait,    a 
life-size     painting,     personally     inscribed     by     the 
King.     On    his   return   to   America,   in    October, 
Mr.   Thomas   was   welcomed   back   to  his   native 
land   by   a    reception    and   banquet    given    in   his 
honor  by  the  leading  Swedish-Americans  of  the 
State  of  New  York  at  the  house  of  the  Swedish 
Engineers'    Club   in    Brooklyn.     During   the   fol- 
lowing winter  he  delivered  addresses  upon  Swe- 
den   and    the    Swedes    in    more    than    fifty    cities 
and    towns,    in    sixteen    different    States    of    the 
Union,  and  was  everywhere  greeted  by  large  and 
enthusiastic  audiences  and  honored  by  public  re- 
ceptions and  banquets.     In  fact  his  entire  lecture 
tour  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Rocky  mountains 
was  a  continuous  ovation.     Mr.  Thomas  took  the 
stump  for  McKinley  and   sound  money  in   1896, 
speaking  in  Maine  from  the  opening  of  the  cam- 
paign until  the  State  election  in  September,  and 
thereafter  in  the  Western  States.     At  the  special 
request  of  the  Republican  National  Committee  he 
made  an   extensive  and   successful   tour  through 
the   Scandinavian   settlements   of   Minnesota   and 
the   Dakotas,   addressing   large   audiences   in   the 
Swedish    language. 

President  McKinley  appointed  Mr.  Thomas  to 
his  old  post  in  December,  1897.  When  he  pre- 
sented his  credentials  as  American  Minister,  for 


the  third  time,  at  the  Palace  at  Stockholm,  King 
Oscar  threw  aside  all  ceremony  and  greeted  him 
as  an  old  friend,  exclaiming:  "I  hoped  it,  I  felt 
it,  I  knew  it;  and  now  you  are  here."  On  the 
unveiling  of  the  bronze  monument  to  John  Erics- 
son at  Stockholm,  on  September  14,  1901,  the 
eleventh  anniversary  of  the  reception  of  his 
revered  remains  in  Sweden,  Mr.  Thomas  deliv- 
ered the  oration,  in  the  Swedish  language,  in  the 
presence  of  the  Swedish  royalties,  court,  cabinet 
and  25,000  people,  and  was  publicly  thanked 
therefor  by  the  Crown  Prince,  representing  the 
King.  On  April  10,  1903,  Mr.  Thomas  presided 
at  the  great  international  banquet  at  Stockholm, 
commemorative  of  the  centennial  of  the  purchase 
of  the  Louisiana  Territory  by  the  United  States, 
and  delivered  an  historical  address  in  Swedish. 
Through  his  untiring  efforts  and  wise  diplomacy 
he  secured  the  official  participation  of  Sweden 
in  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition,  after  the 
Swedish  government  had  twice  declined.  During 
his  diplomatic  career  he  has  three  times  secured 
the  good  offices  of  King  Oscar  in  the  settlement 
of  controversies  between  the  United  States  and 
Great  Britain  or  Germany. 

Mr.  Thomas  is  a  lover  of  all  outdoor,  manly 
sports,  and  a  keen  follower  of  the  chase.  He  has 
laid  low  the  bear  and  moose  in  the  back  woods 
of  America,  and  elk  and  deer  in  the  forests  of 
Sweden.  On  September  29,  1893,  when  hunt- 
ing in  company  with  King  Oscar  on  Hunneberg 
Mountain,  in  Sweden,  he  had  the  good  luck  to 
shoot  four  noble  elk  as  large  and  grand  as  the 
moose  of  Maine.  He  is  widely  known  as  an 
entertaining  writer.  Beside  the  translation  men- 
tioned above,  and  numerous  articles  for  the  peri- 
odical press  of  Sweden  and  America,  he  is  the 
author  of  "Sweden  and  the  Swedes,"  a  hand- 
somely illustrated  volume  of  750  pages,  which 
was  published  simultaneously  in  1892,  in  America, 
England  and  Sweden,  printed  in  both  English 
and  Swedish  languages.  The  book  has  met  with 
a  flattering  reception  and  large  sale  on  both  sides 
of  the  Atlantic,  and  is  characterized  by  the 
Swedish  press  as  "the  most  correct  and  at  the 
same  time  the  most  genial  description  of  Sweden 
and  its  people  ever  published  in  any  language." 
Mr.  Thomas  resigned  his  post  in  1005,  after  hav- 
ing held  the  position  of  American  Minister  to 
Sweden  and  Norway  for  fifteen  years,  under  the 
appointment  of  three  Presidents.  On  his  retire- 
ment the  American  consular  officers  in  Sweden 
presented  him  with  a  magnificent  silver  loving 
cup,  inscribed:  "As  a  token  of  remembrance  and 
gratitude,"  and  Secretary  of  State,  John  Hay, 


52 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


wrote:  "You  have  had  the  longest,  the  most  dis- 
tinguished and  the  most  useful  term  of  service 
(in  Sweden  and  Norway)  that  any  American  has 
ever  had,  and  I  congratulate  you  heartily  on  it." 
The  honorary  degree  of  LL.D.  was  conferred 
upon  him  by  Bethany  College  in  1901,  and  by 
Bowdoin  in  1913. 

Mr.  Thomas'  first  wife  died  at  Stockholm,  Jan- 
uary 31,  1912,  universally  beloved  and  respected. 
The  Swedish  royalties  sent  special  representa- 
tives to  her  funeral.  Three  years  afterwards, 
1915,  he  married  Mrs.  Aina  (Tornebladh),  sis- 
ter of  his  first  wife.  He  had  two  children  by 
his  first  marriage:  William  Widgery  (3),  died 
in  infancy;  Oscar  Percival,  born  August  13,  1889, 
within  the  American  Legation  at  Stockholm. 

Mr.  Thomas  is  a  corresponding  member  of 
the  Royal  Swedish  Academy  for  Literature,  His- 
tory and  Antiquities,  a  member  of  the  Swedish 
Society  for  Anthropology  and  Geography,  the 
"Idun,"  a  Swedish  literary  society,  the  "Nya 
Sallskapet,"  a  Swedish  social  club,  King  Gustafs 
Shooting  Club,  the  Royal  Swedish  Yacht  Club, 
the  Phi  Beta  Kappa  Society,  Maine  Historical 
Society,  Portland  Fraternity  Club,  and  the  Port- 
land Yacht  Club,  of  which  he  was  a  founder. 


ALBERT  JOSEPH  RAYNES— The  Raynes 
family  is  a  splendid  example  of  that  sturdy  class 
of  men  which  came  from  England  in  the  past 
and  settled  throughout  the  region  known  as  New 
England,  giving  character  to  the  type  which  has 
become  representative  of  that  section  of  the 
country,  the  imigrant  ancestor  having  located  in 
the  town  of  York,  Maine.  The  family  has  been 
identified  with  the  Maine  Central  Railroad  Com- 
pany practically  from  its  inception,  Joseph 
Raynes,  the  grandfather  of  the  present  auditor, 
Albert  Joseph  Raynes,  having  been  the  first 
agent  at  Yarmouth  Junction,  Maine,  of  the  Ken- 
nebec  &  Portland  Railroad,  now  a  part  of  the 
Maine  Central  System,  and  of  the  Atlantic  &  St. 
Lawrence  Railway,  now  a  part  of  the  Grand 
Trunk  System. 

Joseph  Raynes,  son  of  Joseph  and  Mary 
(Eveleth)  Raynes,  the  father  of  Albert  Joseph 
Raynes,  was  born  March  25,  1843,  at  New  Glor- 
cester,  Maine,  where  his  maternal  grandfather 
was  town  clerk  for  thirty  years.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  Yarmouth,  Maine,  where  he  attended  the 
public  schools,  and  North  Yarmouth  Academy. 
After  leaving  school  he  secured  a  position  in  the 
employ  of  the  Portland  &  Kennebec  Railroad, 
working  in  the  shops  at  Augusta,  Maine.  He 
was  thus  engaged  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil 


War  and  left  to  enlist  in  the  United  States  Navy 
at  Charlestown  Navy  Yard.  He  saw  much  ac- 
tive service,  and  was  engineer's  yeoman  on  the 
monitor  Nahant  during  the  engagement  of  Mor- 
ris Island  and  the  bombardment  of  Fort  Sumpter. 
He  afterwards  served  for  a  short  time  on  the 
battleship  Vermont,  which  was  stationed  at 
Brooklyn,  New  York,  and  it  was  from  here  that 
he  received  his  honorable  discharge.  He  re- 
turned home  at  once,  where  he  succeeded  his 
father  as  agent  for  the  Portland  &  Kennebec 
Railroad,  upon  the  death  of  the  elder  man  in  1865, 
holding  this  position  for  some  fifteen  years,  when 
he  resigned.  He  then  entered  the  business  of 
cigar  manufacturer,  in  which  he  continued  until 
the  year  1886,  when  he  was  appointed  postmas- 
ter at  Yarmouthville,  Maine.  Besides  his  posi- 
tion as  postmaster,  which  he  held  for  twenty- 
seven  years,  Mr.  Raynes  has  been  extremely  ac- 
tive in  local  affairs  and  for  several  years  held  the 
office  of  town  treasurer.  On  January  I,  1914, 
Mr.  Raynes  resigned  his  position  as  postmaster, 
and  retired  from  active  business  life. 

Albert  Joseph  Raynes,  son  of  Joseph  and 
Esther  (Johnson)  Raynes,  was  born  November 
18,  1873,  at  Yarmouth,  Maine.  He  received  his 
education  at  the  local  public  schools,  and  grad- 
uated from  the  Yarmouth  High  School  in  June, 
1889.  After  completing  his  studies,  he  entered 
the  employ  of  the  Maine  Central  Railroad  Com- 
pany as  freight  clerk  and  telegraph  operator  at 
Yarmouth  Junction,  Maine.  He  remained  in  this 
capacity  until  1899,  when  he  was  transferred  to 
the  general  offices  of  the  company  at  Portland, 
Maine.  On  November  I,  1911,  he  was  appointed 
auditor  of  disbursements,  and  on  November  I, 
1913,  he  became  auditor,  in  charge  of  disburse- 
ments and  traffic  accounts.  On  January  I,  1918, 
the  property  of  the  Maine  Central  Railroad  Com- 
pany was  taken  over  by  the  United  States  Rail- 
road Administration,  and  on  July  I,  1918,  Mr. 
Raynes  was  appointed  Federal  auditor  in  charge 
of  the  accounting  department,  which  position  he 
still  holds. 

Mr.  Raynes  is  a  well-known  Mason,  having 
taken  his  thirty-second  degree  in  Free  Masonry, 
and  is  affiliated  with  Casco  Lodge,  Free  and 
Accepted  Masons;  Cumberland  Chapter,  Royal 
Arch  Masons;  Portland  Council,  Royal  and  Se- 
lect Masters;  Portland  Commandery,  Knights 
Templar;  and  Kora  Temple,  Ancient  Arabic  Or- 
der Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine.  He  is  a  Con- 
grcgationalist  in  his  religious  belief  and  attends 
the  church  of  that  denomination  at  Portland. 

In  October,  1918,  Mr.  Raynes  married  Lisette 
Budd  Lincoln,  of  Portland,  Maine. 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


JAMES  HENRY  HALL,  one  of  the  best- 
known  and  highly-esteemed  business  men  of 
Portland,  Maine,  where  he  now  resides  in  re- 
tirement after  more  than  half  a  century  of  active 
business  life,  is  a  native  of  this  State,  and  is  a 
descendant  of  good  old  stock  of  the  "Pine  Tree 
State."  He  is  in  the  best  sense  of  the  term  a 
self-made  man,  and  throughout  his  long  and 
honorable  career  has  stood  for  the  highest  com- 
mercial standards  of  integrity  and  honor,  and 
as  a  man  and  as  a  citzen  he  displayed  a  personal 
worth  and  an  excellence  of  character  that  not 
only  commanded  the  respect  of  those  with  whom 
he  associated,  but  won  him  the  warmest  per- 
sonal admiration  and  the  staunches!  friendships. 
Aside  from  his  business  affairs,  however,  he  found 
time  for  the  championship  of  many  progressive 
public  measures,  recognized  the  opportunities 
for  reform,  advancement  and  improvement,  and 
labored  effectively  and  earnestly  for  the  general 
good. 

James  Henry  Hall  is  a  son  of  Jeremiah  Porter 
and  Sarah  Jane  (Smith)  Hall,  old  and  highly-re- 
spected residents  of  the  town  of  Gorham,  Maine, 
where  the  former  was  well-known  in  business 
circles  as  a  successful  manufacturer  of  boots  and 
shoes,  and  it  was  in  that  town  that  he  made  his 
home  and  eventually  died.  Jeremiah  Porter  Hall 
married  Sarah  Jane  Smith,  who  possessed  un- 
usual Christian  characteristics,  was  a  devoted 
wife  and  mother,  whose  death  also  occurred  at 
the  old  Hall  home  at  Gorham.  They  were  the 
parents  of  four  children  as  follows:  James 
Henry,  of  further  mention;  Cyrus  M.,  a  young 
man  of  unusual  promise,  who  enlisted  in  the  Sev- 
enteenth Regiment,  Maine  Volunteer  Infantry, 
for  the  Civil  War,  and  lost  his  life  at  the  battle 
of  Gettysburg;  Sarah,  who  became  the  wife  of 
William  H.  Marston,  of  Gorham;  Lydia  Jane, 
who  became  the  wife  of  a  Mr.  Hodgden,  of  West 
Boxton. 

James  Henry  Hall  was  born  at  Gorham,  Maine, 
August  14,  1840.  He  passed  his  childhood  and 
early  youth  in  his  native  town,  attending  there 
the  local  public  schools,  and  later  the  Limington 
Academy.  Upon  completing  his  studies  he  en- 
gaged in  business  on  his  own  account,  while  still 
in  his  "teens"  and  with  very  little  capital,  manu- 
facturing boots  and  shoes  for  women.  His  nat- 
ural talent  for  business  triumphed  over  the  dif- 
ficulties that  confronted  him,  and  he  remained 
thus  engaged  until  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War. 
During  a  portion  of  this  time  his  brother,  Cyrus 
M.  Hall,  was  assocated  with  him  in  this  enter- 
prise. In  the  year  1864  he  took  up  his  residence 


in  the  city  of  Portland,  and  has  there  since  re- 
sided, identifying  himself  most  closely  with  its 
interests  and  affairs.  In  1874  he  formed  a  part- 
nership with  Cyrus  Thompson,  a  successful  busi- 
ness man  of  Portland,  under  the  firm  name  of 
Thompson  &  Hall,  and  engaged  in  the  wholesale- 
grocery  business  and  fruit  and  produce,  their 
.establishment  located  at  Nos.  245-247  Commer- 
cial street,  and  there  the  firm  continued  its  trans- 
actions with  uninterrupted  success  for  a  period  of 
twenty-seven  years,  Mr.  Thompson  then  retiring 
from  the  business.  In  the  year  1901  the  business 
was  incorporated  under  the  name  of  the  Thomp- 
son-Hall Company,  which  is  at  the  present  time 
(1918)  conducting  an  extensive  and  flourishing 
trade  in  the  same  location.  The  company,  aside 
from  its  general  business,  established  a  factory 
for  the  canning  of  sugar  corn,  squash,  beans  and 
apples,  and  here  the  well-known  brands  of  "Sil- 
ver Lake"  and  "Harvest"  were  put  up.  Another 
enterprise  of  the  concern  was  the  establishment 
at  Cornish  of  an  apple  evaporator.  From  1901, 
the  year  of  its  incorporation,  to  1912,  Mr.  Halt 
served  in  the  capacity  of  president  and  general 
manager  of  the  company,  and  personally  directed 
its  affairs.  In  the  latter  named  year  he  retired 
from  active  business  pursuits,  and  turned  over 
the  great  business,  which  was  so  largely  the 
fruit  of  his  energy  and  constructive  genius,  to 
the  younger  men  who  had  been  associated  with 
him  and  who  are  now  conducting  it  successfully. 
From  early  youth,  for  more  than  fifty  years,  Mr. 
Hall's  life  has  been  a  most  active  one,  the  uni- 
form success  of  his  business  ventures  being  due 
to  his  good  judgment  and  busness  acumen,  and 
to  the  energy  and  enthusiasm  with  which  he  fol- 
lowed up  his  opportunities.  He  has  always 
shown  himself  a  most  enterprising  man,  with 
progressive  ideas  who  was  ready  to  adopt  the- 
improvements  of  the  day,  yet  conservative 
enough  never  to  forget  the  fundamentals  of  good 
business  which  must  remain  the  same  from  year 
to  year  and  from  age  to  age. 

However  interested  Mr.  Hall  was  in  the  suc- 
cess of  his  business  efforts,  he  has  never  lost 
sight  of  the  corresponding  interests  of  the  com- 
munity of  which  he  is  a  valued  member,  and  has 
always  shown  the  most  public-spirited  concern 
for  the  institutions  and  affairs  of  his  adopted 
city,  Portland.  He  is  a  staunch  Republican  in 
politics,  rendered  valuable  service  as  a  member 
of  the  City  Committe  for  seventeen  years,  and 
also  in  the  City  Council,  which  he  served  for 
three  years,  1879-80-81,  and  during  that  period 
of  time  stood  for  much  needed  reforms  and  im- 


54 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


provernents  in  the  city  administration,  his  tenure 
of  office  being  noted  for  efficiency,  thorough- 
ness and  promptness  in  the  execution  of  every 
detail.  Mr.  Hall  is  prominent  in  the  Masonic 
order,  holding  membership  in  St.  Albans  Com- 
mandery,  Knights  Templar.  He  is  also  a  mem- 
ber of  Harmony  Lodge,  Independent  Order  of 
Odd  Fellows;  Longfellow  Lodge,  Knights  of 
Pythias,  and  was  one  of  the  first  twenty-five 
members  of  the  Portland  Club,  a  club  of  three 
hundred  and  fifty  members  at  the  present  time, 
and  he  occupes  the  office  of  vice-president  of 
that  important  organization  of  prominent  men. 
He  is  also  a  member  of  the  High  Street  Con- 
gregational Church  of  Portland. 

In  1911  Mr.  Hall  published  a  finely  gotten-up 
book  of  poems  entitled  "Club  Poems  and  Bal- 
lads of  Country  Life."  This  book  of  poems  was 
written  as  a  pastime  while  resting  in  the  coun- 
try, and  is  dedicated  to  his  many  friends  and 
readers,  known  and  unknown.  Though  never 
pretending  to  be  a  poet,  Mr.  Hall  has  celebrated 
in  verse  many  social  events,  his  book  showing 
the  strength  of  his  love  for  his  country.  His 
harking  back  to  his  childhood  days  and  his 
strong  and  abiding  faith  in  the  goodness  of  God 
are  often  shown  in  his  lines,  as,  for  instance:  "A 
heavenly  home  of  love  and  beauty,  a  dream  with- 
in a  dream."  He  was  right,  too,  when  he  said: 

The  world   likes  the  man  that  wins, 
The  man  that  works  with   a   will ; 

He   Is   busy    all    through   the   heat   of   the   day, 
And   never   stops   at   the   foot   of   the   hill. 

Mr.  Hall  likes  to  look  on  the  bright  side  of  life. 
He  has  also  written  many  articles  for  trade 
papers,  and  an  article  on  "History  of  Portland." 

The  following,  by  Colonel  Fay,  appeared  in  the 
Sunday  Times,  February  13,  1916: 

His  mind  works  rapidly,  he  saw  a  business  opening 
many  times  in  advance  of  others:  he  made  a  constant 
study  of  the  markets  and  was  prepared  when  he  saw 
an  opportunity.  He  Is  still  a  strong  and  vigorous 
man  'and  held  high  in  the  councils  of  his  party,  and 
few  men  are  better  Informed.  He  is  a  delightful  man 
to  meet  at  his  home,  club  or  elsewhere:  his  Ideas  are 
measured  by  the  highest  standard  of  right  and  justice, 
a  model  man,  and  has  many  friends.  He  was  on  the 
Portland  City  Committee  for  many  years,  and  has  had 
a  good  deal  to  do  with  bringing  out  others  for  office. 
In  1911  Mr.  Hall  published  a  book  of  poems  entitled: 
"Club  Poems  and  Ballads  of  Country  Life:"  also  a  book 
called  "Tom's  Biography,"  and  while  he  does  not  pre- 
tend to  be  a  poet  he  has  celebrated  many  social  gather- 
Ings  by  poems  written  expressly  for  the  occasion  in 
which  he  has  shown  his  love  for  his  country  and  his 
strong  and  abiding  faith  in  the  goodness  of  God.  He 
has  been  a  member  of  the  Portland  Board  of  Trade 
for  forty  years,  was  president  of  the  Fruit  and  Produce 
Exchange  for  ten  years,  has  been  a  director  in  both 
the  Portland  nnd  <Tasco  IjOan  and  Building  Associa- 
tions since  their  organizations.  He  has  read  many 
papers  before  clubs  in  Portland,  and  written  for  maga- 
zines and  papers. 


James  Henry  Hall  married  (first)  Julia  L. 
Buxton,  a  native  of  Windham,  Maine,  a  daughter 
of  William  L.  Buxton,  of  that  place.  One  child 
was  born  to  them,  Bertha  L.,  who  is  now  the 
wife  of  Arthur  H.  MacKcown,  of  Boston.  Mrs. 
Hall  died  in  1884.  Mr.  Hall  married  (second) 
in  1886,  Harriet  M.  Carter,  of  Portland,  a  daugh- 
ter of  George  VV.  Carter.  Mrs.  Hall  is  a  promi- 
nent figure  in  the  social  life  of  the  city  of  Port- 
land, and  a  member  of  the  High  Street  Congre- 
gational Church. 


LUCILIUS  ALONZO  EMERY,  Retired  Chief 
Justice. — From  an  old  American  family  Judge 
Emery  has  inherited  those  qualities  which  made 
him  a  distinguished  son  of  Maine.  The  name  is 
an  ancient  personal  one,  which  in  time  became  a 
surname.  Some  of  the  original  spellings  in  Eng- 
land were  Americ,  Almeric,  Almaric,  and  Elmeric; 
and  it  is  the  same  to  which,  in  the  Italian  form 
of  Amerigo,  we  now  owe  the  title  of  our  own 
country.  It  is  a  name  which  has  been  honorably 
borne  by  many  citizens  of  the  United  States, 
one  which  was  very  early  in  New  England,  and 
has  been  from  that  cradle  of  American  citizen- 
ship distributed  over  a  wide  area.  It  was  early 
identified  with  Maine,  and  has  been  borne  by 
pioneers  of  numerous  towns  in  this  State. 

(I)  The   first  of  whom  positive   record  is   ob- 
tained   was    John    Emery,    who    with    his    wife 
Agnes  resided  in   Romsey,  Hants,   England,  and 
probably   died   there. 

(II)  Anthony  Emery,  second  son  of  John  and 
Agnes  Emery,  was  born  in  Romsey,  Hants,  Eng- 
land,   and    sailed    for    America    with    his    elder 
brother  John,   from   Southampton,   April  3,   1635, 
in    the    ship   James,   of    London,    William    Cooper, 
master,  their  wives  and  one  or  two  children  each 
probably   accompanying   them.     They   landed   in 
Boston,   Massachusetts,   June   3,    1635.     Anthony 
Emery,  it  seems,  was  in   Ipswich  in  August  fol- 
lowing, and   not  long  after   settled  in   Newbury, 
where  he   lived  until   about    1640.     In   the   latter 
year  he  removed  to  Dover,  New  Hampshire,  and 
on   October  22   of  that   year  signed   the   "Dover 
Combination."     For  the  nine  years  following  he 
was    identified    with    the    interests    of   the    town. 
His  house  was  at  Dover  Neck,  about  a  mile  from 
the  present  railroad  station  at  Dover  Point,  and 
three    or   four   miles    from   Major    Richard   Wal- 
dern's    (Waldron's)    settlement    on    the    Cocheco 
river.     There  he  kept  an  ordinary  or  inn,  which 
was  destroyed  by  fire.     In  1644  a"d  1648  he  was 
one  of  the  townsmen   (selectmen)   for  the  "pru- 
dential affairs"   of   Dover.      He   bought   of  John 
White,  November  15,  1648,  a  house,  a  field,  and 


HIOGRAPHICAL 


55 


a  great  barren  marsh  on  Sturgeon  creek,  in  Pis- 
chataqua,  afterward  Kittery,  now  Eliot,  Maine, 
and  two  other  marshes.  He  served  on  the  grand 
jury  in  1649,  and  in  the  same  year  removed  to 
Kittery,  where  he  resided  until  1660.  He  was 
juryman  several  times,  selectman  in  1652  and 
1659,  and  constable;  was  one  of  the  forty-one 
inhabitants  of  Kittery  who  acknowledged  them- 
selves subject  to  the  government  of  Massachu- 
setts Bay,  November  16,  1652.  He  received  at 
four  different  times  grants  of  land  from  the  town; 
also  bought  of  Joseph  Austin,  of  Pischataqua, 
July  15,  1650,  "a  little  Marsh  soe  Commonly 
called  above  sturgeon  Crocke,  with  a  little  house 
and  upland  yrunto  belonging,  as  also  one  thou- 
sand five  hundred  foote  of  boards,  for  &  in  Con- 
sideration of  Two  stears  Called  by  ye  name  of 
Draggon  and  Benbow,  with  a  weeks  worke  of 
himselfe  &  other  two  oxen  wch  is  to  be  done  in 
Cutchecho."  In  1656  he  was  fined  five  pounds 
for  mutinous  courage  in  questioning  the  authority 
of  the  court  of  Kittery,  and  in  1660  he  was  fined 
a  second  time  for  entertaining  Quakers,  and  de- 
prived of  the  rights  and  privileges  of  a  freeman 
in  Kittery.  On  May  12,  of  that  year,  he  sold  to 
his  son  James  all  his  property  in  Kittery,  and 
sought  a  residence  where  he  could  enjoy  more 
liberty.  He  removed  to  Portsmouth,  Rhode 
Island,  and  was  there  received  as  a  free  inhabi- 
tant, September  29,  1660.  He  served  as  a  jury- 
man from  Portsmouth  on  several  occasions,  was 
chosen  constable,  June  4,  1666,  and  deputy  to  the 
General  Court,  April  25,  1672.  The  last  evidence 
of  his  residence  at  Portsmouth  is  that  of  a  deed 
of  land  in  Portsmouth  to  Rebecca  Sadler,  his 
daughter,  dated  March  9,  1680.  An  Anthony 
Emory  was  representative  from  Kittery  at  York, 
Maine,  March  30,  1680,  but  it  does  not  seem 
probable  after  what  had  happened  to  that  time 
that  Anthony  Emery,  the  immigrant,  is  the  per- 
son referred  to.  He  was  a  man  of  good  business 
qualifications,  energetic,  independent,  resolute  in 
purpose,  bold  in  action,  severe  in  speech,  jealous 
of  his  own  rights,  and  willing  to  suffer  for  Con- 
science sake.  He  was  one  of  those  men  who  did 
their  own  thinking  and  would  rather  be  right 
than  be  president.  The  Christian  name  of  his 
wife  was  Frances. 

(Ill)  James  Emery,  eldest  son  of  Anthony  and 
Frances  Emery,  born  about  1630,  in  England, 
bad  several  grants  of  land  in  Kittery,  was  many 
years  its  selectman,  and  representative  to  the 
General  Court  from  1693  to  1695.  For  a  time 
he  lived  in  Dedham,  Massachusetts,  and  later  in 
Berwick,  then  a  part  of  Kittery.  He  was  a  very 
large  man,  weighing  over  three  hundred  and 


fifty  pounds,  and  died  about  1714.  His  wife, 
Elizabeth,  was  the  mother  of  James,  mentioned 
below. 

(IV)  James    (2)    Emery,    son    of    James    (l) 
and   Elizabeth    Emery,   was   born   about    1660,   in 
Kittery,    and    lived    in    Berwick,    where    his    will 
was  made  December  28,  1724,  in  which  he  men- 
tioned his  wife  Elizabeth,  who  was  probably  his 
second    wife.      He    married,    December    I,    1685. 
Margaret,     daughter     of     Richard   and     Lucretia 
Hickcock. 

(V)  Thomas    Emery,    son    of   James    (2)    and 
Margaret    (Hickcock)'  Emery,  was  born   Decem- 
ber   2,    1706,    in    Berwick,    settled    in    Biddeford, 
Maine,   where    his   will   was   made    May   9,    1781. 
He   married,   March   22,   1731,   Susanna,   daughter 
of   Deacon   Ebenezer   and   Abiel   Hill,   of   Bidde- 
ford. 

(VI)  James    (3)    Emery,   son   of   Thomas   and 
Susanna   (Hill)   Emery,  was  born  November  22, 
1738.     He  was  living  in   Biddeford  in   1772.     He 
married,  in  that  year,   Mary  Scammon,  of  Saco, 
born  April  29,  1745,  died  March  I,  1795. 

(VII)  James  (4)  Emery,  son  of  James  (3)  and 
M'ary    (Scammon)    Emery,   was   born    March   31, 
1772,  in   Biddeford,  and  lived  in   Buxton,   Maine, 
where  he  died  March  6,  1840.    He  married,  March 
12,  1705,  Catherine  Freethey,  of  York,  born  Octo- 
ber 17,  1771,  died  September  19,  1855. 

(VIII)  James  Scammon  Emery,  son  of  James 
(4)  and  Catherine   (Freethey)   Emery,  was  born 
June   14,   1813,  in   Buxton,  died  May  24,   1868,  in 
Hampden,    Maine,   where   he    was   a   farmer   and 
lumberman.     He  married  Eliza  Ann  Wing,  born 
June    22,    1811,    in    Wayne,    Maine,    daughter    of 
Aaron  and  Sylvina  (Perry)  Wing,  granddaughter 
of  Simeon  and  Mary   (Allen)  Wing,  pioneers  of 
Wayne. 

(IX)  Lucilius   Alonzo   Emery,   eldest   child   of 
James  Scammon  and  Eliza  Ann  (Wing)   Emery, 
was    born    July    27,    1840,    in    Carmel,    where    he 
grew  up  on  the  paternal  homestead,  assisting  as 
a  boy  in  the  labors  of  the  farm.     After  prepara- 
tion at  Hampden  Academy,  he  entered  Bowdoin 
College,   from   which   he   was   graduated  in   1861. 
Thirty-two  years  later  he  received  from  that  in- 
stitution   the   honorary   degree    of   LL.D.     After 
studying  law  at  Bangor,  he  settled  in  practice  at 
Ellsworth,    Maine,    in    1863,   and   six   years   later 
formed  a  partnership  with  the  late  Eugene  Hale 
(q.v.),   and   this   association   continued  until    Mr. 
Emery  was  appointed  a  justice  of  the   Supreme 
Court  in  1883.     This  firm  conducted  a  very  large 
and  lucrative  practice,  and  attained  high  standing 
b"(r>ro    tbc    courts    of    the    State.      Mr.    Emery 
served  as  attorney  of  Hancock  county  from  1867 


56 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


to  1871,  was  State  Senator  in  1874-75  and  1881-82. 
From  1876  to  1879  he  was  Attorney  General  of 
the  State;  from  1883  to  1906  served  as  Associate 
Justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court,  and  was 
Chief  Justice  of  that  court  from  1906  to  1911, 
when  he  voluntarily  retired  from  the  bench. 
Judge  Emery  has  always  been  a  supporter  of 
education  and  every  movement  calculated  to  ad- 
vance the  standards  of  civilization,  and  is  one  of 
the  trustees  of  Bowdoin  College.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Psi  Upsilon,  Greek  letter  fraternity, 
of  the  Phi  Beta  Kappa,  and  of  the  great  Masonic 
order.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Maine  State  Bar 
Association,  of  the  American  Bar  Association, 
and  of  the  Tarratine  Club  of  Bangor,  Maine,  and 
University  Club  of  Providence,  Rhode  Island. 
His  political  associations  have  always  been  with 
the  Republican  party,  and  his  church  relations 
with  the  Congregational  order. 

Judge  Emery  was  married  in  Hampden,  Maine, 
November  9,  1864,  to  Anne  S.  Crosby,  born 
March  2,  1840,  in  Hampden,  died  in  Ellsworth, 
December  12,  1912.  She  was  a  daughter  of 
Major  John  Crosby,  of  Hampden,  a  paper  manu- 
facturer and  merchant,  major  of  the  Maine 
militia,  and  his  wife,  Anne  (Stetson)  Crosby. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Emery  were  the  parents  of:  I. 
Anne  Crosby,  born  January  I,  1871,  graduated  at 
Bryn  Mawr  College,  1892,  and  is  now  the  wife 
of  Francis  Greenleaf  Allimro,  professor  of  clas- 
sical philology  at  Brown  University.  2.  Henry 
Crosby,  born  December  26,  1872,  graduated  from 
Bowdoin  College,  at  the  age  of  nineteen  years, 
was  for  a  time  representative  in  Russia  of  the 
Guaranty  Trust  Company  of  New  York,  residing 
in  Petrograd,  and  is  still  connected  with  that 
institution,  but  residing  in  New  York. 


JOHN  HUBBARD— A  unique  character  in  the 
history  of  Maine,  John  Hubbard  early  in  life 
demonstrated  those  sterling  qualities  which  he 
had  inherited  from  his  distinguished  progenitor. 
In  a  resume  of  the  Hubbard  family  we  find  it 
among  the  early  American  names.  It  is  an 
Anglo-Saxon  word,  a  corruption  of  Hubert, 
meaning  a  bright  form,  fair  hope. 

There  were  several  early  immigrants  to  Amer- 
ica by  the  name  of  Hubbard.  One  George 
Hubbard  came  as  early  as  1633;  he  landed  at 
Concord,  Massachusetts,  but  removed  to  Weth- 
ersfield,  Connecticut,  and  founded  the  Connecti- 
cut branch  of  the  family.  William  Hubbard, 
mentioned  in  early  colonial  records  as  a  resident 
of  Ipswich,  Massachusetts,  had  a  son  Richard, 
who  is  mentioned  as  being  at  Exeter,  New  Hamp- 
shire, 1636,  and  afterwards  at  Dover.  This  Rich- 


ard Hubbard  should  not  be  confused  with  Cornet 
Richard  Hubbard,  as  research  had  failed  to 
establish  any  relationship  between  him  and  the 
progenitor  of  the  line  herein  traced. 

Cornet  Richard  Hubbard,  born  between  1630 
and  1634,  was  a  resident  of  Salisbury,  Massa- 
chusetts, as  early  as  1665.  He  became  a  freeman 
in  1690,  and  three  years  later  was  admitted  to 
the  Salisbury  church.  He  was  deputy  to  the 
General  Court  of  Massachusetts  in  1694-95.  In 
his  later  days  he  removed  to  Boston,  Massachu- 
setts, but  finally  returned  to  Salisbury,  Massa- 
chusetts, where  he  died  June  26,  1719,  nearly 
ninety  years  of  age.  He  married,  June  8,  1666, 
Martha,  daughter  of  William  and  Ann  (Goodale) 
Allen,  of  Salisbury,  where  she  was  born  in 
1646,  became  a  member  of  the  church  in  1687 
and  died  October  4,  1718.  They  had  ten  children. 

Lieutenant  John  Hubbard,  the  eldest  son  of 
Cornet  Richard  and  Martha  (Allen)  Hubbard, 
was  born  in  Salisbury,  Massachusetts,  April  2, 
1669.  He  was  admitted  to  the  church  August  I, 
1703,  and  a  year  later  removed  to  Kingston,  New 
Hampshire.  He  was  lieutenant  of  militia,  and 
was  active  in  the  affairs  of  the  community.  He 
married  Jane  Follensby  and  had  a  family  of 
eleven  children.  His  death  occurred  at  Kings- 
ton. New  Hampshire,  in  1723. 

Captain  Richard  Hubbard,  son  of  Lieutenant 
John  and  Jane  (Follensby)  Hubbard,  was  born 
in  Salisbury,  Massachusetts,  December  26,  1696. 
He  was  about  eight  years  of  age  when  his  father 
removed  to  Kingston,  New  Hampshire;  he  be- 
came a  farmer  on  an  extensive  scale  and  a  promi- 
nent citizen  of  the  town.  He  married  four  times; 
(first)  Abigail  Davis,  daughter  of  Elisha  and 
Grace  (Shaw)  Davis;  she  died  September  25, 
1733,  and  he  married  (second)  Abigail  Taylor, 
who  died  December  9,  1768.  The  surnames  of 
his  other  wives  (Dorcas  and  Mary)  are  unknown. 
He  was  the  father  of  six  children  by  his  first 
wife  and  eight  by  his  second  wife. 

John  Hubbard,  only  son  and  youngest  child 
of  Captain  Richard  and  Abigail  (Davis)  Hub- 
bard, was  born  in  Kingston,  New  Hampshire, 
April  12,  1733,  and  died  some  time  prior  to  1781, 
since  in  the  will  of  his  father,  dated  October  I, 
1781,  mention  is  made  of  his  widow  Joanna  and 
her  children.  John  Hubbard  was  educated  and 
spent  the  early  days  of  his  Hfe  in  his  native 
town,  later  he  became  one  of  the  leading  physi- 
cians of  Kingston.  He  married,  April  30,  1754, 
Joanna  Davis,  who  as  a  widow  removed  with  her 
family  to  Readfield,  Maine.  She  was  the  daugh- 
ter of  Francis  and  Joanna  (Ordway)  Davis;  and 
was  born  July  16,  1731.  Her  gravestone  in  the 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


57 


Readfield  Cemetery  bears  the  inscription: 
"Joanna  Davis,  widow  of  John  Hubbard,  died 
Sep.  15,  1807,  in  the  75th  year  of  her  age." 

John  Hubbard,  son  of  John  and  Joanna 
(Davis)  Hubbard,  was  born  in  Kingston,  New 
Hampshire,  September  28,  1759.  He  was  edu- 
cated in  his  native  town,  studied  medicine  under 
his  father,  and  commenced  practice  in  New 
Hampton,  New  Hampshire.  After  the  death  of 
his  father  he  removed  with  his  mother  to  Read- 
field,  Maine,  where  he  attained  distinction  in  his 
profession.  He  married  Olive  Wilson,  who  was 
born  in  Brentwood,  New  Hampshire,  January  23, 
1762;  they  had  a  family  of  twelve  children.  Dr. 
Hubbard  died  at  Readfield,  Maine,  April  22,  1838. 
His  widow  died  at  Hallowell,  Maine,  October 
24,  1847. 

John  Hubbard,  eldest  son  and  fifth  child  of 
John  and  Olive  (Wilson)  Hubbard,  was  born  in 
Readfield,  Maine,  March  22,  1794.  From  his 
earliest  childhood  he  was  both  mentally  and 
physically  strong  and  vigorous.  In  athletic 
games  he  was  distinguished  amongst  his  fel- 
lows, and  as  an  expert  swimmer  it  was  his 
fortune  at  one  time  to  save  the  life  of  a  play- 
mate. In  his  boyhood  he  displayed  those  traits 
of  frankness,  independence  and  sincerity  which 
distinguished  him  through  life.  While  attending 
the  district  school  he  assisted  his  father  with  the 
farm  work,  but  devoted  every  spare  hour  to 
study,  paying  particular  attention  to  mathematics 
and  the  languages.  This  was  supplemented  by 
an  attendance  of  ten  months  at  one  of  the  neigh- 
boring academies. 

Arriving  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  his  father  pre- 
sented him  with  a  horse,  and  with  only  fifteen 
dollars  in  his  pocket  he  left  home.  His  first 
objective  point  was  Hanover,  New  Hampshire, 
there  to  obtain  information  in  regard  to  the 
requirements  to  enter  Dartmouth  College.  He 
then  journeyed  to  Albany,  New  York,  where  for 
a  short  time  he  was  engaged  in  private  instruc- 
tion. In  1814,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  he  passed 
the  examination  for  admission  to  the  sophomore 
class  at  Dartmouth  College,  graduating  with  high 
rank,  being  especially  proficient  in  mathematics, 
in  the  class  of  1816.  He  employed  himself  a 
part  of  the  time  during  his  college  career  in 
teaching  school.  After  his  graduation  he  was 
principal  of  the  academy  at  Hallowell,  Maine, 
two  years,  and  applied  his  earnings  to  the  pay- 
ment of  debts  incurred  during  his  college  course. 
Having  received  a  flattering  proposition  to  teach 
an  academy  in  Dinwiddie  county,  Virginia,  he 
accepted  the  position  and  taught  in  the  South 
two  years.  His  early  associations  with  his  father 


had  given  him  some  knowledge  of  medicine,  and 
in  1820  he  entered  the  medical  department  of  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  where  he  pursued  a 
two  years'  course  of  study.  Having  made  many 
warm  friends  in  Virginia,  he  decided  to  begin  the 
practice  of  his  profession  in  that  State.  Here 
he  remained  seven  years,  pursuing  his  labors  with 
gratifying  success.  He  married,  at  Dresden, 
Maine,  July  12,  1825,  Sarah  Hodge  Barrett,  born 
in  New  Milford,  Maine,  March  4,  1796,  eldest 
daughter  of  Oliver  and  Elizabeth  (Carlton)  Bar- 
rett, of  Dresden,  and  granddaughter  of  Major 
Barrett,  of  Chelmsford,  Massachusetts,  a  minute- 
man  of  the  Revolution.  The  advancing  age  of 
his  own  parents  as  well  as  those  of  his  wife  caused 
him  to  remove  back  to  his  native  State.  His 
wife  joined  her  parents  at  Dresden,  Maine,  while 
he  tarried  for  a  time  in  Philadelphia,  attending 
medical  lectures,  spending  time  in  hospitals  and 
in  taking  post-graduate  studies.  In  1830  he 
made  a  permanent  home  in  Hallowell,  Maine, 
where  he  remained  until  his  death,  attaining  high 
standing  in  his  profession  and  as  a  man  of  high 
character.  He  was  possessed  of  a  robust  con- 
stitution, a  strong  physique,  and  his  large  experi- 
ence and  great  energy  of  body  and  mind  soon 
placed  him  in  a  commanding  position  among  the 
citizens  of  the  State.  It  was  not  an  uncommon 
occurrence  for  him  to  drive  seventy-five  miles  to 
visit  a  patient  or  attend  consultations  with  other 
physicians. 

It  was  but  natural  that  a  man  of  his  powers 
should  be  called  upon  to  engage  in  public  ser- 
vice outside  of  his  great  humanitarian  work  of 
healing  the  sick.  The  first  break  in  his  pro- 
fessional life  occurred  in  1843,  when  he  became 
the  Democratic  candidate  for  State  Senator.  The 
district  was  controlled  by  the  Whigs,  but  such 
was  Dr.  Hubbard's  popularity  that  his  election 
was  easily  accomplished.  While  in  the  Senate, 
as  chairman  of  the  committee  to  whom  the  mat- 
ter was  referred,  he  opposed  the  passage  of  an 
act  to  obstruct  operations  under  the  fugitive 
slave  law  of  1793,  and  secured  its  defeat  in  that 
body  after  it  had  passed  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. He  was  far  from  being  an  advocate 
of  or  an  apologist  for  the  institution  of  slavery, 
but  he  believed  that  the  slave-holder  had  rights, 
and  that  all  laws  should  be  enforced. 

In  1849  the  Democratic  party  sought  him  for 
its  candidate  for  governor.  He  had  two  com- 
petitors in  the  field,  Elijah  L.  Hamlin,  candidate 
of  the  Whigs,  and  George  F.  Talbot,  of  the  Free 
Soil  party.  Dr.  Hubbard  was  elected  by  a  sub- 
stantial majority,  and  again  in  1850  was  chosen 
over  William  C.  Crosby  and  George  F.  Talbot, 


58 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


the  Whig  and  Free  Soil  candidates.  Owing  to  a 
change  in  the  constitution  extending  the  guber- 
natorial term  to  two  years,  he  continued  in  office 
until  January,  1853,  when,  though  renominated, 
he  fell  short  of  receiving  a  majority  vote,  and 
William  G.  Crosby,  the  Whig  candidate,  was 
chosen  by  the  Legislature. 

During  his  official  service,  Governor  Hubbard 
advocated  in  his  messages  the  establishment  of 
a  reform  school,  an  agricultural  college,  a  college 
for  females,  and  endowments  of  colleges  and 
academies,  as  well  as  a  system  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  teachers.  He  was  active  in  negotiating 
the  acquisition  by  the  State  of  the  public  lands 
within  its  borders,  and  the  final  purchase  of 
these  lands  from  the  Commonwealth  of  Massa- 
chusetts was  due  to  his  urgent  recommendations 
and  efforts.  He  also  favored  the  encouragement 
of  settlers  upon  the  large  section  of  the  State 
in  the  Aroostook  territory,  which  was  without 
any  transportation  service  excepting  the  St. 
John  river,  the  only  outlet  for  its  timber  and 
produce.  He  urged  the  construction  of  a  rail- 
road from  Bangor  into  and  through  the  Aroos- 
took country,  and  to  him  belongs  the  credit  of 
initiating  a  movement  to  that  end. 

Governor  Hubbard  signed,  in  1852,  the  first 
act  known  as  the  Maine  Liquor  Law.  There  had 
been,  in  1846,  an  act  passed  restricting  the  sale 
of  intoxicating  liquors,  and  in  1849  an  effort  was 
made  to  pass  a  radical  measure  which  embodied 
offensive  provisions  for  search  of  private  prem- 
ises, which  was  vetoed  by  Governor  Dana,  his 
predecessor  in  office.  When  the  new  law  was 
passed  with  restricted  provisions,  Governor  Hub- 
bard decided  it  was  constitutional  and  thereby 
beyond  his  authority  to  veto.  This  caused  much 
dissatisfaction  in  his  own  party,  and  was  prob- 
ably the  cause  of  his  defeat  in  the  subsequent 
election.  He  was,  however,  ingenuous  in  the 
discharge  of  all  duties,  regardless  of  the  com- 
ments of  friends  and  foes.  Every  cause  which 
seemed  to  him  calculated  to  advance  the  social 
and  moral  welfare  of  the  people  received  his  ear- 
nest support. 

After  leaving  the  gubernatorial  chair,  Governor 
Hubbard  resumed  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
which  was  again  disturbed  in  1857  by  his  ap- 
pointment by  President  Buchanan  as  a  special 
agent  of  the  Treasury  Department  for  the  exam- 
ination of  custom  houses  in  Maine;  the  follow- 
ing year  his  jurisdiction  was  extended  to  include 
the  New  England  States.  He  was  appointed  in 
1859  a  commissioner  under  the  reciprocity  treaty 
with  England  and  aided  in  the  settlement  of 
some  troublesome  fishing  questions;  he  remained 


in  office  until  the  Democratic  party  went  out  of 
power. 

Though  he  voted  for  Stephen  A.  Douglas  in 
1860  for  President,  he  was  unfaltering  in  his 
support  of  the  Union  cause,  and  in  1864  voted 
for  Abraham  Lincoln,  and  thenceforth  until  his 
death  affiliated  with  the  Republican  party.  He 
was,  however,  to  the  last  a  believer  in  as  strict 
construction  of  the  constitution  as  was  consistent 
with  the  permanent  safety  of  the  Union.  It  was, 
in  fact,  his  patriotic  love  of  the  Union  which 
made  him  an  advocate  of  State  Rights,  for  he 
believed  that  their  observance  would  be  the 
means  of  preserving  it.  The  later  years  of  his 
life  were  saddened  by  the  loss  of  his  son,  Cap- 
tain John  Hubbard,  who  was  killed  at  the  as- 
sault on  Port  Hudson,  Louisiana,  May  27,  1863. 
While  he  lived  to  see  the  suppression  of  the 
rebellion,  the  entire  restoration  of  peace  between 
the  North  and  South,  which  he  greatly  desired, 
was  not  fully  accomplished  during  his  useful  life. 
He  died  in  Hallowell,  Maine,  February  6,  1869, 
and,  as  has  been  truly  said  of  him,  "his  career 
illustrated  the  strength,  solidity,  and  justice 
which  constitutes  high  character  in  the  individual 
and  safety  for  the  State." 

The  children  by  his  marriage  with  Sarah  Hodge 
Barrett  were:  I.  Hester  Ann,  born  in  Virginia; 
died  in  Hallowell,  Maine,  aged  nine  years.  2. 
A  son  born  in  Virginia,  died  there  in  infancy. 
3.  Virginia  Hamlin,  widow  of  Thomas  W.  T. 
Curtis,  died  at  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  October 
10,  1918.  4.  Emma  Gardiner,  died  in  New  York, 
in  1887.  5.  Captain  John  Barrett,  killed  at  Port 
Hudson,  Louisiana.  6.  Thomas  Hamlin  (q.  v.). 


THOMAS  H.  HUBBARD,  youngest  child  of 
Governor  John  (q.  v.)  and  Sarah  H.  (Barrett) 
Hubbard,  was  born  at  Hallowell,  Maine,  Decem- 
ber 20,  1838.  His  early  education  and  prepara- 
tion for  college  was  had  in  his  home  town. 
Entering  Bowdoin  College  in  1853,  he  graduated 
with  distinction  in  1857.  During  the  next  years 
he  read  law  in  the  office  of  Anson  G.  Stinchfield, 
of  Hallowell,  and  taught  in  the  Hallowell  Acad- 
emy; the  summers  of  1859-60  were  passed  with 
his  father,  who  as  a  commissioner  under  the 
Reciprocity  Treaty  with  Great  Britain  was  exam- 
ining fishing  boundaries  at  the  river  mouths  of 
the  Eastern  coast.  In  the  fall  of  1860  he  was 
admitted  to  the  bar,  and  soon  entered  the  of- 
fice of  Abbott  Brothers  in  New  York,  working 
on  their  digest  then  in  preparation.  In  the  au- 
tumn of  1860  he  entered  the  Albany  Law  School, 
and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  New  York  in 
1861.  He  then  became  managing  clerk  in  the 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


59 


office  of  Barney,  Butler  &  Parsons  in  New, 
York,  remaining  until  September,  1862,  when  he 
enlisted  in  the  25th  Maine  Volunteer  Infantry,  a 
nine  months'  regiment,  being  mustered  in  as  first 
lieutenant  and  adjutant.  This  regiment  was  sta- 
tioned in  Virginia,  and  after  it  was  mustered  out 
in  the  summer  of  1863,  he  assisted  Colonel  Fran- 
cis Fessenden  in  recruiting  the  3Oth  Maine  Vol- 
unteers and  was  commissioned  its  lieutenant- 
colonel,  November  10,  1863.  This  regiment  was 
assigned  to  the  Department  of  the  Gulf  and  be- 
came a  part  of  the  force  engaged  in  the  Red 
River  campaign.  He  became  colonel  of  the  regi- 
ment June  2,  1864,  Colonel  Fessenden  having  been 
wounded  and  thereby  disabled.  The  regiment 
was  in  the  battles  of  Sabine  Cross  Roads,  Pleas- 
ant Hill,  Monett's  Bluff  and  Cane  River  Crossing. 
For  his  part  in  the  construction  of  the  dam  across 
the  red  river  at  Alexandria,  Louisiana,  which 
released  a  fleet  of  gunboats,  Colonel  Hubbard 
received  especial  commendation  in  the  report  of 
Admiral  Porter.  He  was  also  instrumental  in 
procuring  the  rapid  passage  of  the  army  over  the 
Atchafalaya  river  on  May  18,  1864,  after  the 
destruction  of  the  bridges  by  the  enemy,  by 
anchoring  in  the  river  a  bridge  of  boats  over 
which  the  army  passed  in  safety.  In  the  autumn 
of  1864  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  Virginia 
and  became  a  part  of  the  Nineteenth  Army  Corps. 
In  June,  1865,  Colonel  Hubbard's  command  was 
sent  to  Savannah,  Georgia,  and  while  there  he 
presided  over  a  board  to  examine  officers  desir- 
ing to  enter  the  regular  army.  He  was  commis- 
sioned brigadier-general  by  brevet,  for  meritori- 
ous services  during  the  war,  to  rank  from  July 
30,  1865,  and  soon  after  was  mustered  out  of  the 
service. 

In  the  fall  of  1865  he  resumed  the  practice  of 
law  in  New  York,  and  was  for  a  year  a  partner 
of  Charles  A.  Rapallo,  afterward  a  judge  of  the 
New  York  Court  of  Appeals.  In  January,  1867, 
he  became  a  member  of  the  law  firm  of  Barney, 
Butler  &  Parsons,  which  later  became  the  firm 
of  Butler,  Stillman  &  Hubbard,  and  had  a  large 
and  diversified  practice.  Mr.  Hubbard's  aptitude 
in  corporation  law  and  his  ability  and  energy 
gave  him  high  rank  in  his  profession. 

In  1888  and  the  years  following,  Mr.  Hubbard 
withdrew  gradually  from  practice  to  give  atten- 
tion to  the  railway  and  other  business  affairs  of 
the  Mark  Hopkins  estate.  In  the  course  of  this 
work  he  became  vice-president  of  the  Southern 
Pacific  Company,  the  president  being  Collis  P. 
Huntington,  and  an  officer  of  many  of  its  related 
concerns.  One  matter  in  the  affairs  of  the  com- 
pany, successfully  concluded  in  1899  and  largely 


so  because  of  his  work  in  it,  was  the  arrange- 
ment of  terms  for  repayment  of  the  debt  to  the 
government  growing  out  of  its  aid  to  the  first 
transcontinental  railroads,  a  matter  of  long  nego- 
tiation and  discussion  in  the  press  and  in  con- 
gress, and  a  subject  of  political  controversy. 
From  1904  he  was  president  of  the  International 
Banking  Corporation,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
a  director  of  the  American  Light  &  Traction 
Company,  Metropolitan  Life  Insurance  Com- 
pany, National  Bank  of  Commerce  in  New  York, 
Toledo,  St.  Louis  &  Western  and  Wabash  Rail- 
road companies,  and  the  Western  Union  Tele- 
graph Company.  He  was  for  a  number  of  years 
a  trustee  of  Bowdoin  College  and  of  the  Albany 
Law  School;  for  two  years  he  was  president  of 
the  New  England  Society  in  New  York,  and  at 
the  time  of  his  death  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the 
United  States;  president  of  the  Peary  Arctic 
Club,  and  of  the  New  York  County  Lawyers' 
Association.  In  his  later  years  he  took  an  active 
part  in  bringing  about  the  adoption  of  a  code  of 
professional  ethics  by  the  bar  associations  of  the 
country. 

He  married,  January  28,  1868,  Sibyl  A.  Fahne- 
stock,  of  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania.  Of  five  chil- 
dren of  the  marriage  three  survived  him:  John; 
Sibyl  E.,  wife  of  Herbert  S.  Darlington;  and 
Ann  Weir  Hubbard.  His  death  occurred  in  New 
York  City,  May  19,  1915. 


JOHN  FRANCIS  SPRAGUE,  lawyer,  histo- 
rian, is  a  native  of  the  State  of  Maine,  and  is 
one  of  its  self-made  men,  having  worked  his  way 
from  humble  beginnings  to  a  position  of  trust 
and  responsibility  among  the  intelligent  and  pro- 
gressive people  of  the  State.  He  comes  of  an 
ancient  ancestry,  and  is  of  the  third  generation 
of  the  family  in  Maine.  The  Sprague  family  is 
of  ancient  English  origin.  In  Prince's  Chronol- 
ogy we  reed:  "Among  those  who  arrived  at 
Naumkeag  are  Ralph  Sprague,  with  his  brothers 
Richard  and  William,  who  with  three  or  four 
more1  were  by  Governor  Endicott  employed  to 
explore  and  take  possession  of  the  country  west- 
ward. They  travelled  through  the  woods  to 
Charlestown,  on  a  neck  of  land  called  Mishawum, 
between  Mystic  and  Charles  rivers,  full  of  Indians 
named  Aberginians,  with  whom  they  made 
peace."  Hon.  Edward  Everett,  in  his  address 
commemorative  of  the  bicentennial  of  the  arrival 
of  Winthrop  at  Charlestown,  said:  "Ralph,  Rich- 
ard and  William  Sprague  are  the  founders  of  the 
settlement  in  this  place,  and  were  persons  of 
substance  and  enterprise,  excellent  citizens,  gen- 


60 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


erous  public  benefactors,  and  the  head  of  a  very 
large  and  respectable  family  of  descendants." 
Ralph  Sprague  was  about  twenty-five  years  of 
age  when  he  came  to  New  England  in  the  ship 
Ann  in  1623.  He  had  Richard,  Samuel  and  Phin- 
eas,  and  a  daughter  Mary,  who  married,  Sep- 
tember 28,  1630,  Daniel  Edmands.  Ralph 
Spragoe  was  one  of  a  jury  impanelled,  which 
seems  to  have  been  the  first  in  Massachusetts. 
He  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  train  band.  In  163! 
Captain  Richard  Sprague  commanded  a  company 
of  the  train  band,  and  on  Friday  of  each  week 
exercised  his  command  at  a  convenient  place 
near  the  Indian  wigwams.  On  February  10,  1634, 
the  famous  order  creating  a  Board  of  Selectmen 
was  passed,  and  Richard  and  William  signed  the 
order.  Richard  left  no  posterity.  His  sword, 
which  is  named  in  his  brother  William's  will,  was 
preserved  in  one  of  the  old  Sprague  families  in 
Hingham  in  1828. 

Edward  Sprague  lived  in  early  life  in  Fording- 
ton,  Dorsetshire,  England,  and  later  in  Upway, 
same  county,  where  he  was  a  fuller  by  occupa- 
tion. His  will  was  proved  June  6,  1614,  in  the 
prerogative  court  at  Canterbury,  and  copies  have 
been  preserved  among  his  descendants  in  this 
country.  His  wife's  name  was  Christiana,  and 
they  were  the  parents  of  William  Sprague,  born 
in  Upway,  who  came  early  to  New  England  and 
settled  in  Charlestown,  Massachusetts.  In  1636 
he  removed  thence  to  Hingham,  same  colony, 
going  in  a  boat,  and  landing  on  the  side  of  the 
cove  at  a  spot  where  the  town  afterwards  granted 
him  land.  He  was  one  of  the  first  planters  there, 
and  his  home  lot  is  said  to  have  been  the  most 
pleasant  in  the  town.  From  1636  to  1647  he  re- 
ceived various  grants  of  land,  filled  various  of- 
fices in  the  town,  and  died  October  6,  1675.  He 
married,  in  1635,  Millicent  Eames,  born  in 
Charlestown,  daughter  of  Captain  Anthony  and 
Margery  Eames,  pioneers  of  that  town,  where 
the  mother  was  admitted  to  the  church,  Septem- 
ber 13,  1635.  She  died  February  8,  1696.  Their 
eldest  child  was  Anthony  Sprague,  born  Septem- 
ber 2,  1635,  who  was  a  farmer  and  town  officer 
in  Hingham,  where  he  died  September  3,  1719. 
His  home  was  on  the  paternal  homestead  at 
Hingham  Centre,  and  his  house  was  burned  by 
the  Indians  in  King  Philip's  War,  April  19,  1676. 
By  his  father's  will  he  received  the  sword  of  his 
uncle,  Richard  Sprague,  and  by  deed  made  Feb- 
ruary 21,  1673,  his  father  gave  him  land.  He 
married,  December  26,  1661,  Elizabeth  Bartlett, 
daughter  of  Robert  and  Mary  (Warren)  Bartlett. 
The  last  named  was  a  daughter  of  Richard  War- 
ren, of  the  Plymouth  Colony,  who  came  in  the 


Mayflower.  Robert  Bartlett  came  to  Plymouth 
in  1623,  in  the  ship  Ann.  Elizabeth  (Bartlett) 
Sprague  died  February  17,  1713.  Her  eldest  son, 
Anthony  Sprague,  born  August  18,  1663,  was  a 
pioneer  settler  of  Attleboro,  Massachusetts. 
Their  seventh  son,  Jeremiah  Sprague,  was  born 
July  24,  1682,  in  Hingham,  where  he  was  a 
farmer,  and  died  March  5,  1759.  He  married 
Priscilla  Knight,  born  1685,  died  August  3,  1775, 
aged  ninety  years.  Their  second  son  was  Knight 
Sprague,  born  October  12,  1711,  in  Hingham,  and 
resided  on  the  main  street  of  the  town,  next 
northwest  of  the  meetinghouse  of  the  First  Par- 
ish. In  1760  he  sold  his  property  in  Hingham 
and  removed  to  Leicester,  Massachusetts.  He 
married  (intentions  October  23,  1742)  Mary  Beal, 
born  December  21,  1717,  in  Hingham,  daughter 
of  David  and  Rebecca  (Stoddard)  Beal.  Her 
second  son,  James  Sprague,  was  born  March  4, 
1750,  in  Hingham,  and  was  an  early  settler  in 
the  town  of  Greene,  Androscoggin  county,  Maine, 
where  he  owned  part  of  lot  No.  172,  and  was 
tythingman  in  1788.  He  was  a  soldier  of  the 
Revolution. 

Eldridge  Gerry  Sprague,  son  of  James  Sprague, 
was  born  in  1793,  in  Greene,  and  lived  in  San- 
gerville,  Piscataquis  county,  Maine,  where  he  died 
December  20,  1867.  He  was  a  farmer,  a  man  of 
progressive  ideas,  an  Adventist  in  religion,  in 
politics  a  Republican  from  the  time  of  the  organ- 
ization of  that  party  in  1856.  He  married  Sarah 
Parsons,  born  in  Jay,  Maine,  died  in  Abbot  Vil- 
lage, Piscataquis  county,  Maine,  May  9,  1878, 
daughter  of  John  and  Mary  (Hanniford)  Par- 
sons, granddaughter  of  Kendall  Parsons,  a  Revo- 
lutionary soldier  of  New  Hampshire.  The  musket 
which  he  carried  in  that  struggle  was  preserved 
by  his  son  John.  He  married  Eliza  Bryant,  and 
their  youngest  son  was  John  Parsons,  born  in 
June,  1781,  died  in  Easton,  Maine,  March  26, 
1879.  His  early  life  was  spent  in  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts,  whence  he  removed  as  a  young 
man  to  Boxford,  Maine.  He  married  there  Polly 
Hanniford,  born  January,  1781,  died  at  Fort 
Fairfield,  Maine,  September  15,  1855.  Their  third 
daughter  was  Sarah  Parsons,  wife  of  Eldridge  G. 
Sprague.  They  were  the  parents  of  the  subject 
of  this  sketch. 

John  Francis  Sprague  was  born  July  16,  1848, 
in  Sangerville,  Maine,  where  he  grew  to  manhood 
on  the  paternal  farm,  and  passed  through  the 
usual  experiences  of  a  farmer's  son  in  his  day. 
In  the  common  schools  he  laid  the  foundation  of 
an  education,  and  by  subsequent  reading  and 
study  became  one  of  the  well-read  men  of  the 
State.  In  1872-73  he  read  law  with  Hon.  Alvah 


HORATIO  OLIVER  LADD 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


61 


Black,  at  Paris  Hill,  Maine,  and  at  the  February 
term  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court,  in  1874,  was 
admitted  to  the  Piscataquis  bar.  He  immediately 
began  practice  in  Abbot  Village,  whence  he  re- 
moved, in  1879,  to  Monson,  Maine,  and  there 
continued  in  practice  until  1910,  when  he  settled 
in  Dover,  the  shire  town  of  Piscataquis  county. 
Here  he  has  continued  to  reside  until  the  present 
time,  and  since  1898  has  been  referee  in  bank- 
ruptcy. Mr.  Sprague  has  always  been  deeply 
interested  in  historical  studies,  and  is  a  member 
of  the  Maine  Historical  Society,  president  of  the 
Piscataquis  Historical  Society,  a  member  and 
past  president  of  the  Maine  Society,  Sons  of  the 
American  Revolution,  and  of  the  Maine  Sports- 
men's Association.  He  has  contributed  much  to 
historical  literature,  and  has  been  for  some  years 
editor  and  publisher  of  "Sprague's  Journal  of 
Maine  History."  He  is  among  the  active  work- 
ers of  the  Progressive  wing  of  the  Republican 
party,  represented  Dover  in  the  Maine  House  of 
Representatives  from  1885  to  1893,  and  is  every- 
where respected  and  esteemed  as  a  sound  law- 
yer, an  upright  legislator,  and  a  faithful  historian. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  affi- 
liating with  Doric  Lodge,  No.  149,  Free  and  Ac- 
cepted Masons,  of  Monson,  Maine,  and  Onaway 
Lodge,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  No. 
106,  of  Monson;  Moosehead  Encampment,  of  Guil- 
ford,  Maine;  Wenonah  Rebekah  Lodge  of  Dover, 
Maine;  and  Canton  Rineo  of  that  town.  Mr. 
Sprague  is  a  Unitarian  in  preference  and  belief; 
is  a  member  of  the  Piscataquis  Club  of  Fox- 
croft,  Maine,  of  which  he  has  been  president,  and 
the  Madackowando  Club  of  Bangor.  He  is 
unmarried. 


HORATIO  OLIVER  LADD— A  family  tradi- 
tion which  is  apparently  well  founded,  asserts 
that  the  name  of  Ladd  is  of  French  origin,  and 
that  it  existed  in  England  from  the  time  of  Wil- 
liam the  Conquerer.  From  Le  Lade,  which  is 
undoubtedly  the  original  French  spelling,  its 
orthography  has  been  subject  to  numerous  evolu- 
tionary changes,  viz.:  Le  Lade,  Lad,  Lade  and 
Ladde,  to  its  present  form  of  Ladd.  Some  au- 
thorities, however,  claim  that  the  name  is  derived 
from  the  Welsh  word  lladd,  to  destroy.  The 
family  were  located  in  Kent  county,  England, 
where  they  owned  the  estate  of  Borwyck  Manor 
Hundred  of  Lorinsburgh,  Eleham,  before  the  time 
of  Henry  VI.  Thomas  Ladd  was  in  possession 
of  this  estate  in  1563,  and  Sylvester  Ladd  in  1603. 
There  was  only  one  family  of  Ladd  previous  to 
the  seventeenth  century.  In  1730,  a  direct  de- 


scendant of  the  family  was  created  a  baronet  by 
George  II. 

The  first  of  this  name  in  America  was  Daniel 
Ladd,  of  Wiltshire,  England,  who  took  the  ac- 
quired oath  of  allegiance  in  order  to  sail  in  the 
ship  Mary  and  John,  (Robert  Sayres,  master),  from 
London,  March  24,  1633-34,  for  New  England, 
and  landed  at  Nantasket  in  Boston  Harbor.  He 
did  not  settle  permanently  in  Dorchester,  Massa- 
chusetts as  did  most  of  his  fellow  passengers,  but 
went  to  Ipswich,  Massachusetts,  in  1637,  where 
he  was  granted  six  acres  of  land  upon  which  he 
erected  a  dwelling,  and  in  1644  sold  his  property 
there  to  one  Henry  Kingsbury. 

Prior  to  1639  he  had  removed  to  Salisbury, 
Massachusetts,  where  he  was  granted  one  or 
mor.e  acres  for  planting  purposes,  but  he  shortly 
afterwards  went  to  Haverhill,  Massachusetts,  as 
one  of  the  first  settlers  of  that  town,  and  he  re- 
sided there  until  his  death,  which  occurred  July 
27,  1693-  The  Christian  name  of  his  wife,  who 
accompanied  him  from  England,  was  Ann,  and 
she  died  February  9,  1694.  Chase,  in  his  "His- 
tory of  Haverhill,"  says  that  Daniel  Ladd  owned 
and  cultivated  several  farms  and  was  very  promi- 
nent among  the  original  proprietors.  In  1646  he 
was  taxed  forty  pounds,  and  in  1659  was  granted 
permission  with  Theophilus  Shotwell  to  erect  a 
saw  mill  on  Spigott  (Spicket)  river.  In  1668  he 
was  one  of  the  selectmen,  and  at  the  breaking 
out  of  King  Philip's  war  (1675),  he  with  others 
was  appointed  to  designate  what  houses  should 
be  garrisoned.  His  children  were:  Daniel, 
Lydia,  Mary,  Samuel,  Nathaniel,  Ezekiel  and 
Sarah. 

Nathaniel  Ladd,  the  third  son  and  fifth  child 
of  Daniel  and  Ann  Ladd,  was  born  in  Haverhill, 
Massachusetts,  March  10,  1651.  When  a  young 
man  he  settled  in  Exeter,  New  Hampshire,  where 
he  married,  July  12,  1678,  Elizabeth  Oilman, 
daughter  of  John  Oilman,  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  well-known  New  Hampshire  family  of  that 
name. 

The  earliest  discovered  records  of  anything  like 
the  name  Oilman  are  connected  with  Wales;  Cil- 
min  Troeddher  (i.  e.,  Kilmin  with  the  black  foot) 
of  Glynllison  in  Uroch;  Gwir  Vai  in  Caeryn, 
Arvonshire,  lived  in  the  year  843,  in  the  time  of 
Roderick  the  Great,  with  whom  he  came  out  of 
the  north  of  Britain.  He  bore  the  arms:  Argent, 
a  man's  leg  coupled  sable.  The  Glyns  of  Glynlli- 
son are  descended  from  Cilmin  whose  name  is 
also  spelled  Kilmin.  This  Cilmin  was  head  of 
one  of  the  fifteen  noble  tribes  of  North  Wales 


62 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


and  there  appears  to  be  good  reason  to  believe 
that  he  was  one  of  the  ancestors  of  the  Gilmins 
of  England,  Ireland  and  America.  In  the  six- 
teenth century  and  previously  the  name  was  va- 
riously spelled:  Gilmyn,  Gilmin,  Gylmyn,  Gyl- 
min,  Gyllmyn  and  some  times  Guylmyn. 

From  the  parish  register  of  Caston,  England, 
it  is  found  that  Edward  Gilman  married,  June  12, 
1550,  Rose  Rysse,  who  survived  her  husband  and 
proved  his  will,  dated  February  5,  1573,  on  July 
7  in  the  same  year.  By  his  will  he  devised  his 
houses  and  lands  in  Caston  to  his  eldest  son, 
John,  and  his  other  estates  and  lands  at  Saham 
Toney  between  his  other  three  sons  and  his  five 
daughters.  The  widow  married  John  Snell  and 
was  buried  at  Caston,  October  3,  1613.  The  chil- 
dren of  Edward  and  Rose  (Rysse)  Gilman  were 
John,  Edward,  Robert,  Lawrence,  Margaret,  Kath- 
erine,  Rose,  Jane  and  Elizabeth. 

Religious  persecution  sent  Edward  Gilman,  the 
second  son  of  Edward  and  Rose  (Rysse)  Gilman, 
and  his  family  to  Massachusetts.  They  became 
members  of  a  party  of  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
three  men,  women  and  children,  which  under  the 
leadership  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Peck,  of  Hingham, 
England,  embarked  at  Gravesend,  England,  on 
the  ship  Diligent,  of  Ipswich,  (Captain,  John  Mar- 
tin), on  April  26,  and  arrived  at  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts, December  13,  1638.  In  1641,  a  tract 
of  land  eight  miles  square,  then  called  'Seekonk, 
now  Rehoboth,  was  granted  to  Edward  Gilman 
and  others  by  the  Plymouth  Colony.  His  name 
does  not  appear  on  the  records  of  that  town  after 
1646,  but  the  following  year  he  appears  in  the 
records  of  the  town  of  Ipswich,  Massachusetts. 
He  married  in  Hingham,  England,  June  3,  1614, 
Mary  Clark  and  their  children  were  'Mary,  Ed- 
ward, Sarah,  Lydia,  John,  Moses,  and  Edwin, 
who  died  at  Ipswich,  June  22,  1681. 

His  three  sons  settled  in  New  Hampshire  and 
John  Gilman  was  a  member  of  the  Provincial 
Council  under  Governor  Cranfield,  a  delegate  to 
the  Assembly  and  speaker  of  the  House. 

For  alleged  implication  in  Gove's  rebellion 
against  Gov.  Cranfield,  Nathaniel  Ladd  was  exam- 
ined December  6,  1683,  by  Judge  Barefoot,  who 
accepted  the  surety  of  friends  for  his  future  good 
behavior,  and  he  was  never  brought  to  trial.  In 
the  summer  of  1690,  he  volunteered  in  the  New 
Hampshire  contingent  of  an  expedition  fitted  out 
in  Massachusetts  to  protect  the  settlers  of  Maine 
from  the  aggressions  of  the  Indians,  and  being 
severely  wounded  at  or  near  Cape  Elizabeth,  he 
returned  to  Exeter,  where  he  eventually  died  from 
the  effects  of  his  injuries.  He  was  the  father  of 


seven  children:  Nathaniel,  Elizabeth,  Mary, 
Lydia,  Daniel,  John  and  Ann. 

Nathaniel,  the  eldest  son  of  Nathaniel  and 
Elizabeth  (Gilman)  Ladd,  was  born  in  Exeter, 
New  Hampshire,  April  6,  1679.  He  was  a  mill- 
wright by  trade,  which  he  followed  in  connection 
with  farming  and  dealing  in  real  estate.  He  re- 
sided in  Stratham,  New  Hampshire,  for  a  num- 
ber of  years,  but  returned  to  Exeter,  selling  his 
farm  in  the  former  place  to  his  son,  Paul,  in 
1747;  and  his  brick  house  in  Exeter,  a  part  of 
which  he  gave  to  another  son  in  1742,  was  stand- 
ing in  1888. 

His  first  wife  was  Catherine,  daughter  of  Ed- 
ward Gilman  of  Exeter;  his  second  wife  was 
Rachel  Rawlins,  who  died  in  Stratham,  July  12, 
1717;  and  his  third  wife  was  Mrs.  Mary  Mercy 
(Hall)  Hilton,  daughter  of  Kingsley  Hall  of 
Exeter,  and  widow  of  Dudley  Hilton.  His  chil- 
dren by  his  second  marriage  were:  Nathaniel, 
Daniel,  Edward  and  Elias;  and  those  by  his  third 
marriage  were:  Josiah,  Paul  and  Love,  and  the 
twins,  Dudley  and  Mercy.  Dudley  Ladd,  the  son 
of  Nathaniel  and  Mary  Mercy  (Hall-Hilton) 
Ladd,  married  December  15,  1748,  Alice  Hurley. 
He  died  in  March,  181 1 :  Of  his  children,  the  sixth 
was  Dudley  Ladd,  born  July  9,  1758.  He  was  a 
volunteer  in  the  northern  army  of  the  American 
Revolution  in  1777.  He  married  Bethia  Hutchins. 
She  was  the  daughter  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Gor- 
don Hntchins,  a  son  of  William  Hutchins.  Col- 
onel Hutchins  was  a  captain  in  the  First  New 
Hampshire  Regiment  at  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill 
and  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Second  New 
Hampshire  Regiment  at  the  battle  of  White 
Plains,  New  York.  He  married  Dorothy  Stone,  a 
daughter  of  Ephraim  and  Bertha  (Carleton) 
Stone.  The  former  was  descended  from  Rev. 
Samuel  Stone,  assistant  to  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Hooker,  who  arrived  at  Boston,  Massachusetts, 
in  1634,  and  with  the  Rev.  Thomas  Hooker  two 
years  later  went  to  Connecticut.  Mrs.  Bertha 
(Carleton)  Stone  was  a  lineal  descendant  of  Ed- 
ward and  Eleanor  Carleton,  who  were  in  the 
company  of  twenty  families  brought  by  the  Rev. 
Ezekiel  Rogers,  from  England  in  December, 
1638-39,  and  settled  in  Rowley,  Massachusetts. 

The  Carletons  are  of  ancient  Saxon  origin,  and 
the  name  is  a  combination  of  the  Saxon  words 
"ceorl"  meaning  husbandman  and  "ton"  a  town. 
At  the  time  of  the  Norman  conquest  it  was  de 
Carleton,  and  the  earliest  known  ancestor  in  Eng- 
land was  Baldwin  de  Carleton,  of  Carleton,  near 
Penith  in  the  county  of  Cumberland.  From  this 
feudal  baron  the  American  Carleton  traced  their 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


63 


lineage  through  seventeen  generations  to  Edward 
the  emigrant. 

Adam  de  Carleton,  of  the  eight  generations, 
in  direct  line  of  descent  from  Baldwin,  married 
Sibclla,  who  is  supposed  to  belong  to  the  royal 
Plantagenct  family.  Sir  William  dc  Carleton  of 
tin-  twelfth  generation  was  the  last  to  use  the 
prefix  "De."  The  latter's  son,  Thomas,  was  of 
Sutton,  in  Lincolnshire,  and  his  son,  John,  of 
Sutton  and  \Valton-on-thc-Thamcs,  died  in  1458. 
John  of  the  sixteenth  generation,  born  in  the  year 
1500,  married  Joyce  Welbeck,  a  cousin  of  Queen 
Catherine,  wife  of  Henry  VIII,  but  the  records  at 
hand  fail  to  state  whether  the  royal  personage 
referred  to  was  Catherine  Howard  or  Catherine 
Parr.  Edward,  the  fifth  son  of  John  and  Joyce 
(Welbeck)  Carleton,  settled  at  East  Clauden, 
Surrey,  in  1571,  and  married  Mary,  daughter  of 
George  Biglcy.  Erasmus,  their  son,  was  a  citizen 
and  a  mercer  of  St.  Bartholomew's,  London.  The 
Christian  name  of  his  wife  was  Elizabeth  and 
they  were  the  parents  of  Edward  Carleton,  the 
emigrant. 

Edward  Carleton  was  born  in  1605,  and  mar- 
ried Eleanor  Denton,  whose  family  name  is  said 
to  be  of  old  Roman  origin.  He  was  made  a  free- 
man at  Rowley,  Massachusetts,  in  1642,  and  be- 
came the  second  largest  landowner  in  the  town. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  General  Court  1644-47, 
served  as  a  trial  justice  from  1649,  until  his  re- 
turn to  England  in  1650-51,  and  died  about  the 
year  1661.  He  was  the  father  of  four  chil- 
dren, Edward,  his  second  son,  born  August  28, 
1639,  having  been  the  first  birth  to  be  recorded 
in 'Rowley,  Massachusetts. 

General  Samuel  G.  Ladd,  the  son  of  Dudley  and 
Bethia  (Hutchins)  Ladd,  was  born  at  Concord, 
New  Hampshire,  April  14,  1784.  He  was  en- 
re!  in  commercial  business  as  a  hardware  mer- 
chant at  Hallowcll,  Maine,  until  1840,  when  he 
removed  to  Farmington,  Maine,  where  he  car- 
ried on  the  same  business  until  1850.  During  his 
residence  in  M'aine  he  was  during  the  War  of 
1812,  a  captain  of  a  militia  company  stationed  at 
Y\  iscassct.  Maine.  He  was  the  second  incum- 
bent to  hold  the  office  of  Adjutant-General  of  the 
State  of  Maine.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Con- 
gregational church  at  Hallowell,  Maine,  and 
elder  of  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Kingston, 
Pennsylvania,  where  he  died  May  3,  1863.  He 
married  October  3,  1815,  Caroline  D'OHver  Vinal. 
Their  children  were  all  born  at  Hallowell,  Maine: 
i.  Mary  Caroline,  born  August  21,  1816,  married 
Horatio  W.  Fairbanks,  and  died  at  San  Fran- 
cisco, California,  October  7,  1857.  2.  Samuel 


Greenleaf,  Jr.,  born  April  13,  1818.  3.  Francis 
Dudley,  born  May  20,  1820;  married  Caroline 
Rose,  died  at  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  July  7, 
1862.  4.  Ellen  Susanna,  born  February  19,  1822; 
married  Reverend  Henry  H.  Welles,  D.D.;  died 
at  Clifton  Springs,  New  York,  January  25,  1895. 
5.  Julia  Maria,  born  August  16,  1824;  married 
Lewis  Titcomb;  died  at  Wilkes-Barre,  Pennsyl- 
vania, January  21,  1882.  6.  Theodore,  born  No- 
vember 20,  1826;  married  Sarah  Folsom;  died  at 
Haddenfield,  New  Jersey,  in  1913.  7.  Anna 
Louisa,  born  November  15,  1829;  married  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel J.  S.  Fillebrown;  died  at  Silver 
Lake,  Pennsylvania.  8  Martha  Augusta,  born 
September  I,  1831;  married  Erastus  F.  Dana.  9. 
Charlotte  Sewall,  born  January  8,  1834;  married 
Major  Robert  H.  Rose;  died  September,  1917,  at 
Mankato,  Minnesota.  10.  Henry  Walter,  born 
March  24,  1836;  died  at  Farmington,  Maine,  Jan- 
uary 22,  1848.  ii.  Horatio  Oliver,  of  whom  fur- 
ther. 

Caroline  D'Oliver  Vinal,  the  mother  of  our  sub- 
ject, was  descended  from  the  Adams,  Oliver 
(Olivier)  and  Vinal  families  of  Braintree  and 
Boston,  Massachusetts.  She  was  a  lineal  de- 
scendant from  Henry  Adams,  the  progenitor  of 
the  Adams  family  at  Braintree,  Massachusetts; 
and  from  one  or  two  Huguenot  families  who 
came  from  France  to  Boston  in  1686.  Her 
French  ancestor  was  Andrai  Sigournais,  Con- 
stable of  France,  whose  daughter,  Mary  Sigour- 
nais, married  Antoine  Olivier.  Their  son,  Dan- 
iel Oliver,  born  March  20,  1719,  married  Bertha 
Fisk  and  a  daughter  of  this  marriage,  Mary 
Oliver,  born  November  24,  1745,  became  the 
wife  of  John  Adams.  A  daughter  of  this  mar- 
riage, Susannah  Adams,  born  August  I,  1773, 
married  April  18,  1793,  John  Vinal,  Jr.,  and  be- 
came the  mother  of  Caroline  D'Oliver  Vinal. 

The  Vinal  family  is  ancient  and  honorable  in 
the  history  of  England,  the  name  being  spelled 
variably.  Originating  in  eastern  Sussex  county, 
where  their  estate,  Vinal  Hall  Park,  is  one  of 
the  handsomest  of  the  old  English  estates  and 
is  still  preserved,  and  the  mansion,  farm  house, 
hedges,  etc.,  have  been  and  are  kept  in  fair  con- 
dition. 

John  Vinall,  of  Vinal  Hall,  was  living  there 
in  1538,  and  his  son  Thomas  lived  there  in  1550, 
and  during  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  Wil- 
liam Vinall  was  the  occupant  of  the  Hall.  In 
the  time  of  James  I,  John  Vinall  resided  at 
Vinal  Hall.  He  had  two  sons,  John  and  Ste- 
phen, the  latter  of  whom  dropped  one  "1"  from 
the  end  of  his  name.  He  was  an  early  settler 


64 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


of  Scituate,  Massachusetts,  where  he  was  a 
proprietor,  and  admitted  as  a  freeman  March  5, 
1638-39.  He  probably  died  soon  after  this  date, 
as  his  widow  Anna  Vinal,  took  his  place  as  pro- 
prietor and  received  various  grants  of  land  in 
Scituate.  She  died  October  6,  1664,  and  three 
children  survived  her:  Stephen,  Jr.,  John  and 
Martha,  who  married  Isaac  Chittenden. 

John,  the  youngest  son  of  Stephen  and  Ann 
Vinal,  was  born  in  England,  in  1632,  and  re- 
sided in  Scituate,  Massachusetts.  He  married 
in  1664,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Rev.  Nicholas 
Baker,  an  ordained  minister  of  Scituate. 

John,  the  son  of  John  and  Elizabeth  (Baker) 
Vinal,  was  born  in  1665,  and  married  in  1690, 
Mary,  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Hannah  (Stock- 
bridge)  Wordworth.  Their  son  Elijah  was  born 
in  1694,  and  settled  in  Boston,  where  he  mar- 
ried August  13,  1717,  Elizabeth,  daughter  'of 
Robert  and  Elizabeth  (Pemberton)  Ellis.  Their 
children  were:  William,  Anna,  Mary,  Elizabeth 
and  John. 

John,  the  youngest  child  of  Elijah  and  Eliza- 
beth (Ellis)  Vinal,  was  born  in  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts, May  30,  1736.  He  married,  January  3, 
1756,  Ruth,  daughter  of  John  and  Anna  (Deane) 
Osborne,  and  they  were  the  parents  of  William, 
John,  mentioned  above,  Ruth,  and  Charlotte. 

Horatio  Oliver  Ladd,  the  youngest  child  of 
General  Samuel  G.  and  Caroline  D'Oliver 
(Vinal)  Ladd  was  born  at  Hallowell,  Maine, 
August  31,  1839.  After  attending  the  public 
schools,  to  complete  his  education  he  attended 
Farmington  and  Auburn  academies,  and  entered 
Bowdoin  College,  where  he  graduated  in  1859. 
The  following  year  he  became  a  student  at  the 
Bangor  Theological  Seminary,  and  in  1862-3  he 
attended  the  Yale  Theological  School.  He  also 
in  1901-3  took  a  post-graduate  course  at  the  New 
York  University. 

He  was  principal  of  the  Farmington  Academy, 
1859-61,  and  associate  principal  of  Abbott  Col- 
legiate Institution,  New  York  City,  1863-64.  He 
was  pastor,  and  professor  of  rhetoric  at  Olivet 
College,  Michigan,  1866-68,  and  principal  of  the 
New  Hampshire  State  Normal  School,  1873-76. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders  and  president  of  the 
University  of  New  Mexico  at  Santa  Fe,  New 
Mexico,  from  1881  to  1889,  which  included  the 
Ramona  School  for  Indian  Girls.  He  has  been 
pastor  of  Congregational  churches  at  Salem  and 
Hopkinton,  Massachusetts;  Cromwell,  Connecti- 
cut; Olivet  and  Romeo,  Michigan. 

He  was  ordained  by  Bishop  Henry  C.  Potter, 
D.D.,  in  1892,  deacon  and  priest  in  the  Protestant 


Episcopal  church  and  became  assistant  minister 
of  Calvary  Church,  New  York  City,  in  that  year. 
In  the  same  year  he  became  rector  of  Trinity 
Church,  Fishkill,  New  York.  He  resigned  from 
his  pastorate  in  1896  to  become  rector  of  Grace 
Church,  Jamaica,  New  York,  and  in  1009  became 
rector  emeritus  of  Grace  Church.  During  an 
absence  of  nearly  two  years  abroad  in  England 
and  Italy,  he  officiated  as  English  priest  and 
chaplain  in  London  and  Bologna,  Italy. 

Dr.  Ladd  was  on  the  editorial  staff  of  the 
Churchman  in  1892.  He  was  appointed  and  con- 
firmed by  the  United  States  Senate,  Supervisor 
of  Census,  1880,  for  New  Mexico,  but  declined  to 
serve.  He  served  as  a  volunteer  chaplain  in  the 
Civil  War,  being  connected  with  the  Christian 
Commission  Service  and  stationed  at  Suffolk  and 
Norfolk,  Virginia.  He  was  for  several  years  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Managers  of  the  Fed- 
eration of  Churches  of  New  York  City.  He  re- 
ceived the  degree  of  A.B.  in  1859  and  A.M.  in 
1862  from  Bowdoin  College,  and  S.T.D.  in  1905 
from  Hobart  College.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
college  fraternities  Alpha  Delta  Phi;  Phi  Beta 
Kappa;  a  member  of  the  American  Historical 
Association;  the  Royal  Societies  Club  of  London, 
England;  the  Brooklyn  Clerical  Club;  the  Bow- 
doin College,  Hobart  Alumni  and  City  Clergy 
Clubs  of  New  York  City. 

Dr.  Ladd  is  the  author  of  "The  Memorial  of 
John  S.  C.  Abbott,"  1879;  "The  War  With  Mex- 
ico," 1887;  "Ramona  Days,"  1887-88;  "The  Story 
of  New  Mexico,"  1888;  "The  Founding  of  the 
Episcopal  Church  in  Dutchess  County,  New 
York,"  1895;  "Chunda,  a  Story  of  the  Navajos," 
1906;  "Trend  of  Scientific  Thought  Away  from 
Religious  Beliefs,"  1909;  "Origin  and  History  of 
Grace  Church,  Jamaica,"  1913. 

He  married  at  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  Har- 
riett Vaughan  Abbott,  born  at  Roxbury,  Massa- 
chusetts, February  18,  1839,  and  died  at  Rich- 
mond Hill,  New  York,  May  12,  1913.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  John  S.  C.  Abbott,  D.D.,  and 
Jane  William  Bourne.  Her  father  was  a  distin- 
guished educator,  historian,  and  clergyman,  was 
pastor  of  churches  at  Roxbury  and  N'antucket, 
Massachusetts;  Farmington  and  Freeport,  Maine; 
New  Haven  and  Fair  Haven,  Connecticut.  The 
children  by  this  marriage  are:  I.  Lillie  Vaughan 
Ladd,  born  May  2,  1865,  educated  at  Chauncy 
Hall,  Boston;  University  of  New  Mexico  and  the 
Women's  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  New 
York  City;  teacher  of  Deaf  and  Dumb;  she  mar- 
ried Harry  S.  Church.  Their  children  are:  Oliver 
Alden  Church,  first  lieutenant,  3051)1  Field  Artil- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


65 


kry,  O.  R.  C.,  77th  N.  Y.  Division.  U.  S.  A.,  and 
Elizabeth    Church.      2.    Julia    Eirene    Ladd,   edu- 
cated    at    University    of    New    Mexico,    at    Dana 
Hall,     Wellesley,     and     Wellcsley     College.       3. 
Henry    Ahhott    Ladd,    educated    at    Chauncy    Hall, 
Koston;     Exeter     (New     Hampshire)     Academy; 
Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology.     He  mar- 
ried Florence  E.  Wright,  of  Andalusia,  Pennsyl- 
vania.     He  is  an  auditor  at  El  Paso,  Texas,  and 
in  Mexico  and  long  connected  with  the  American 
Sincltcr  Company  in  New  York  City  and  Mexico, 
;  tul    in    auditing    their    numerous    mining    plants 
in    the    Southwest   and   in    Mexico.     4.    Maynard 
Ladd,      educated      at      Chauncy      Hall,      Boston; 
Exeter    (New    Hampshire)    Academy;    graduated 
in    1894    from    Harvard    University,    and    in    1898 
from     the     Harvard     Medical     School     with     the 
degree   of   M.D.     For   many   years   he   has   been 
assistant    and    instructor    in    the    department    of 
Pediatrics    in    Harvard    Medical    School.       He    is 
consulting   physician    of   the    Harvard    Children's 
Hospital,   and    chicf-of-staff   of   the    Boston    Dis- 
pensary.    He  was  appointed  medical   director  in 
iVrrmlier,    1917,  with   the   rank  of  major,  in   the 
Ked  Cross  Commission  and  is  a  medical  director 
of  the  Red  Cross  Children's  Bureau  and  Ameri- 
can   Civilian    Relief,    establishing    hospitals,    dis- 
pensaries  and   refugees    for  children  in   France   in 
the  Meurth-Moselle  region  at  Tours  and  Nancy. 
He  married  Anna  Coleman  Watts,  a  sculptor  and 
inithor,  and  has  two  children,  Gabriella  May  and 
Vcrnon  Abbott. 


GEORGE  REYNOLDS  GARDNER— The  pio- 
neer ancestor  of  the  Gardner  family  in  Maine 
was  Ebenezer  Gardner,  who  was  baptized  in 
Salem,  Massachusetts,  September  4,  1737.  He 
was  of  the  fifth  generation  from  Thomas  Gardner, 
the  immigrant  ancestor,  who  was  born  about 
1592,  and  sailed  from  Weymouth,  England,  in 
1624,  for  New  England,  having  received  an  ap- 
pointment from  the  Dorchester  Company.  While 
some  genealogists  contend  that  he  came  from 
Scotland,  the  superabundance  of  facts  demon- 
strate that  lie  was  a  resident  of  either  Dorset- 
shire or  the  neighboring  county  of  Somerset, 
England.  He  was  an  overseer  of  a  plantation 
at  Cape  Ann,  which  was  abandoned  on  account 
of  its  poor  soil,  and  he  removed  to  Salem,  Mas- 
sachusetts. Here  he  was  admitted  a  member 
of  the  First  Church,  in  1636,  and  a  freeman,  May 
'7.  '637.  His  son  Samuel,  the  second  in  the 
line  of  descent,  resided  at  Salem,  Massachusetts, 
and  his  son,  Lieutenant  Abel,  was  born  in  Salem, 
Massachusetts,  September  I,  1673.  He  lived  on 

MR.— 1—5 


the  old  homestead  occupied  by  his  father  and 
grandfather,  which  stood  on  the  present  corner 
of  Central  and  Elm  streets,  in  what  is  now  Pea- 
body,  Massachusetts.  He  was  a  tanner  by  trade, 
as  well  as  a  farmer,  and  owned  valuable  real 
estate. 

Thomas     Gardner,     son     of     Lieutenant     Abel 
Gardner,   and   father  of   the   Maine   pioneer,   was 
baptized    October    14,    1705,    and    resided    on    an 
ancestral    farm   in   what   is   now   West    Peabody. 
Massachusetts.      A    farmer    and    wheelwright   by 
trade,  he  served  the  town  as  constable,  and  was 
frequently  a  member  of  the  jury.     His  son  Ebe- 
nezer,   on    the    death    of   his    father,   was   placed 
under    the    guardianship    of    his    uncle,   Jonathan 
Gardner,  of  Roxbury,  Massachusetts.     Here  Ebe- 
nezer resided  for  a  number  of  years,  but  disposed 
of  his  real  estate  to  his  brother.     He  received  a 
grant  of  land  at  Auk-paque,  Cumberland  county. 
Nova  Scotia,  from  which  the  Acadians  had  been 
expelled.     At  the  time  of  the  Revolution  he  was 
a  member  of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  and  vis- 
ited  Boston   to  help   on   the   campaign.     On  ac- 
count of  his  embracing  the  cause  of  the  colonies, 
he   was   obliged   to   flee   from   Nova   Scotia,   and 
settled  at  Machiasport,  Maine,  in  1776.     He  saw 
active   service  in   Captain   Stephen   Smith's   com- 
pany,  which   was   a   part   of   the    regiment   com- 
manded by   Colonel   Benjamin    Foster.     He   was 
also  at  Penobscot,  Maine,  with  the  Sixth  Lincoln 
County  regiment,  in  1779.     He  married,  in  1769, 
Damaris  Merrill,  a  daughter  of  Nathan  and  Su- 
sanna Merrill,  of  Haverhill,  Massachusetts.    They 
had  a  family  of  nine  children.     Ebenezer  Gardner 
died  November  21,  1832,  aged  ninety-seven  years. 
Ebenezer    Gardner,    the    fourth    child    and    the 
eldest   son    of   Ebenezer   and    Damaris    (Merrill) 
Gardner,  was  born  in  Cumberland  county,  Nova 
Scotia,  January  31,  1776.     He  was  a  farmer,  and 
lived    at    Hadley's    Lake,    Maine.      He    married, 
June  21,   1803,  Sally  Albee,  daughter  of  William 
and  Ellen  (Dillway)  Albee.   Her  father  was  also  a 
soldier   of  the    Revolution,   serving  as  lieutenant 
in    Captain   John   Preble's   Artillery   company,  at 
Machias,    Maine.      Ebenezer    and    Sally    (Albee) 
Gardner    were    the    parents    of    twelve    children, 
eight  sons  and  four  daughters.     The  former  died 
February   5,    1859,   his   widow   survived   him,   her 
death   occurring  August  25,   1875. 

Aaron  L.  Raymond  Gardner,  son  of  Ebenezer 
and  Sally  (Albee)  Gardner,  was  born  at  East 
Machias,  Maine,  January  19,  1822,  and  died  at 
Dennysville,  Maine,  April  23,  1891.  He  received 
his  education  at  the  public  schools,  and  worked 
on  his  father's  farm  until  he  was  fifteen  years  of 
age,  when  he  became  an  apprentice  to  his  brother 


66 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


to  learn  the  trade  of  blacksmith.  He  was  a 
prominent  and  influential  citizen  of  Dennysville. 
Maine,  and  in  connection  with  his  blacksmith 
shop,  which  he  conducted  until  1865,  when  he 
opened  a  general  store,  he  was  also  engaged  in 
agricultural  pursuits.  He  married,  September  5, 
1848,  Abbie  Wilder  Reynolds,  a  daughter  of  Cap- 
tain Bela  R.  Reynolds,  a  sea  captain,  a  descendant 
from  the  original  ancester,  Robert  Reynolds,  who 
was  at  Boston,  Massachusetts,  in  1632.  The  issue 
of  the  marriage  of  Aaron  L.  Raymond  and  Abbie 
Wilder  (Reynolds)  Gardner  were:  Julia  Ray- 
mond, who  died  in  childhood;  George  Reynolds, 
mentioned  below;  Edwin  Raymond,  who  was  con- 
nected with  the  public  affairs  of  Dennysville, 
Maine;  Charles  Otis,  for  many  years  a  prominent 
merchant  of  the  city  of  Eastport,  Maine;  Eva 
May;  and  Frederick  Lee,  a  merchant  of  Dennys- 
ville, Maine. 

George  Reynolds  Gardner  was  born  at  Dennys- 
ville, Washington  county,  Maine,  January  14, 
1852.  After  attending  the  Dennysville  High 
School  he  received  private  tuition,  and  later  be- 
came a  student  in  Heald-Woodbury  College,  San 
Francisco,  California,  where  he  studied  law. 
Returning  to  his  native  State,  he  continued  his 
legal  studies  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1880,  at  Calais,  Maine.  He  immediately  formed 
a  partnership  with  Enoch  B.  Harvey,  and  com- 
menced the  practice  of  his  profession.  The  firm 
took  a  foremost  position  at  the  bar  of  the  county, 
and  in  a  few  years  ranked  among  the  most  suc- 
cessful and  best-known  in  that  section  of  the 
State.  In  1888  Mr.  Gardner  was  elected  judge 
of  the  courts  of  Probate  and  Insolvency  for 
Washington  county,  and  he  served  by  re-election 
six  terms  of  four  years  each,  retiring  from  the 
bench  in  1912.  Always  a  Republican  in  politics, 
he  is  an  active  and  useful  member  of  that  organ- 
ization. He  is  also  interested  in  mercantile 
business,  is  one  of  the  directors  of  the  Dennys- 
ville Lumber  Company  and  the  A.  L.  R.  Gardner 
Company.  In  financial  circles  he  was  formerly 
vice-president  of  the  International  Trust  and 
Banking  Company  of  Calais,  Maine,  and  is  now 
president  and  director  of  that  institution;  and 
for  thirty  years  a  trustee  of  the  Calais  Savings 
Bank.  He  was,  for  twelve  years,  a  member  of 
the  Calais  School  Board,  and  is  a  trustee  of  the 
Washington  and  the  Calais  academies,  also  presi- 
dent of  the  Washington  Academy  Alumni  Asso- 
ciation. 

Judge  Gardner's  fraternal  connections  are  as 
follows:  He  is  a  thirty-second  degree  Mason; 
past  master  of  St.  Croix  Lodge,  Free  and  Ac- 
cepted Masons;  a  member  of  the  St.  Croix  Coun- 


cil, Royal  and  Select  Masters;  St.  Croix  Chapter, 
Royal  Arch  Masons;  the  Hugh  De  Payen's  Com- 
mandery,  Knights  Templar;  Machias  Valley 
Lodge  of  Perfection;  Princes  of  Jerusalem;  Val- 
ley of  Portland,  Rose  Croix,  Herodem  Rite  of; 
and  Maine  Sovereign  Consistory,  Sublime  Princes 
of  the  Royal  Secret.  He  is  a  past  vice-chancellor 
of  Calais  Lodge,  No.  45,  Knights  of  Pythias;  a 
member  of  Fellowship  Lodge,  Independent  Order 
of  Odd  Fellows,  and  served  on  its  finance  com- 
mittee; member  of  order  of  Odd  Fellows,  Etche- 
min  Tribe,  Improved  Order  of  Red  Men;  mem- 
ber of  Ancient  Arabic  Order  Nobles  of  the 
Mystic  Shrine;  also  of  the  Maine  Society,  Sons 
of  the  American  Revolution.  His  social  club 
is  the  St.  Croix.  Formerly  a  member  of  the 
First  Congregational  Church  of  San  Francisco, 
he  and  his  family  are  now  members  of  the  First 
Congregational  Church  of  Calais,  Maine. 

Mr.  Gardner  married,  at  Hingham,  Massachu- 
setts, January  25,  1888,  Annie  E.  Robbins,  daugh- 
ter of  James  and  Mary  (Parkman)  Robbins. 
The  mother  of  Mrs.  Gardner  was  a  cousin  of  the 
famous  historian,  Francis  Parkman,  the  family 
being  of  distinguished  English  ancestry.  Judge 
Gardner  numbers  among  his  immigrant  ancestors, 
besides  those  mentioned,  Thomas  Lincoln  and 
Matthew  Gushing,  early  settlers  of  Hingham, 
Massachusetts,  and  Edward  Wilder,  the  latter 
being  a  descendant  from  Nicholas  Wilder,  a  mili- 
tary chieftain  who  fought  at  Bosworth  Field, 
August  22,  1485,  which  concluded  the  War  of 
the  Roses,  in  the  army  of  the  Earl  of  Richmond, 
who  became  Henry  the  VII,  and  from  whom  he 
received,  April  15,  1497,  landed  estate  and  a 
coat-of-arms;  also  John  Waters,  Jr.,  whose  an- 
cestors were  connected  by  marriage  with  George 
Manning,  of  Kent,  England,  an  ancestor  of  Car- 
dinal Manning,  and  one  of  the  Manning  ances- 
tors married  a  sister  of  the  poet,  Geoffrey 
Chaucer. 


SAMUEL    FULLER    DIKE,    D.D.,    who    for 

more  than  a  half  a  century  was  the  respected  and 
beloved  pastor  of  the  Church  of  the  New  Jeru- 
salem in  Bath,  Maine,  and  one  of  the  best-known; 
divines  in  the  State,  was  a  man  of  an  unusually 
commanding  personality  and  character,  and  a  de- 
scendant from  one  of  the  old  New  England  fami- 
lies, the  members  of  which  have  for  many  genera- 
tions distinguished  themselves  in  the  life  of  this 
region.  The  Dike  family  is  one  of  nearly  two 
hundred  years'  standing  in  Massachusetts,  where 
it  was  founded  by  Samuel  Dike,  a  native  of  Scot- 
land, in  which  country  he  was  born  June  14,  1722. 
His  youth  and  early  manhood  were  spent  in  his. 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


67 


native  land,  where  he  became  a  weaver.  Coin- 
ing to  America,  he  settled  at  Ipswich,  in  the 
Plymouth  Colony,  about  1773,  and  shortly  after- 
wards came  to  Bridgewater,  Plymouth  county, 
where  he  made  his  permanent  home  in  what  was 
then  the  North  Parish  and  is  now  the  city  of 
Brockton.  He  married  Mary  Perkins,  who  died 
December  25,  1816,  his  own  death  occurring 
October  22,  1800,  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine 
years.  They  were  the  parents  of  nine  children, 
one  of  whom  was  Samuel  Dike,  of  further  men- 
tion. 

(II)  Samuel  (2)  Dike,  son  of  Samuel  (i)  and 
Mary  (Perkins)  Dike,  was  born  October  21,  1748, 
at    Ipswich,    and    removed    with    his    parents    to 
Bridgewater.     He    married,    November    12,    1772, 
Lois    Fuller,   a    native    of    Bridgewater,   born    in 
the   year   1751,  a   daughter   of   Isaac  and   Sarah 
(Packard)    Fuller,   of    Mayflower   ancestry.     Her 
death   occurred   June   5,   1792,  and  she   was   sur- 
vived   by    her    husband    until    October    29,    1841, 
when  he  also  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  ninety- 
five    years.      They    were    the    parents    of    eight 
children. 

(III)  Samuel  (3)  Dike,  son  of  Samuel  (2)  and 
Lois   (Fuller)   Dike,  was  born  April  10,   1790,  at 
North    Bridgewater,   Massachusetts,   and   died   at 
his  home  there  February  27,  1864,  at  the  age  of 
seventy-one   years.     He    married,    May    18,    1812, 
Betsy  Burrell,  a  daughter  of  John  Burrell,  of  that 
place,  and  her  death  occurred  February  10,  1843. 
They  were  the  parents  of  five   children,  as   fol- 
lows:    Experience    Phillips,    born    July    8,    1813, 
died  August  6  of  the  same  year;  Samuel  Fuller, 
with   whose   career  we   are   here   especially   con- 
cerned; Mary  Perkins,  born  August  21,  1819;  John 
Burrell,  born  January  5,   1821,   died   October  20, 
1822,  and  Olive  Shaw,  born  June  4,  1824,  and  died 
February  7,   1833. 

(IV)  Dr.    Samuel    Fuller    Dike    was    born    at 
North   Bridgewater   (now   Brockton),   Massachu- 
setts, March  17,  1815,  a  son  of  Samuel  and  Betsy 
(Burrell)    Dike.      He    was    educated    at    Bridge- 
water  and  was  prepared  at  the  schools  there  for 
a  college  course.     He  then  entered  Brown  Uni- 
versity  at    Providence,   Rhode    Island,   where   he 
took    the    usual    classical    course    and    graduated 
with  the  class  of  1838.     It  was  during  this  time 
that  he  came  under  the  influence  of  Swedenborg 
and  became  an  ardent  disciple  of  that  great  man's 
religious    teachings.      He    decided    to    enter    the 
church,   and   soon   after  leaving  college  went  to 
Boston,    to   study   theology   under   the    Rev.    Dr. 
Thomas   Worcester.     He   was   ordained   June    7, 
1840,    as    minister    of    the    Church    of    the    New 
Jerusalem  and  was  invited  shortly  after  by  Wil- 


liam D.  Sewell,  of  Bath,  to  become  the  resident 
pastor  of  the  new  church  which  had  been  erected 
by  the  Society  of  Swedenborgians  of  this  place. 
This  offer  he  accepted  and  on  June  13,  1840,  he- 
was  installed  as  minister  here.  For  a  period  of 
mor»  than  fifty  years  Dr.  Dike  had  ministered 
to  the  spiritual  wants  of  his  congregation  with  a 
zeal  which  endeared  him  to  the  people  of  Bath 
generally,  and  made  him  one  of  the  most  highly- 
respected  figures  in  this  community.  On  June 
2,  1800,  he  resigned  from  the  pastorship,  and  in 
consideration  of  his  long  years  of  service,  of  his 
many  sacrifices  and  his  duty  well  done,  he  was 
tendered  by  the  Hon.  Arthur  Sewell,  one  of  the 
leading  members  of  his  parish,  the  opportunity 
of  a  trip  around  the  world.  This  Dr.  Dike  ac- 
cepted, and  for  a  year  was  absent  on  his  travels, 
enjoying  keenly  the  many  places  of  interest 
which  he  visited  during  that  time,  in  spite  of 
his  seventy-six  years  of  age.  It  was  not  th« 
first  trip  abroad  made  by  Dr.  Dike,  however,  who 
in  1880  traveled  in  Egypt  and  Asia  Minor,  going 
as  far  East  as  the  city  of  Damascus,  his  object 
in  doing  so  being  to  fit  himself  thoroughly  for 
the  Professorship  of  Biblical  and  Ecclesiastical 
History  at  the  Theological  School  at  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts,  of  the  Church  of  the  New  Jeru- 
salem, which  chair  had  been  offered  him  at  about 
that  time.  He  acted  as  president  for  a  short 
time,  but  for  many  years  was  Professor  of 
Church  History.  Another  great  honor  offered  to- 
Dr.  Dike  on  account  of  his  great  intellectual 
and  spiritual  attainments  was  that  of  being  sent 
as  a  delegate  in  the  Peace  Congress,  held  at 
London,  July,  1890,  which,  however,  he  felt  him- 
self unable  to  accept. 

The  city  of  Bath  owes  much  to  Dr.  Dike  for 
the  great  interest  which  he  took  in  her  schools 
and  educational  institutions.  From  the  time  of 
his  first  coming  here  until  his  death  this  interest 
remained  unbroken,  and  as  early  as  1841,  at  the 
time  when  the  grade  schools  were  first  intro- 
duced here,  he  accepted  the  offer  of  superin- 
tendent, a  post  which  he  continued  to  fill  with 
the  utmost  efficiency  for  twenty-four  years.  His 
resignation  from  this  office  did  not  by  any  means 
end  his  activities  in  this  connection  and  he  con- 
tinued to  give  much  of  his  time  and  thought,  not 
only  to  the  schools  of  Bath,  but  to  those  of  the 
community  generally,  and  his  efforts  were  one 
of  the  chief  factors  in  bringing  them  to  their 
present  high  standard  of  efficiency.  For  twelve 
years  he  was  also  a  trustee  of  the  Maine  State 
College,  and  his  influence  in  that  institution  was 
an  exceedingly  valuable  one.  In  fact  he  was  one 
of  the  four  who  organized  this  institution.  It 


68 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


was  from  Bowdoin  College  that  Dr.  Dike  re- 
ceived his  degree  of  D.D.  in  1872,  an  honor 
which  no  one  among  the  great  divines  of  that 
time  deserved  more  entirely  than  he,  and  for 
many  years  he  served  on  its  examining  board. 
Dr.  Dike  was  a  member  of  the  Maine  Historical 
Society,  and  served  as  vice-president  thereof  for 
a  number  of  years,  his  interest  in  the  history  and 
traditions  of  this  region  being  always  very  keen. 
No  man  during  his  generation  was  better  known 
nor  more  respected  and  loved  by  all  classes  of 
his  fellow-townsmen  than  was  Dr.  Dike.  He  was 
a  ripe  scholar  and  all  his  life  was  a  close  student. 
His  life  was  not  lived  in  vain,  but,  like  Paul  of 
old,  he  fought  the  good  fight  and  kept  the  faith, 
and  at  his  death  left  a  name  unsullied  and  most 
worthy  of  emulation.  His  death  occurred  at  his 
home  at  Bath,  January  8,  1899,  at  the  advanced 
age  of  eighty-four,  and  he  was  buried  in  Oak 
Grove  Cemetery  here. 

Dr.  Dike  was  united  in  marriage,  April  10, 
1842,  at  Boston,  with  Miriam  Worcester,  a  daugh- 
ter of  his  old  teacher,  Rev.  Dr.  Thomas  Worces- 
ter, a  graduate  of  Cambridge,  where  he  received 
the  degree  of  D.D.,  who  for  more  than  fifty 
years  was  minister  of  the  Church  of  the  New 
Jerusalem  at  that  city,  and  one  of  the  best- 
known  divines  of  New  England  in  his  day  and 
generation.  Mrs.  Dike  died  February  20,  1895, 
and  is  also  buried  at  Oak  Grove  Cemetery.  She 
was  a  woman  of  unusually  high  culture  and  of 
the  most  refined  taste,  and  was  most  devoted  to 
her  husband  and  family,  making  the  Dike  home 
one  of  the  most  delightful  in  the  city  and  giving 
it  an  atmosphere  in  which  their  children  found 
the  greatest  encouragement  in  the  development 
of  all  good  things.  Dr.  Dike  and  his  wife  were 
the  parents  of  the  following  children:  Eliza- 
beth, born  March  22,  1843,  and  now  the  widow 
of  the  Hon.  John  Hazen  Kimball,  who  is  men- 
tioned below;  Alice  Loring,  born  May  19,  1844, 
died  April  4,  1845;  Samuel  Ernest,  born  October 
10,  1846,  died  July  6,  1861;  James,  born  June  27, 
1848,  was  a  well-known  educator  of  Boston,  who 
died  at  Greensbury,  November  26,  1889,  married 
Helen  J.  Loring;  Katherine,  born  March  31,  1850, 
and  died  August  18,  1850;  Helen,  born  January  31, 
1852,  and  now  the  widow  of  Albert  Edward 
Hooper,  of  Biddeford,  Maine;  Mary,  born  August 
19,  1853,  and  died  September  8,  1853;  Anna,  born 
January  16,  1855,  and  now  the  widow  of  Edward 
H.  Kimball,  who  is  mentioned  at  length  below; 
John,  born  December  27,  1856,  a  well-known 
physician  of  Melrose,  Massachusetts;  Miriam 
Worcester,  born  February  22,  1861,  and  now  the 
wife  of  the  Rev.  George  H.  Dole,  of  Wilming- 


ton,   Delaware;    Thomas,    born    June    2,    1865,    a 
physician,  who  died  April   17,  1909. 


HON.  JOHN  HAZEN  KIMBALL,  one  of  the 
prominent    lawyers   and   business    men    of    Bath, 
Maine,  was  a  native  of  New  Hampshire,  born  at 
Concord,  July  14,  1823,  a  son  of  Samuel  Ayer  and 
Eliza  (Hazen)   Kimball.     He  received  his  educa- 
tion at  the  schools  of  his  native  place  and  at  the 
Fryeburg  Academy  at  Fryeburg,  Maine.     He  also 
attended    the    well-known    Phillips    Academy    at 
Andover,    Massachusetts,    and    after    graduation 
from    that   institution   went   South,   in    1843,   and 
for    two    years    taught    in    a    school    in    Charles 
county,    Maryland.      He    also    spent    part    of   his 
time  in  the  South  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  but  in 
1845   returned   to  the   North   and   located  in   the 
city  of  Portland,  where  he  entered  the  law  office 
of  Judge  Samuel  Wells  and  there  read  law.     He 
pursued   his   studies   to   such   good   purpose    that 
in  1846  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Cumber- 
land county,  after  which  he  took  up  the  practice 
of  his  chosen  profession  at  Kezar  Falls  Mills,  at 
Parsonsfield.     He  spent  two  years  in  that  region 
and   then   removed  to  Topsham,   in    1848,  where 
he    also   practised   for   a   year.      It   was   in    1849 
that  he  came  to   Bath  and  resided  in  this   city 
during  the  remainder  of  his  life,  making  for  him- 
self a  very  prominent  position  at  the  local  bar 
and    handling   much    of   the    important   litigation 
hereabouts.      Eventually,   however,    Mr.    Kimball 
gave    up    the    practice    of    the    law    to    a    certain 
extent    and    entered    the    insurance    business,    at 
the  same  time  becoming  interested  in  the  build- 
ing and   operating  of  ships.     He  was  a  man   of 
unusual  business  capacity  and  his  interests  rapidly 
extended   themselves.     Another   line   with   which 
he  was  associated  was  that  of  railroads  and  he 
was  a  director   of   the   Androscoggin   &   Central 
Vermont  Railroad.      He  also  possessed  large  in- 
terests in  the  West,  owning  great  tracts  of  land 
and  valuable  herds  of  cattle.     He  gave  his  prin- 
cipal attention,  however,  to   the  development  of 
Bath  and  was  associated  with  a  large  number  of 
important  institutions  here,  being  a  trustee  of  the 
Bath    Savings    Institution    for    twenty-five    years. 
In  politics  Mr.   Kimball  was  a  staunch   Republi- 
can   and    was    very    active    in    the    affairs    of   his 
party  in  the  State.     He  was  elected  on  the  Re- 
publican ticket  to  the  State   Legislature   in   1878 
and   served  in  that  and  the   following  year,  and 
he  was  a  member  of  the  State  Senate  from  1883 
to  1887.     In  his  religious  belief  Mr.  Kimball  was 
a  Congregationalist  and  attended  the  church  of 
that  denomination  in   Bath.     His  death  occurred 
September  25,  1901,  at  his  home  here,  and  he  is 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


buried  at  the  Oak  Grove  Cemetery.  Mr.  Kimball 
enjoyed  a  wide  popularity  and  was  well  known 
throughout  the  region  on  account  of  his  high 
principles  in  business  and  politics. 

John  Hazen  Kimball  married  (first),  November 
5,  1851,  with  Annie  Humphreys,  born  November 
19,  1828,  and  died  December  n,  1890,  a  daughter 
of  John  Campbell  and  Angeline  (Whitmore) 
Humphreys.  They  were  the  parents  of  the  fol- 
lowing children:  Edward  Hazen,  mentioned  be- 
low; Samuel  Ayer,  Jr.,  born  August  28,  1857,  and 
now  a  physician  in  Boston;  and  Frederick 
Humphreys,  born  February  25,  1861,  and  died 
May  14,  1918;  John  McKinstry,  born  November 
14,  1863,  at  Colton,  Maine,  died  in  August,  1902; 
and  Carrie  Whitmore,  born  December  13,  1865. 
John  Hazen  Kimball  married  (second)  Elizabeth 
Dike,  eldest  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Samuel 
Fuller  Dike,  who  survives  him,  and  makes  her 
home  at  present  at  Bath,  where  she  is  well- 
known  and  much-respected  as  a  woman  of  cul- 
ture and  high  Christian  character. 


New  York  City;  Miriam  Worcester,  born  July  8, 
1890,  who  resides  with  her  mother.  The  family 
are  all  members  of  the  Church  of  the  New  Jeru- 
salem at  Bath,  over  which  Dr.  Dike  presided  for 
so  many  years. 


EDWARD  HAZEN  KIMBALL,  son  of  John 
Hazen  Kimball,  was  born  August  24,  1854,  at 
Bath,  and  was  educated  at  the  local  public  school, 
the  Phillips  Andover  Academy,  and  at  Bowdoin 
College,  Brunswick,  Maine,  from  which  he  grad- 
uated in  1874,  then  went  to  Europe  and  studied 
for  one  year.  He  then  attended  the  Harvard  Law 
School  for  a  year,  graduating  from  the  same  in 
1875.  He  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  at 
Boston,  where  he  remained  for  some  time,  and 
then  returned  to  Maine.  For  a  year  he  was  en- 
gaged in  the  coal  business  at  Lewiston,  after 
which  he  came  to  Bath  and  established  himself  in 
the  wholesale  grain,  flour  and  hay  business.  To 
this  he  added  a  grocery  establishment  and  took 
into  partnership  with  him  his  brother,  Frederick 
H.  This  association  continued  until  the  death  of 
Mr.  Kimball,  May  24,  1902.  Edward  Hazen  Kim- 
ball was  a  Republican  in  politics  and  was  well 
known  and  highly  respected  throughout  the 
region. 

Edward  Hazen  Kimball  married,  June  13,  1883, 
Anna  Dike,  a  daughter  of  the  late  Rev.  Dr. 
Samuel  Fuller  Dike,  who  survives  him.  Mrs. 
Kimball  is  a  lady  of  many  gifts  and  high  culture, 
and  now  resides  with  her  sister,  Mrs.  John  Hazen 
Kimball,  on  Lincoln  street,  Bath,  in  the  home  of 
their  late  father.  Dr.  Dike.  Mr.  Edward  Hazen 
Kimball  and  his  wife  were  the  parents  of  the 
following  children:  Anne,  born  April  6,  1884, 
and  resides  with  her  mother;  Philipps,  born  Feb- 
ruary 20,  1886,  now  a  prominent  business  man  of 


ABRAHAM  L.  T.  CUMMINGS,  agricultural 
editor  of  the  University  of  Maine,  to  which  office 
he  was  appointed  by  President  Aley  of  that  insti- 
tution in  February,  1919,  was  born  in  Saco,  Maine, 
February  13,  1865.  He  was  the  second  son  of 
John  G.  Cummings,  a  native  of  Parkman,  Maine, 
and  Theodore  Tasker,  who  was  born  in  Ossipee, 
New  Hampshire.  John  G.  Cummings  served  in 
the  Civil  War  as  a  private  in  Company  I,  First 
Maine  Cavalry,  was  twice  wounded,  twice  taken 
prisoner,  and  had  the  never-to-be-forgotten  ex- 
perience of  confinement  in  Belle  Isle  and  Libby 
Prison.  The  sons  and  daughters  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Cummings  included:  Jennie  L.,  who  died  at 
the  age  of  twenty;  John  E.,  who  was  graduated 
from  Colby  College  and  the  Newton  Theological 
Institution;  since  1887  has  been  in  charge  of  a 
Baptist  mission  district  in  Burmah,  and  has  been 
decorated  by  the  King  of  England  for  distin- 
guished service;  Abraham  L.  T.,  the  subject  of 
this  sketch;  Isabel  M.,  who  was  graduated  from 
Farmington  (Maine)  Normal  School,  became  the 
wife  of  Samuel  W.  Buker,  of  Somerville,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  died  in  1908;  Lora  G.,  an  alumnus 
of  Colby  College,  now  the  wife  of  Edgar  P. 
Neal,  principal  of  a  trade  school  in  Worcester, 
Massachusetts;  Gertrude  F.,  an  alumnus  of 
Thornton  Academy,  the  wife  of  Mark  Proctor, 
of  Saco. 

Owing  to  the  death  of  his  father,  Abraham  L. 
T.  Cummings  was  unable  to  attend  college,  which 
he  had  planned  to  do  after  leaving  Thornton 
Academy.  He  engaged  in  newspaper  work  in 
Biddeford,  first  as  a  reporter,  later  as  city  editor 
and  finally  as  editor  of  a  daily  paper.  In  1894 
he  served  as  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Aldermen 
in  Biddeford.  In  the  fall  of  that  year  he  estab- 
lished headquarters  in  Portland  and  represented 
the  "Boston  Herald"  as  correspondent  in  the 
three  western  counties  of  Maine.  He  also  cov- 
ered a  syndicate  of  other  newspapers  in  that  field 
and  became  a  contributor  to  magazines.  In  con- 
nection with  his  newspaper  work  in  Portland  he 
served  five  years  as  a  deputy  collector  of  inter- 
nal revenue  for  Maine,  and  five  years  as  clerk  of 
the  Portland  Common  Council.  He  was  city 
clerk  of  Portland  three  years,  and  in  1910  became 
connected  with  the  E.  T.  Burrowes  Company, 
manufacturers  of  window  screens  and  novelties, 
occupying  a  position  in  the  treasurer's  and  sales 


70 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


management  force  until  1916,  when  he  was  elected 
secretary  of  the  Publicity  and  Retail  Merchants' 
bureaus  of  the  Portland  Chamber  of  Commerce. 
The  State  Agricultural  and  Industrial  League, 
organized  in  December,  1917,  elected  him  the  fol- 
lowing spring  as  its  publicity  director,  from  which 
position  he  went  to  the  University  of  Maine,  in 
1919.  Mr.  Cumrhings  is  connected  with  the  Odd 
Fellows  and  Knights  of  Pythias,  is  a  Knight 
Templar  and  a  thirty-second  degree  Mason. 
While  city  clerk  he  served  two  years  in  the  Na- 
tional Guard.  He  was  for  twenty  years  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Portland  Club  and  served  that  organ- 
ization four  years  as  a  member  of  its  board  of 
governors,  the  last  year  as  chairman  of  the  board. 
He  took  an  active  part  in  the  Portland  Rotary 
Club,  serving  one  year  as  chairman  of  its  enter- 
tainment committee. 

September  3,  1889,  Mr.  Cummings  married 
Angle  F.  Morton,  a  native  of  Biddeford,  daughter 
of  Charles  J.  and  Susan  (York)  Morton.  She 
was  graduated  from  the  Biddeford  High  School. 
During  their  residence  in  Biddeford  and  Portland 
she  was  prominent  in  social  affairs  and  active  in 
literary  and  philanthropic  lines.  At  the  time  of, 
her  leaving  Portland,  when  Mr.  Cummings  be- 
came connected  with  the  faculty  of  the  University 
of  Maine,  she  was  serving  as  auditor,  and  had 
previously  been  corresponding  secretary,  of  the 
Woman's  Literary  Union. 


JAMES  PHINNEY  BAXTER— Undoubtedly 
one  of  the  most  prominent  figures  in  the  life  of 
Portland,  Maine,  is  James  Phinney  Baxter,  who 
is  equally  well  known  as  an  author,  manufacturer 
and  popular  public  official.  Mr.  Baxter  springs 
from  good  old  New  England  stock,  and  was  born 
at  Gorham,  Maine,  March  23,  1831,  a  son  of  Dr. 
Elihu  and  Sarah  (Cone)  Baxter.  His  father,  Dr. 
Elihu  Baxter,  was  a  prominent  physician  in  that 
part  of  the  State  and  continued  in  the  active 
practice  of  his  profession  until  past  eighty  years 
of  age. 

To  acquire  a  thorough  education,  James  P. 
Baxter  attended,  first,  the  local  schools  of  Port- 
land, and  later  the  famous  Lynn  Academy.  Hav- 
ing completed  his  studies  at  the  latter  institution, 
the  young  man  finished  the  studies  he  had  so 
promisingly  begun  under  private  tutors.  It  was 
planned  that  he  should  take  up  the  law  as  a 
profession,  but  preferring  a  literary  career,  he 
became  a  contributor  to  the  "Home  Journal,"  then 
under  the  editorship  of  N.  P.  Willis  and  George 
P.  Morris — leading  literary  lights  of  the  day — 
and  several  magazines  and  literary  newspapers. 
After  encouraging  success  in  this  field,  finding  the 


remuneration  for  literary  work  unsatisfactory,  he 
relinquished  a  portion  of  it,  and  securing  the 
agency  of  several  manufacturing  industries  he 
soon  built  up  a  successful  business;  in  fact,  his 
capacity  for  organization  and  the  management  of 
the  mercantile  and  industrial  enterprises  under- 
taken by  him  have  proven  uniformly  successful. 
Mr.  Baxter  has  become  connected  with  many 
institutions  of  a  financial  character  in  Portland, 
serving  as  president  of  the  Portland  Savings 
Bank,  the  Merchants'  Bank,  vice-president  of 
the  Portland  Trust  Company,  and  many  other 
institutions.  There  are  very  few -departments  in 
the  life  of  the  city  with  which  he  is  not  more 
or  less  closely  connected,  and  among  these  should 
be  especially  mentioned  such  movements  as  are 
undertaken  for  the  general  advantage  of  the  com- 
munity and  the  assistance  of  those  unable  to  care 
adequately  for  themselves.  Indeed  it  was  he  who 
organized  and  was  the  first  president  of  the  As- 
sociated Charities  of  Portland.  Mr.  Baxter  has 
been  deeply  interested  in  education,  and  it  is 
owing  to  his  generosity  that  the  present  hand- 
some building  in  which  the  Portland  Public 
Library  is  located  graces  the  city  today.  It  was 
he  who  built  and  donated  it  to  the  community 
and  it  is  due  to  him  that  the  library  of  the 
Maine  Historical  Society,  of  which  he  is  presi- 
dent, was  moved  from  its  restricted  quarters  in 
Brunswick  and  furnished  with  convenient  quar- 
ters in  Portland.  A  figure  so  energetic  as  that 
of  Mr.  Baxter,  and  one  who  has  bent  his  ener- 
gies so  consistently  to  the  welfare  of  his  city, 
is  naturally  popular  there,  and  this  popularity 
has  been  vividly  illustrated  by  the  honor  which 
his  fellow  citizens  have  done  him  in  electing  him 
mayor  of  Portland  for  six  terms,  four  of  which 
were  consecutive.  Among  the  achievements  of 
his  administrations  was  the  establishment  of  a 
public  Manual  Training  School,  for  which  he  is 
doubly  responsible,  inasmuch  as  he  not  only 
suggested  and  pressed  its  establishment,  but 
actually  contributed  his  salary  as  mayor  for  this 
purpose.  During  his  administration  there  was 
also  built  a  new  high  school  and  a  State  armory, 
while  the  public  parks  of  the  city  were  immeas- 
urably improved  and  beautified.  Among  other 
things  to  which  Mayor  Baxter  has  devoted  at- 
tention is  agriculture  and  stock  raising,  for  the 
perfection  of  which  he  has  given  a  great  deal 
of  study  to  farming  methods,  particularly  in 
Europe.  A  great  deal  of  his  time  is  at  present 
spent  on  his  farm  at  Mackworth  Island,  which 
he  has  connected  with  the  main  land  by  a  bridge. 
The  greatest  interest  of  Mr.  Baxter's  life,  how- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


71 


ever,   has   been    literature   and   this   he   has   been 
able  to  follow  to  a  remarkable  degree,  consider- 
ing the  many  demands  made  upon  his  time  and 
attention   by   his  active   business   life   and   public 
career.      He    has    written    much    upon    historical 
and  genealogical  topics  and  has  had  thirteen  pub- 
lications   reported    in    the    annual    report    of    the 
American  Historical  Association  for  the  year  1890. 
In  the  year  1898  he  was  chosen  to  lecture  before 
the  American  Geographical  Society  in  Washington, 
on  New  England.    In  1882  the  Maine  Historical  So- 
ciety celebrated  the   seventy-fifth  anniversary  of 
the  birth  of  Longfellow  and  the  choice  fell  upon 
Mr.  Baxter  to  deliver  the  commemorative  poem 
on  this  occasion.     He  was  appointed  one  of  the 
advisory  council  of  the  World's  Congress  Auxil- 
iary  to   the    World's    Columbia   Exposition,   and 
read   a   paper  before   the   Historical   Association 
gathered  in  Chicago  at  that  time,  entitled  "Pre- 
Columbian  Discovery."     The  following  is  an  in- 
complete  list   of   his   important   contributions   to 
contemporary  literature,  which  have  entitled  him 
to  be   considered  as  among  the  most  important 
literary  workers  in  the  State:    "Laus  Laureati," 
a    poem    delivered   before    the    Maine    Historical 
Society   on    the    Longfellow   celebration,   already 
mentioned   (Portland,  1882);  "A  Greeting  to  the 
Mentor,"  a  poem  delivered  on  the  eightieth  birth- 
day   of    Professor    Packard,    Longfellow's    tutor 
(Portland,  1883,  reprinted  in  the  Maine  Historical 
Quarterly,  1800);  "The  Great  Seal  of  New  Eng- 
land"   (Cambridge,   1884);   "Idyls   of   the   Year." 
"The    Trelawyn    Papers,"    "George    Cleeve    and 
his    Times,"    "The    British    Invasion    from    the 
North,"  "Early  Voyages  to  America,"  "Sir  Ferdi- 
nando    Gorges    and    His    Province    of    Maine," 
"Reminiscences    of   a   Great    Enterprise"    (1890); 
"The     Campaign     Against     the     Pequakets;     Its 
Causes  and  Its  Results"  (1890);  "The  Beginnings 
of  Maine"   (1891);  "A  Lost  Manuscript"   (1891); 
"Isaac  Jogues,  A.D.,  1636"  (1891);  "The  Abnakis 
and  Their  Ethnic   Relations"   (1892);   "The   Pio- 
neers of  New  France  and  New  England"  (1893); 
"Christopher  Levett,  and  His  Voyage  to  Casco 
Bay,  in   1623"   (1894);  "The  Voyages  of  Jacques 
Cartier."      His    last    considerable    work    is    "The 
Greatest  of  Literary  Problems,"  and  the  "Docu- 
mentary History  of  Maine,"  twenty  volumes. 

Mr.  Baxter  organized  the  Portland  Society  of 
Art,  started  the  first  Art  School  in  Portland,  and 
encouraged  it  by  becoming  a  pupil  himself 
drawing  from  the  model.  He  organized  the 
Gorges  Publication  Society  which  has  published 
several  valuable  historical  works  and  also  built 
and  gave  to  Gorham  its  Public  Library  and  Mu- 


seum, the  latter  occupying  the  house  where  he 
was  born.  In  the  year  1881  he  received  the 
honorary  degree  of  A.M.  from  Bowdoin  College, 
and  in  1904  the  degree  of  Litt.  D.  as  a  fitting 
recognition  of  his  labors  in  the  field  of  lit- 
erature and  general  culture.  Perhaps  Mr.  Bax- 
ter's most  important  and  most  lasting  work 
is  the  boulevard  around  Back  Bay,  connecting 
the  public  parks  of  Portland.  This  great  work 
was  begun  in  1896  during  his  administration  as 
mayor,  and  the  substantial  part  of  the  work  has 
already  been  completed.  During  its  progress 
he  has  acted  in  an  advisory  capacity,  and  re- 
cently had  the  satisfaction  of  being  the  first  one 
to  pass  over  the  entire  boulevard  at  the  invita- 
tion of  the  commissioners. 

Mr.  Baxter  has  been  twice  married,  his  first 
wife  having  been  Sarah  K.  Lewis,  a  daughter  of 
Captain  Ansel  Lewis,  of  Portland,  Maine,  to 
whom  he  was  united  September  18,  1854.  His 
second  marriage  was  April  2,  1872,  to  Mehetable 
Cummings,  a  daughter  of  Abel  Proctor,  of  Pea- 
body,  Massachusetts.  Mr.  Baxter  has  had  a 
family  of  eleven  children,  eight  of  whom  are 
now  living. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  overestimate  the  value 
to  a  community  of  the  presence  in  it  of  a  man 
like  Mr.  Baxter.  There  is  scarcely  a  department 
in  its  affairs,  an  aspect  of  its  life,  in  which  his 
influence  has  not  been  most  potently  felt,  and 
felt  invariably  on  the  side  of  the  public  good. 
He  is  a  practical  man  of  affairs,  a  man  of  the 
world,  yet  never  in  seeking  his  own  business 
advantage  did  he  lose  sight  of  that  of  the  com- 
munity of  which  he  is  a  member.  Nay,  rather 
has  he  given  the  preference  to  public  interests 
over  his  own,  and  in  the  many  official  capacities 
in  which  he  served  these  interests,  no  one  ever 
accused  him,  even  among  his  political  opponents, 
of  having  anything  but  the  purest  and  most  altru- 
istic motives.  The  same  high  ideals  that  govern 
his  public  capacities  are  also  his  guide  in  the 
more  personal  relations  of  life,  and  he  is  the 
possessor  of  these  great  blessings,  a  loving 
family  and  a  host  of  devoted  friends. 


SEWALL  GUSHING  STROUT,  Associate 
Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Maine,  and  one 
of  the  most  eminent  jurists  which  this  State 
has  produced,  and  a  man  of  the  highest  mental 
and  moral  qualifications,  whose  death  on  August 
10,  1914,  at  Portland,  was  felt  as  a  severe  loss, 
not  only  by  his  associates  of  the  bench  and  bar, 
but  by  the  entire  State,  was  a  member  of  a 
family  which  has  for  many  years  made  its 


72 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


residence  here.  He  was  a  grandson  of  Enoch 
Strout,  a  native  of  Cape  Elizabeth,  Maine,  who 
went  from  that  place  and  settled  at  Wales,  Maine, 
in  1796-97.  Enoch  Strout  was  an  officer  in  the 
Continental  army  during  the  Revolution  and  ob- 
tained the  rank  of  captain,  having  already  served 
as  captain  of  militia  at  Wales.  He  married  Mercy 
C.  Small,  and  they  were  the  parents  of  ten  chil- 
dren, six  of  whom  were  born  in  Cape  Elizabeth 
and  four  in  Wales.  One  of  these  children,  Ebe- 
nezer,  the  youngest  of  the  family,  was  born  at 
the  latter  place  in  the  year  1802,  and  continued 
to  make  his  home  there  until  about  1836,  when 
he  removed  to  Topsham,  Maine.  In  1841  he  came 
to  Portland  and  there  resided  until  his  death,  in 
1880.  He  was  engaged  in  mercantile  business  at 
Topsham,  Maine,  until  1842,  and  met  with  a  high 
degree  of  success;  he  then  moved  to  Portland. 
He  married  Hannah  Gushing,  of  Durham,  and 
they  had  but  one  child,  Sewall  Gushing  Strout, 
with  whose  career  we  are  here  especially  con- 
cerned. 

Sewall  Gushing  Strout,  only  son  of  Ebenezer 
and  Hannah  (Gushing)  Strout,  was  born  Feb- 
ruary 17,  1827,  at  Wales,  Androscoggin  county, 
Maine.  In  the  year  1834,  being  at  that  time 
about  seven  years  of  age,  he  removed  with  his 
parents  to  Topsham,  and  it  was  there  that  he 
attended  school.  Later  he  was  sent  to  the  pri- 
vate school  of  Mr.  Baker  at  Brunswick,  but  in 
1842  his  parents  came  to  Portland  and  the  lad 
entered  the  high  school  in  this  city.  His  father 
had  determined  to  give  him  a  college  education 
from  the  start  and  it  was  at  the  Master  Libby's 
High  School  that  he  was  prepared  for  these  fur- 
ther studies.  But  fate  often  intervenes  in  the 
most  cherished  plans,  and  the  youth  was  obliged 
to  give  up  his  studies  on  account  of  ill  health. 
After  leaving  school  he  secured  a  position  as  a 
clerk  in  the  dry  goods  establishment  of  David 
J.  True,  with  whom  he  remained  for  about 
eighteen  months.  The  young  man  was  exceed- 
ingly ambitious,  and  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  his 
health  was  not  robust  he  devoted  every  spare 
hour  when  he  was  not  employed  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  Mr.  True  to  the  study  of  the  law, 
he  having  determined  to  adopt  that  as  his  pro- 
fession in  life.  In  1846  he  gave  up  his  clerical 
position  and  became  a  student  of  the  law  in 
the  offices  of  Howard  &  Shepley,  well-known 
attorneys  in  this  city  at  that  time,  Mr.  Howard 
becoming  later  a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  the  State,  and  mayor  of  Portland  in  1860.  In 
October,  1848,  Mr.  Strout,  having  pursued  his 
studies  most  diligently  in  the  meantime,  was  ad- 


mitted to  the  bar  of  Cumberland  county,  and  im- 
mediately after  took  up  his  abode  at  Bridgeton, 
where  he  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion. He  did  not  remain  at  that  place,  however, 
more  than  six  years,  but  on  April  i,  1854,  returned 
to  Portland,  and  once  more  established  himself 
in  practice.  For  a  year  he  conducted  his  prac- 
tice by  himself  and  then  formed  a  partnership 
with  Judge  Joseph  Howard,  who  had  retired 
from  the  bench  after  one  term.  The  firm  of 
Howard  and  Strout  continued  until  June,  1864, 
when  it  was  dissolved.  Two  years  further  elapsed 
with  Mr.  Strout  unassociated  with  a  partner,  and 
then  the  firm  of  Strout  &  Gage  was  formed,  the 
junior  partner  being  Hanno  W.  Gage,  one  of 
the  most  distinguished  attorneys  of  the  State. 
In  1880  Frederick  Sewall  Strout,  Mr.  Strout's 
eldest  son,  was  also  admitted  to  the  firm,  which 
thereupon  became  Strout,  Gage  &  Strout.  On 
March  14,  1888,  however,  the  younger  Mr.  Strout 
died,  but  a  still  younger  brother,  Charles  Au- 
gustus Strout,  who  is  the  subject  of  extended 
mention  elsewhere  in  this  work,  took  his  place, 
and  the  name  of  the  firm  continued  unchanged. 
With  the  accession  of  Mr.  Strout  to  the  Supreme 
Bench  of  the  State,  the  name  was  once  more 
changed  and  became  Gage  &  Strout,  under  which 
style  it  was  continued  until  the  death  of  Mr. 
Gage,  on  January  4,  1907.  The  record  that  Judge 
Strout  has  made  for  himself  in  this  State  is  an 
enviable  one,  and  what  might  have  been  a 
handicap  to  most  men  was  entirely  made  up  by 
him,  namely,  the  lack  of  a  college  education. 
This  was  made  up  in  his  case  by  his  native  taste 
for  scholarship  and  all  those  various  elements 
of  culture  which  most  men  find  it  hard  to  acquire 
outside  of  a  university's  walls.  To  him  they 
came  naturally  and  it  is  no  exaggeration  to  say 
that  he  was  quite  as  well  educated  as  practically 
any  of  his  associates  at  the  bar  and  far  more  so 
than  the  great  majority.  He  won  for  himself 
a  reputation  for  honesty  and  integrity,  in  addi- 
tion to  that  which  he  possessed  for  ability,  that 
was  second  to  none  in  the  State,  and  which  drew 
to  him  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  most  inv 
portant  litigation  in  this  region,  and  he  has  in 
addition  taken  part  in  many  important  cases 
beyond  the  limits  of  Maine.  Judge  Strout  did 
not,  however,  make  a  specialty  of  any  particu- 
lar department  of  the  law,  but  was  considered 
one  of  the  most  brilliant,  accomplished,  and  ver- 
satile lawyers  in  the  State.  So  great,  indeed, 
was  his  knowledge,  and  so  profound  his  re- 
searches, that  he  might  have  been  supposed  a 
specialist  in  almost  any  branch  of  the  law  with 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


73 


which  he  happened  to  be  dealing.  His  ability 
as  a  trial  lawyer  was  especially  high  and  his 
arguments  before  jury  were  calculated  to  make 
the  most  complex  and  difficult  propositions  of 
the  law  plain  to  the  lay  mind.  He  possessed 
extraordinary  self-control  and  never  allowed  him- 
self to  lose  his  temper  in  the  court  room,  how- 
ever aggrevating  his  opponent  might  be,  and  this 
quality  is  always  particularly  forceful  and  per- 
suasive with  the  jury. 

Judge  Strout  cannot  be  said  to  have  had  a 
definite  political  career.  He  was  a  staunch  Demo- 
crat from  his  earliest  youth  until  the  end  of  his 
life,  but  the  only  purely  political  office  that  he 
ever  held  was  that  of  alderman  of  Portland, 
which  he  filled  for  about  one  year.  But  abilities 
such  as  those  possessed  by  Judge  Strout  were 
of  a  kind  which  the  community  could  not  afford 
to  leave  wholly  in  private  life  and  it  was  natural 
that  they  should  be  called  to  the  public  service. 
At  the  time  of  Judge  Lowell's  resignation  from 
the  United  States  Circuit  Court,  Mr.  Strout's 
professional  colleagues  throughout  the  State 
almost  unanimously  suggested  him  for  the  va- 
cancy, and  although  the  appointment  went  to 
another  State,  Judge  Strout  was  instinctively  felt 
to  be  the  most  appropriate  candidate.  The  State 
of  Maine  has  for  many  years  had  a  rule  requiring 
one  member  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  State 
to  be  one  of  the  minority  party,  and  after  the 
death  of  Artcmas  Libby,  in  March,  1894,  the  first 
Democrat  who  held  this  position  under  the  law, 
Mr.  Strout  was  called  to  succeed  to  the  vacancy. 
He  was  appointed  to  this  high  position  April  12, 
1894,  and  twelve  days  later  began  the  performance 
of  his  duties  in  an  office  which  he  continued  to 
fill  for  fourteen  years.  Not  less  than  his  fame 
as  a  lawyer  was  that  which  he  established  as  a 
judge  during  this  long  period,  and  he  amply 
maintained  the  high  standard  of  judicial  pro- 
cedure for  which  this  court  has  always  stood. 
He  retired  from  the  Supreme  Court  of  Maine  in 
April,  1908,  highly  honored  by  the  whole  pro- 
fession in  the  State  as  well  as  by  the  general 
community.  After  his  retirement  Judge  Strout 
once  more  took  up  the  active  practice  of  his 
profession  in  partnership  with  his  son,  Charles 
A.  Strout,  under  the  firm  name  of  Strout  & 
Strout,  and  continued  thus  engaged  until  within 
a  very  short  time  of  his  death.  He  was  presi- 
dent of  the  Cumberland  Bar  Association. 

Sewall  Gushing  Strout  was  united  in  marriage, 
November  22,  1849,  at  Portland,  Maine,  with 
Octavia  J.  P.  Shaw,  of  Portland,  a  daughter  of 
Elias  and  Eliza  (Philips)  Shaw,  of  this  city,  the 


latter  a  daughter  of  Deacon  John  Philips,  who 
was  the  first  president  of  the  Mechanics'  Asso- 
ciation. They  were  the  parents  of  five  children, 
as  follows:  Anna  Octavia,  Louise  Blanche,  Fred- 
erick Sewall,  Joseph  Howard,  and  Charles  Au- 
gustus, whose  career  forms  the  subject  matter  of 
the  following  sketch. 

The  success  of  Judge  Strout  in  his  chosen 
profession  was  due,  perhaps,  more  than  to  any 
other  factor,  to  the  possession  by  him  of  those 
fundamental  virtues  of  sincerity  and  courage 
which  lay  at  the  base  of  his  character,  as  they 
must  at  that  of  any  character  that  amounts  to 
anything.  His  sincerity  was  of  a  kind  which 
rendered  him  incapable  of  taking  advantage  of 
others,  and  his  courage  kept  him  cheerful  and 
determined  in  the  face  of  all  obstacles.  To  these 
he  added  a  practical  grasp  of  affairs,  and  an  ideal- 
ism which  kept  his  outlook  fresh,  and  his  aims 
pure  and  high-minded.  These  qualities,  it  is 
hardly  necessary  to  point  out,  are  most  valuable 
in  the  profession  of  the  law,  and  indeed  his  work 
both  as  attorney  and  judge  fully  showed  this 
happy  union.  In  all  the  relations  of  his  life,  in 
all  his  associations  with  his  fellows,  these  same 
qualities  stood  out  in  marked  manner  and  gained 
for  him  the  admiration  and  affection  with  all  who 
came  in  contact  with  him,  even  in  the  most 
casual  way.  In  his  family  life  his  conduct  was 
of  the  highest  order,  a  devoted  husband  and 
father,  who  found  his  chief  happiness  in  the 
intimate  intercourse  of  his  own  household  and 
by  his  own  hearthstone. 


CHARLES  AUGUSTUS  STROUT,  one  of  the 
most  active  and  popular  among  the  public  men 
of  Portland,  Maine,  and  a  man  whose  career  has 
shown  an  unusually  high  and  altruistic  regard  for 
the  welfare  of  the  city  which  he  served,  is 
Charles  Augustus  Strout,  youngest  son  of  Judge 
Sewall  Gushing  Strout,  who  is  the  subject  of 
extended  mention  in  sketch  preceding,  and 
of  Octavia  J.  P.  (Shaw)  Strout,  his  wife.  Mr. 
Strout  is  a  member  of  a  very  old  and  distin- 
guished family  in  this  State  and  himself  dis- 
plays the  fine  qualities  of  character  that  have 
marked  his  ancestors  for  many  generations.  Like 
his  father  before  him,  he  is  a  lawyer  by  pro- 
fession, but  he  is  also  intimately  affiliated  with 
the  political  life  of  the  community. 

Born  at  the  old  Strout  home  in  Portland,  July 
12,  1863,  Mr.  Strout  as  a  child  attended  the 
public  schools  of  his  native  city.  A  little  later 
he  entered  the  private  school  of  Cyrus  B.  Varney, 
for  the  purpose  of  preparing  himself  for  college. 


74 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


and  this  being  accomplished,  became  a  pupil  at 
Bowdoin  College.  This  was  in  the  year  1881, 
and  he  was  just  beginning  what  promised  to  be 
a  brilliant  career  when  he  met  with  an  unfor- 
tunate accident  from  a  party  of  hazers,  which 
so  badly  injured  his  eye  that  he  was  unable  to 
continue  his  course.  Later,  having  somewhat 
recovered,  he  entered  the  law  office  of  Strout, 
Gage  &  Strout,  of  which  his  father  was  the  senior 
partner,  and  there  studied  for  the  legal  profes- 
sion to  such  good  purpose  that  he  was  admitted 
to  the  bar,  April  25,  1885.  For  a  time  after  his 
admission  to  the  bar  he  practised  law  by  him- 
self in  Portland,  but  on  the  death  of  his  brother, 
Frederick  S.  Strout,  he  succeeded  him  as  a 
member  of  his  father's  firm.  Upon  the  elevation 
of  Justice  Strout  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
State,  this  firm  became  Gage  &  Strout,  under 
which  form  it  continued  to  practice  until  January 
4,  1907,  when  it  was  dissolved  by  the  retirement 
of  Mr.  Gage.  For  a  time  Mr.  Strout  practised 
alone  once  more,  but  in  1908  was  joined  by  his 
father,  who  had  resigned  from  the  Supreme 
Court  in  that  year.  During  the  time  of  this 
association,  the  firm  was  known  as  Strout  & 
Strout,  but  after  the  death  of  the  elder  member, 
in  1914,  Mr.  Strout  once  more  began  practice 
by  himself  and  has  continued  actively  engaged  in 
this  manner  up  to  the  present  time.  The  tradi- 
tions of  this  old  firm,  which  was  founded  more 
than  fifty  years  ago,  and  which  for  so  long  has 
held  a  very  prominent  place  in  the  legal  profes- 
sion here,  have  been  fully  maintained  by  the 
present  Mr.  Strout,  through  whose  office  a  large 
amount  of  very  important  litigation  passes,  and 
who  has  bhown  himself  to  be  a  brilliant  and 
capable  attorney  in  more  than  one  of  the  great 
legal  battles  of  the  State.  Mr.  Strout  has  been 
for  many  years  an  active  member  of  the  Re- 
publican party,  and  has  always  taken  an  interest 
in  the  affairs  of  his  native  city.  He  is,  indeed, 
one  of  the  most  conspicuous  figures  in  the  polit- 
ical and  public  life  of  this  place  and  may  be 
said  to  find  much  recreation  in  his  activity. 
He  has  held  a  number  of  important  municipal 
positions,  was  a  member  of  the  Common  Council 
in  1890-91,  and  during  the  latter  year  was  presi- 
dent of  that  body.  In  1893  he  was  elected  alder- 
man from  the  Sixth  Ward  and  served  in  that 
capacity  during  one  term.  He  was  elected  city 
solicitor  in  1900,  an  office  which  he  held  for  three 
terms,  and  during  his  tenure,  proved  himself  a 
most  capable  and  public-spirited  official.  Mr. 
Strout  is  also  prominent  in  the  social  and  fra- 
ternal world  hereabouts  and  is  a  member  of  a 


number  of  orders  and  other  organizations  of 
similar  character,  including  the  Masonic  order 
in  which  he  holds  the  thirty-second  degree; 
Ivanhoe  Lodge,  No.  25,  Knights  of  Pythias,  and 
Lodge  No.  188,  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order 
of  Elks ;  and  Samoset  Lodge,  Independent  Order 
of  Red  Men.  He  is  also  a  member  of  the  Cum- 
berland, the  Portland  Athletic,  the  Portland,  the 
Lincoln,  and  the  Portland  Country  clubs,  and  is 
president  of  the  Portland  group  of  the  Alliance 
Francaise. 

Charles  Augustus  Strout  was  united  in  mar- 
riage, June  7,  1893,  at  Portland,  Maine,  with 
Jennie  May  Higgins,  of  this  city,  a  daughter  of 
Micah  and  Mary  Ann  (Whitney)  "Higgins,  old 
and  highly  respected  residents  here.  To  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Strout  one  child  has  been  born,  Sewall 
Gushing  (2),  born  March  21,  1894,  a  graduate  of 
Phillips  Academy,  at  Exeter,  New  Hampshire, 
and  for  one  year  a  student  in  the  Boston  Uni- 
versity Law  School.  He  enlisted  in  the  United 
States  Army  in  June,  1917,  and  the  following  Jan- 
uary entered  the  third  Officers'  Training  Camp 
at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Georgia.  He  joined  the 
American  Expeditionary  Force  in  France  in 
April,  1918,  attended  the  artillery  schools  at 
Saumur  and  Angers,  France,  and  in  November 
was  commissioned  first  lieutenant  in  coasl  artil- 
lery, becoming  adjutant  of  the  First  Battalion, 
Fifty-second  Regiment,  Coast  Artillery  Corps. 
He  saw  active  service  with  his  regiment,  and  was 
honorably  discharged  from  the  United  States 
Army  upon  his  return  to  the  United  States  in 
January,  1919. 


LLEWELLYN  POWERS,  Lawyer,  Governor, 
Congressman — that  Llewellyn  Powers  was  elected 
by  a  majority  larger  than  ever  given  a  candidate 
for  governor  of  Maine,  that  he  was  elected  and 
then  sent  to  Congress  four  successive  terms,  is 
the  best  proof  that  he  enjoyed  the  perfect  confi- 
dence of  the  people  of  the  State  in  which  his 
life  was  spent.  It  was  said  of  him  that  he  was 
more  widely  and  intimately  known  to  the  people 
of  Maine  than  any  man  who  had  appeared  in 
the  public  life  of  the  State  during  the  forty  years 
preceding  his  death.  His  administration  as  gov- 
ernor was  one  of  the  best  that  has  ever  been 
given  the  State  of  Maine.  He  gave  to  the  office 
the  same  careful  oversight  that  marked  his  pri- 
vate business  and  stood  as  a  rock  against  needless 
expenditures.  He  refused  to  call  an  extra  ses- 
sion of  the  Legislature  to  appropriate  money  to 
equip  and  provide  a  Maine  regiment  during  the 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


75 


early  Spanish-American  War,  but  when  funds 
were  necessary  he  personally  advanced  the  large 
sum  of  money  required,  trusting  to  the  next  Leg- 
islature to  reimburse  him,  which  they  did.  His 
career  in  the  National  House  of  Representatives 
was  marked  by  conservatism  and  sound  business 
judgment  in  all  matters  in  which  he  took  part, 
and  on  account  of  his  long  experience  in  financial 
and  legal  matters  he  was  always  listened  to  with 
much  attention  and  interest  on  pending  questions 
relating  to  banking  and  currency,  and  his  fair- 
ness and  courtesy  in  debate  won  him  many 
friends  on  both  sides  of  the  House.  He  never 
posed  as  an  orator,  yet  he  was  classed  as  a  very 
effective  speaker,  and  with  but  one  or  two  ex- 
ceptions no  political  speaker  in  Maine  ever  ad- 
the  campaign.  For  more  than  thirty  years  he 
took  part  in  every  political  campaign  in  his  own 
State,  and  sometimes  aided  his  brethren  of  neigh- 
boring States  in  their  campaigns.  He  was  a  man 
of  sound  business  judgment,  a  good  judge  of  in- 
vestments, possessing  large  means  of  his  own 
acquiring.  In  private  life  he  was  always  regarded 
as  the  friend  of  the  poor  man,  and  many  a  pros- 
perous citizen  of  the  State  received  his  start 
from  the  kindly  advice  and  financial  assistance 
they  received  from  him.  He  was  a  generous 
giver  to  charitable  and  benevolent  objects,  and 
it  is  said  his  donations  to  church  organizations 
extended  to  almost  every  church  which  had  been 
dedicated  in  Eastern  Maine  during  the  last  twenty 
years  of  his  life. 

Governor  Powers  was  of  the  seventh  genera- 
tion of  the  family  founded  in  New  England  by 
Walter  Power,  who  landed  at  Salem,  Massachu- 
setts, in  1654,  married  Trial  Sheppard,  daughter 
of  Ralph  Sheppard,  a  London  goldsmith,  who 
settled  in  Concord  village,  Middlesex  county 
(later  Littleton),  where  he  died  February  22, 
1708.  The  line  of  descent  from  Walter  and  Trial 
(Sheppard)  Power  to  Governor  Powers  is  traced 
through  the  founder's  fourth  son,  Daniel  Powers 
(he  adding  the  "s"),  and  his  wife,  Elizabeth 
(Whitcomb)  Powers;  their  fourth  son,  Captain 
Peter  Powers,  a  militia  captain  serving  against 
the  Indians  and  French,  and  his  wife,  Anna 
(Keyes)  Powers,  they  moving  to  New  Hamp- 
shire; their  son,  Levi  Powers,  who  moved  to 
Kennebec  county,  Maine,  and  his  wife;  their 
son,  Philip  Powers,  of  Sidney,  Maine,  and  his 
wife,  Lucy  (Hood)  Powers;  their  son,  Arba 
Powers,  of  Pittsfield,  Somerset  county,  Maine, 
and  his  wife,  Naomi  (Matthews)  Powers;  their 
ton,  Llewellyn  Powers,  to  whose  memory  this 
review  of  his  distinguished  life  is  dedicated. 


Arba  and  Naomi  (Matthews)  Powers  were  the 
parents  of  eight  sons,  all  of  whom  grew  to  man- 
hood and  attained  high  position,  six  of  them  be- 
coming lawyers:  Llewellyn,  of  further  mention; 
Cyrus  M.,  a  lawyer  of  Aroostook  county,  Maine; 
Gorham,  a  lawyer  of  Granite  Falls,  Minnesota, 
also  State  Senator  and  District  Judge;  Amos,  a 
teacher,  moved  to  the  State  of  California;  Sceva, 
a  Nevada  gold  miner;  Cassius  Clay,  a  graduate 
of  Bowdoin  College,  and  a  lawyer  of  Boston, 
Massachusetts;  Don  Arba  Horace,  a  lawyer  of 
Houlton,  Maine,  associated  in  practice  with  his 
brothers,  Llewellyn  and  Frederick  A.;  Frederick 
Alton,  a  lawyer  and  judge  of  the  Supreme  Judi- 
cial Court  of  Maine  until  his  resignation,  March 
31,  1907.  They  were  also  the  parents  of  two 
daughters,  Hortense  B.,  a  teacher  in  Oakland, 
California,  where  she  died  March  31,  1879;  Loan- 
tha  A.,  who  died  at  the  age  of  sixteen. 

Llewellyn  Powers,  eldest  child  of  Arba  and 
Naomi  (Matthews)  Powers,  was  born  in  Pitts- 
field,  Somerset  county,  Maine,  December  14,  1836, 
and  died  at  Houlton,  Aroostook  county,  Maine, 
July  28,  1908.  He  was  educated  in  Hartland 
Academy,  Colby  College,  and  Albany  Law  School, 
receiving  his  degree  LL.B.  from  the  last-named 
institution,  class  of  1860.  He  was  admitted  to 
practice  in  New  York,  and  in  Maine  the  same 
year,  and  began  the  practice  of  law  in  Houlton, 
Maine,  in  December,  1860,  continuing  in  active, 
successful  legal  practice  until  January,  1887,  win- 
ning high  reputation  as  a  convincing  advocate, 
an  able  lawyer,  and  the  leader  of  the  Aroostook 
bar.  He  was  elected  prosecuting  attorney  for 
Aroostook  county  in  1865,  serving  continuously 
for  six  years;  was  collector  of  United  States 
Customs  for  the  Aroostook  district  for  four 
years,  1868-72;  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the 
United  States  District  and  Circuit  Courts  in 
1868,  and  in  1888  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of 
Suffolk  county,  Massachusetts.  His  brothers, 
Don  Arba  Horace  and  Frederick  Alton  Powers, 
were  his  law  partners  in  Houlton,  the  last  named 
being  a  judge  of  the  Maine  Supreme  Court, 
1901-07. 

There  was  a  strong  political  undercurrent 
flowing  through  the  life  of  Governor  Powers 
while  the  law  was  apparently  his  one  great  ih- 
terest.  He  was  a  Republican  in  his  political 
faith,  and  both  the  prosecutors  and  collectors  of 
customs  offices  were  political.  In  1873  he  was 
elected  to  the  Maine  House  of  Representatives, 
serving  in  1874-75-76.  He  was  elected  member  of 
the  National  House  of  Representatives,  taking 
his  seat  in  the  Forty-fifth  Congress,  1877-79. 


76 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Eugene  Hale  and  William  R.  Frye  also  being 
members  of  that  Congress.  He  then  returned 
to  private  and  business  life,  serving  his  district 
again  in  the  State  Legislature,  in  1881,  1893-94-95, 
serving  as  Speaker  of  the  House  during  the  last 
term.  In  1896  he  was  elected  Governor  of  Maine 
by  a  majority  of  48,000,  and  in  1896  was  re- 
elected.  During  his  legislative  service  in  the 
Maine  House  he  reported  from  an  evenly-divided 
judiciary  committee  of  which  he  was  chairman 
a  bill  abolishing  capital  punishment,  and  was 
successful  in  having  the  bill  become  a  law.  His 
record  during  the  two  terms  he  served  as  Gov- 
ernor of  Maine  was  a  notable  one.  He  brought 
to  the  many  and  exacting  duties  of  the  office 
the  same  calm  judgment,  firm  purpose,  and  clear 
grasp  of  affairs  that  had  won  him  eminence  in 
other  walks  of  life. 

Soon  after  his  retirement  from  the  Governor's 
chair  he  was  chosen  to  fill  out  the  unexpired  term 
of  the  Fifty-seventh  Congress  occasioned  by  the 
resignation  of  Congressman  Charles  A.  Boutelle. 
He  was  re-elected  to  serve  in  the  Fifty-eighth, 
Fifty-ninth,  and  Sixtieth  Congresses,  declining  a 
renomination.  He  did  not  wish  to  return  to  the 
Sixtieth  Congress,  but  said:  "If  my  people  want 
me  to  serve  them  I  shall  obey  their  will."  He 
died  "in  the  harness"  prior  to  the  end  of  his 
congressional  term.  A  special  memorial  service 
was  held  in  the  House  of  Representatives,  Jan- 
uary 31,  1009,  and  in  the  Senate  of  the  United 
States,  February  27,  1909.  Memorial  addresses 
were  delivered  in  the  House  by  Congressmen 
Guernsey,  Swasey  and  Burleigh  of  Maine,  Gaines 
of  Tennessee,  Cole  of  Ohio,  Hamilton  of  Michi- 
gan, Hayes  of  California,  Stanley  of  Kentucky, 
Fowler  of  New  Jersey,  Lloyd  of  Missouri,  and 
Waldo  of  New  York.  In  the  Senate  addresses 
were  delivered  by  Senators  Frye  and  Hale  of 
Maine,  Sutherland  of  Utah,  Smith  of  Michigan, 
and  Dixon  of  Montana.  All  these  speakers  spoke 
eloquently  of  the  virtues  of  their  fallen  associate, 
and  paid  him  the  most  generous  tributes  of  their 
admiration  and  esteem. 

Said   Senator  Hale: 

I  shall  miss  him,  Mr.  President,  very  greatly, 
because,  coming  from  the  same  part  of  the  State, 
we  were  thrown  together  closely,  and  I  think 
I  may  say  that  in  the  years  I  have  known  him, 
with  increasing  regard  for  more  than  forty  years, 
we  had  no  differences.  He  and  I  in  political 
matters,  in  matters  touching  State  interests,  and 
what  was  of  most  account  to  our  people  traveled 
together. 

Said  Senator  Dixon: 

Governor  Powers  was  a  striking  figure  in  that 


body  (House  of  Representatives),  comprising  a 
membership  of  400  men,  the  directly  chosen  rep- 
resentatives of  90,000,000  people.  Large  and  well 
proportioned  physically,  swarthy  of  complexion, 
a  massive  head  crowned  with  a  shock  of  raven 
black  hair,  he  attracted  notice  among  his  fellow 
members.  He  was  most  genial  in  manner,  con- 
servative in  speech,  and  fair  in  his  judgment  of 
both  men  and  measures.  Measured  by  any  stan- 
dard, his  life  was  a  successful  one.  In  business 
affairs,  in  the  legal  profession,  and  in  the  public 
service,  he  had  achieved  distinction  in  all. 

Said  Senator  Smith: 

He  was  most  modest  and  unpretentious,  yet 
he  was  firm  and  substantial.  He  made  few  ten- 
ders of  his  sympathy  or  kindliness  of  nature,  but 
no  one  could  come  in  contact  with  him  and  fail 
to  appreciate  that  he  was  one  of  nature's  truest 
men.  I  simply  desire  to  pay  my  tribute  to  his 
lofty  character,  his  usefulness,  and  his  fidelity. 

Said  Senator  Sutherland: 

Mentally  he  was,  I  thought,  more  sound  than 
alert.  He  did  not  come  to  a  decision  quickly. 
His  conclusions  were  not  intuitive,  but  the  result 
of  patient,  deliberate,  painstaking,  intellectual 
work.  Almost  as  a  necessary  consequence,  hav- 
ing arrived  at  a  determination  respecting  the 
merits  of  a  proposition,  he  was  immovable,  albeit 
he  was  not  dogmatic  or  stubborn.  He  listened 
to  the  views  of  others  with  an  open  mind;  he 
did  not  differ  for  the  mere  sake  of  difference. 
His  manner  to  all  was  gentleness  and  courtesy 
personified.  He  was  by  nature  social,  a  lover  of 
his  fellows.  He  was  a  good  conversationalist  and 
a  good  listener,  which  is  sometimes  a  more  ami- 
able if  rarer  accomplishment. 

Said  Senator  Frye: 

Governor  Powers  was  a  first  rate,  all  around 
lawyer,  the  product  I  think  more  frequently  of 
the  country  than  of  the  city  practice.  As  an 
advocate  he  was  forceful,  exhaustive  and  suc- 
cessful, if  not  eloquent.  As  a  legislator  his  clear 
vision  and  business  sagacity  together  with  his 
accurate  legal  knowledge  and  commanding  pres- 
ence compelled  attention  and  rendered  him  ef- 
fective. He  was  an  ardent  Republican,  a  firm 
believer  in  the  protective  policy,  loyal  to  all  the 
fundamental  principles  of  his  party,  and  yet 
always  tolerant  of  those  differing  with  him. 
He  made  hosts  of  friends  and  few  enemies. 
Socially  he  was  very  attractive,  was  a  fine  con- 
versationalist, abounding  in  apt  anecdote  and 
quick  of  wit.  He  was  a  devoted  husband  and  a 
loving  father.  He  fought  well  life's  battles  and 
won  more  victories  than  fall  to  the  lot  of  most 
men  In  his  death  his  country,  his  State  and 
his  family  have  suffered  a  most  serious  loss. 

Said  Congressman  Lloyd: 

He  was  a  man  of  good  habits  and  lived  an 
upright  life.  I  remember  of  two  conversations 
in  which  the  questions  of  Bible  lessons  were  in- 
volved, and  he  expressed  himself  firmly  in  favor 
cf  the  truth. 

Said   Congressman   Fowler: 
He  was  simple,  he  was  true,  he  was  intellectu- 
ally honest;  he  was  self-respecting,  he  was  self- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


77 


icliant.  He  was  deeply  and  profoundly  a  patriotic 
iran  as  I  understood  it.  As  I  came  to  know  him 
thoroughly  and  comprehend  him  I  discovered 
he  was  as  proud  of  our  country  as  any  man 
I  ever  knew.  He  was  proud  of  Maine;  he  was 
proud  of  the  many  great  men  Maine  had  pro- 
duced; he  was  proud  of  the  fact  that  he  was  one 
of  a  family  that  had  made  its  name  respected; 
he  was  proud  of  the  country  in  which  he  lived 
and  his  little  town.  He  was  not  only  proud  of 
the  family  of  which  he  was  one  of  the  sons,  but 
he  was  proud  of  his  own  children. 

Said  Congressman  Stanley: 

At  this  time  we  can  look  back  over  the  career 
of  this  remarkable  man  with  peculiar  pleasure 
and  peculiar  reverence.  He  possessed  that  rare 
quality  that  Gibbon  has  aptly  portrayed  in  Anto- 
ninus Pius-Equanimity.  It  is  necessary  in  a 
lawmaker,  it  is  essential  to  a  successful  executive. 
This  man  did  not  seek  the  limelight.  He  was  in 
no  sense  spectacular.  Appreciating  and  deserv- 
ing the  confidence  of  the  people,  he  sought  their 
sober  approval  rather  than  their  hilarious  ap- 
plause. He  was  not  intoxicated  by  fulsome  praise. 
These  qualities  made  him  a  great  Governor. 

Said   Congressman   Gaines: 

He  often  "paired"  but  he  never  broke  faith, 
through  pressure  to  change  the  pair  in  a  trying 
struggle  and  vote.  "They  pressed  me  mightily, 
my  boy,  but  I  kept  my  word  with  you."  How 
heroic,  how  honorable,  that. 

Said  Congressman  Burleigh: 

Born  on  a  pioneer  farm,  the  eldest  of  a  large 
family,  he  was  forced  from  boyhood  to  be  the 
architect  of  his  own  fortunes,  and  yet  he  did  not 
enter  into  the  competitions  of  life  devoid  of  cap- 
ital. He  was  peculiarly  rich  in  the  qualities  that 
command  success,  in  the  full  vigor  of  a  splendid, 
physical  and  intellectual  strength  in  abounding 
health,  in  self-confidence  to  meet  and  conquer 
the  difficulties  that  confronted  him,  and  in  a 
personal  magnetism  that  speedily  drew  about  him 
a  wide  circle  of  devoted  and  admiring  friends. 
There  was  in  the  makeup  of  Mr.  Powers  no  trace 
of  snobbery  or  affectation.  He  was  all  his  life 
in  close  and  sympathetic  touch  with  the  plain 
people.  Warm-hearted,  cordial  and  genuine  in 
his  dealing  with  those  about  him,  he  constantly 
extended  the  circle  of  his  friendships.  It  was  a 
real  pleasure  for  him  to  meet  old  acquaintances 
and  make  new  ones.  His  instincts  were  social. 
He  loved  the  companionship  of  his  fellowmen, 
and  few  there  were  who  could  resist  the  rare 
chain  of  his  personality.  As  he  came  and  went 
he  had  a  cordial  word  of  greeting  for  every- 
one he  met.  He  looked  out  upon  life  with  the 
spirit  of  an  optimist,  and  from  the  depths  of  his 
own  frank  and  generous  nature  radiated  an  at- 
mosphere of  hope  and  cheer  upon  those  about 
him. 

From  these  brief  extracts  from  the  speeches 
of  his  contemporaries  at  the  memorial  services 
held  in  the  Capitol  at  Washington,  it  is  easily 
seen  how  strong  was  the  hold  Governor  Powers 
had  upon  their  affectionate  regard.  Similar 


meetings  were  held  at  the  Capitol  in  Augusta, 
Maine,  and  from  every  quarter  there  came  to  the 
bereaved  wife  letters  and  testimonials  of  the  re- 
gard in  which  he  was  held. 

In  1868,  Governor  Powers  first  became  in- 
terested in  Maine  timber  lands,  and  a  few  years 
before  his  death  he  was  said  to  be  one  of  the 
largest  wild  land  owners  in  the  State.  He  was 
president  of  the  Farmers'  National  Bank  of 
Houlton,  and  for  several  years  a  director  of  the 
Fourth  National  Bank  of  Boston.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Masonic  lodge  and  chapter  and 
of  the  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks; 
Colby  University  conferred  upon  him  the  hon- 
orary degree,  A.M.,  in  1870,  and  later  LL.D. 
His  clubs  were  the  Algonquin  of  Boston,  Boston 
Whist,  Boston  Athletic,  and  Tarantine  of  Ban- 
gor,  Maine.  He  was  a  Unitarian  in  his  own 
faith,  as  was  his  first  wife,  but  his  second  wife 
and  children  are  Episcopalians. 

Governor  Powers  married  (first),  in  June,  1863, 
at  Corinna,  Maine,  Jennie  C.  Hewes,  daughter 
of  Benjamin  and  Adelaide  (Linnell)  Hewes,  of 
Levant,  Maine.  He  married  (second),  in  Lin- 
coln, Maine,  December  25,  1886,  Martha  G. 
Averill,  daughter  of  Luther  H.  Averill,  of  Old- 
town,  Maine,  and  his  wife,  Eliza  (Garvin)  Averill, 
of  Exeter,  Maine.  Children,  all  by  second  mar- 
riage: Walter  Averill,  born  April  16,  1888;  Mar- 
tha Pauline,  April  19,  1890;  Doris  Virginia,  May 
15,  1892;  Ralph  Averill,  September  24,  1893;  and 
Margaret  Llewellyn,  December  27,  1896. 


HARRY  RUST  VIRGIN,  the  eminent  Port- 
land lawyer  and  a  leader  of  the  bar  of  Maine, 
comes  of  a  family  which  has  for  many  years  been 
associated  with  the  legal  history  of  that  State, 
whose  father  held  a  distinguished  position  on  the 
Maine  bench  and  did  much  to  establish  the  tra- 
ditions and  standards  of  legal  practice  there. 
His  grandfather,  Peter  Chandler  Virgin,  was  a 
native  of  Concord,  New  Hampshire,  and  a  grand- 
son of  one  of  the  founders  of  that  town.  During 
his  young  manhood  he  removed  to  Rumford, 
Maine,  where  for  many  years  he  was  the  only 
lawyer.  He  had  been  educated  at  Phillips  Acad- 
emy at  Exeter  and  Harvard  College,  and  that 
which  brought  him  to  the  interior  of  Maine  at 
that  time,  hardly  more  than  a  frontier  region, 
was  a  grant  of  land  which  had  been  given  to  bis 
family  and  upon  which  he  desired  to  settle.  He 
was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  what  was  then  the 
new  county  of  Oxford,  and  for  a  long  time  its 
leading  attorney,  representing  it  in  the  State 
convention,  at  first  of  Massachusetts  and  then 
after  the  formation  of  the  State  of  Maine,  in  the 


78 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


newly-formed  Legislature.  His  death  occurred 
in  1871,  at  a  very  advanced  age,  after  a  life  of 
great  usefulness  and  of  unusual  achievement. 

There  is  a  delightfully  quaint  autobiography  of 
Peter  Chandler  Virgin,  which  has  come  down  in 
the  family  and  is  now  in  the  possession  of  his 
descendants,  which  throws  a  very  clear  light  on 
the  crude  surroundings  which  our  pioneer  ances- 
tors knew  in  that  age.  According  to  this  old 
document,  he  was  born  July  25,  1783,  in  a  house 
of  two  stories,  which  was  "built  with  all  white 
birch  for  frame."  It  was  evidently  a  matter  for 
some  boasting  in  that  place  and  time  that  it  was 
finished  from  attic  to  cellar.  The  picture  that 
he  draws  of  the  family  life  is  extremely  interest- 
ing today.  He  describes  his  father's  farm  as 
containing  two  hundred  acres  and  pays  an  elo- 
quent tribute  to  his  mother,  who  taught  him  the 
catechism  and  how  to  read  before  he  was  six 
years  old.  He  describes  his  attendance  at  school 
and  at  Andover  Academy,  where  he  "fitted  for 
college,"  and  the  pages  in  which  he  describes  his 
life  at  Harvard  are  most  interesting.  He  did  not, 
according  to  himself,  complete  his  studies  there, 
but  left  at  the  commencement  of  his  junior  year 
and  began  to  teach  school  at  Concord,  New 
Hampshire,  his  native  town.  His  legal  studies 
were  conducted  in  the  office  of  Charles  Walker, 
at  Concord,  and  then  in  the  office  of  John  Ab- 
bott, at  Medford,  whom  he  characterized  as  a 
"perfect  miser."  He  felt  very  differently,  how- 
ever, toward  a  later  preceptor,  Mr.  John  Varnum, 
of  Haverhill,  Massachusetts,  of  whom  he  speaks 
of  "as  noble  a  man  as  ever  lived."  He  describes 
in  the  same  pages  his  coming  to  Rumford,  the 
difficulties  that  he  had  in  being  admitted  to  the 
bar  there  and  his  rapid  rise  to  a  prominent  place 
in  the  community. 

William  Wirt  Virgin,  father  of  Harry  Rust 
Virgin,  was  born  September  18,  1823,  on  his 
father's  property  in  the  town  of  Rumford,  Maine, 
and  there  spent  his  boyhood.  He  studied  at 
both  the  Bridgton  and  Bethel  academies,  where 
he  prepared  for  college,  and  then  at  Bowdoin 
College,  from  which  he'  was  graduated  with  the 
class  of  1844.  Several  of  his  classmates  after- 
wards became  distinguished  members  of  the 
Maine  bar.  After  completing  his  academic 
studies,  the  young  man  entered  his  father's  office 
with  the  purpose  of  making  the  law  his  profes- 
sion and  here  pursued  his  studies  to  such  good 
purpose  that  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1847. 
He  began  his  active  practice  in  the  village  of 
Norway,  Maine,  and  here  continued  successfully 
until  he  removed  to  Portland,  in  the  year  1872. 
In  the  meantime,  however,  he  had  already  held 


public  office,  having  been  elected  prosecuting  at- 
torney for  his  county,  and  had  also  taken  an 
active  part  in  the  Civil  War.  Before  the  time  of 
the  outbreak  of  this  terrible  struggle,  he  had 
enlisted  in  the  Volunteer  militia  from  Maine, 
and  was  appointed  a  major-general.  One  of  his 
services  to  the  cause  of  the  Union  was  the  re- 
cruiting of  the  Twenty-third  Regiment  of  Maine 
Volunteer  Infantry,  of  which  he  was  elected 
colonel,  and  with  which  he  served  during  the 
period  of  his  enlistment.  He  was  ordered  with 
his  command  to  Washington,  to  help  guard  the 
National  Capital  against  the  threat  made  at  that 
time  by  the  Confederate  troops,  and  in  this  posi- 
tion he  proved  himself  to  be  an  excellent  soldier, 
with  an  unusual  ability  as  a  commander  and 
great  tact  in  handling  his  subordinates.  He  re- 
turned to  Maine  at  the  end  of  the  war,  and  was 
elected  to  the  State  Senate  in  1865  and  in  1866 
was  chosen  president  of  that  body.  Among  other 
capacities  in  which  he  served  was  that  of  re- 
porter of  decisions  for  the  State  Senate,  a  post 
which  he  held  for  two  successive  terms.  It  has 
already  been  remarked  that  in  1872  William  Wirt 
Virgin  came  to  Portland  with  the  intention  of 
continuing  his  legal  practice  in  that  city.  In  the 
same  year  he  was  appointed  associate  justice  of 
the  Supreme  Judicial  Court  of  Maine,  an  office 
which  he  continued  to  hold  by  successive  appoint- 
ments until  his  death.  In  1889  he  received  the 
honorary  degree  of  LL.B.  from  Bowdoin  Col- 
lege. The  death  of  Judge  Virgin  occurred  at  his 
home  in  Portland,  January  23,  1893,  in  his  seven- 
tieth year,  and  was  the  occasion  of  a  very  remark- 
able series  of  tributes  paid  to  him  by  his  asso- 
ciates and  friends  and  the  passing  of  a  number  of 
impressive  resolutions  by  the  public  institutions 
of  which  he  was  and  had  been  a  member.  The 
bar  of  Cumberland  county  held  a  meeting  in 
Portland  on  the  day  of  his  death,  at  which  various 
of  his  colleagues  spoke  in  his  praise.  At  the  July 
term,  1893,  of  the  Law  Court,  the  Hon.  S.  C. 
Strout,  president  of  the  Cumberland  Bar  Asso- 
ciation, in  the  course  of  his  address  to  the  Court, 
spoke  as  follows: 

I  am  charged  with  the  painful  duty  of  announc- 
ing to  the  Court  the  death  of  the  Honorable 
William  Wirt  Virgin,  late  a  member  of  this  bench. 
The  said  event  occurred  on  the  twenty-third  day 
of  January  last.  As  a  soldier  Judge  Virgin 
achieved  honor;  as  a  lawyer  he  was  for  many 
years  in  the  front  rank  of  his  profession;  as  a 
judge  he  was  able,  cautious  and  conscientious, 
and  was  endowed  with  a  power  of  analysis  and 
strong  common  sense,  which,  accompanied  by 
large  acquirements  in  legal  lore,  enabled  him, 
almost  unerringly,  to  arrive  at  correct  results. 
As  a  man  he  deserved  and  enjoyed  the  confi- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


79 


clence  and  esteem  of  the  entire  community.  We, 
of  the  Bar,  who  knew  him  most  intimately, 
loved  him  as  a  friend,  and  to  us  his  loss  is  a 
great  and  irreparable,  personal  grief.  His  mem- 
ory will  long  be  cherished  and  kept  green  by 
the  Bar  of  this  State. 

My  personal  relations  with  Judge  Virgin  com- 
menced very  shortly  after  my  admission  to  the 
Bar.  I  first  met  him  at  Court  in  Oxford  County. 
He  was  then  a  young  man,  but  a  few  years  at 
the  Bar.  At  once  I  conceived  a  strong  liking 
for  the  man.  In  the  subsequent  years,  while  he 
remained  at  the  Bar,  I  frequently  came  in  con- 
tact with  him  as  opposing  counsel,  where  the 
contest  was  sharp  and  the  struggle  ardent.  While 
his  blade  was  keen  and  incisive,  it  was  used  legi- 
timately for  the  protection  of  his  clients,  and 
never  wielded  in  malice.  He  was  always  the 
honorable  man  and  warm  friend,  and  nothing 
ever  marred  the  kindly  relations  existing  between 
us  from  our  first  meeting  to  the  last. 

The  Hon.  J.  W.  Symonds,  in  the  course  of  an 
address  to  the  Court,  made  the  following  re- 
marks: 

It  was  upon  his  appointment  to  the  bench  that 
my  intimate  acquaintance  with  Judge  Virgin 
began:  it  was  as  a  judge  that  I  knew  him.  1  It- 
had  had  an  earlier  public  career  with  which  as  a 
younger  man  I  had  not  been  personally  familiar. 
He  had  been  President  of  the  State  Senate,  and 
held  the  rank  of  Major-General  in  the  Militia, 
and  had  been  Colonel  of  the  Twenty-third  Maine 
Regiment  during  the  war.  I  believe  no  man  ever 
entered  upon  a  judicial  career  with  a  more  sin- 
cere determination  than  he  to  fit  himself  thor- 
oughly and  perfectly  for  the  discharge  of  his 
duties.  He  meant  to  be  a  good  judge.  He  de- 
voted himself  to  his  work  with  a  full  sense  of 
its  importance  and  subjected  himself  to  a  most 
patient  discipline  for  it.  At  Nisi  Prius  he  sought 
to  hold  the  scale  with  an  even  hand  and  to  watch 
only  "the  trepidations  of  the  balance."  If  there 
was  sometimes  a  tendency  for  the  grand,  strong 
lines  of  his  mind  to  darken  a  little  towards 
prejudice,  if  there  was  on  any  subject  or  in  any 
instance,  I  will  not  say  a  tendency,  but  even  a 
possible  danger  of  this,  he  was  himself  the  first 
to  be  conscious  of  it  and  was  always  on  his  guard 
against  it.  If  a  mood  of  feeling  obscured  his 
sight  he  was  receptive  of  the  influences  that  re- 
moved the  cloud.  As  one  of  the  law  judges  of 
the  State,  he  labored  most  diligently  for  excel- 
lence of  substance  and  of  style  in  all  his  legal 
work.  He  was  fond  of  the  fine  things  in  litera- 
ture and  read  and  re-read  his  favorite  masters  of 
the  English  language.  He  loved  to  study  the  law 
historically,  to  trace  the  course  of  authority,  to 
follow  down  its  top-most  growths  to  the  com- 
mon branch  which  sustained  them  all  and  so  to 
direct  the  tendency  of  the  future  development  of 
the  law  in  a  way  to  give  sympathy  to  the  whole. 
No  judge  ever  had  a  heartier  contempt  than  he 
for  a  brief  in  which  the  authorities  were  thrown 
together  pellmell,  with  little  regard  to  their  per- 
tinency or  value.  To  him  it  was  like  handling 
carelessly  the  jewels  of  the  law:  the  rays  from 
which,  when  rightly  set,  are  truth  and  justice. 
And  Emerson  says:  "Truth  is  the  summit  of 


being;  justice  is  the  application  of  it  to  affairs." 
Such  a  brief  was  the  polar  opposite  of  an  opinion 
drawn  by  him.  He  stated  the  clear  result  of  the 
law,  and  very  likely  with  a  minute  and  elaborate 
citation  of  authorities  of  the  utmost  value  to  any- 
body investigating  the  subject.  He  wrote  and  re- 
wrote his  opinions  with  the  most  studied  care 
and  his  grate  blazed  with  the  manuscript  pages, 
martyrs  for  a  single  fault.  He  shrank  from  no 
labor  to  have  his  judicial  opinions  right  in  sub- 
stance and  in  form,  and  he  believed  the  result 
was  worth  all  it  cost.  With  judicial  standards 
like  these  unflinchingly  followed  for  twenty 
years,  it  is  not  strange  that  his  place  is  assured 
in  the  high  estimation  of  the  bench  and  the  bar 
and  the  community  which  he  served.  He  loved 
his  work,  the  place  to  which  he  had  worthily 
risen,  the  field  for  intellectual  activity  it  afforded, 
the  laborious  days  which  enabled  him  to  act  so 
well  his  part  therein.  He  sought  no  place  in  what 
might  distract  his  attention  from  it,  or  unfit  him 
for  it,  or  effect  his  action  in  it. 

On  this  occasion  the  Bar  Association  of  Cum- 
berland County  passed  the  following  resolution: 

Resolved:  That  by  the  close  of  the  life  of  the 
Honorable  William  Wirt  Virgin,  an  Associate 
Justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court,  a  period 
has  been  set  to  a  judicial  career  of  eminent 
ability,  usefulness  and  devotion  to  official  duty; 
that  the  court  has  thereby  sustained  the  loss  of 
one  of  its  oldest  and  most  distinguished  mem- 
bers, whose  impartial  learning  and  judgment  have 
illustrated  its  opinions  in  many  most  important 
cases;  that  while  we  regret  the  loss  to  the  court 
and  the  profession  by  his  death,  we,  at  the  same 
time,  feel  most  deeply  the  sundering  of  the 
pleasant  relations  between  the  Bench  and  the 
Bar,  hitherto  unbroken  during  all  the  period  of 
his  incumbency  of  the  judicial  office;  and  that  the 
Bench,  the  Bar  and  the  community  alike  may 
well  grieve  that  the  kind,  strong  man,  the  genial 
companion,  neighbor,  friend,  the  good  citizen, 
the  soldier  and  patriot,  the  faithful  public  servant, 
the  upright  judge,  is  now  no  more. 

In  the  remarks  of  the  honorable  gentlemen 
already  quoted,  we  have  interesting  estimates  of 
the  significance  of  importance  of  Judge  Virgin's 
career  on  the  bench  and  before  the  bar  of  his 
State.  For  a  more  personal  tribute  it  will  be 
appropriate  to  turn  to  the  words  of  his  friends, 
the  Hon.  A.  A.  Strout  and  A.  H.  Walker.  In  the 
course  of  an  oration  delivered  on  the  same  occa- 
sion, Mr.  Strout  spoke  as  follows: 

Of  his  social  qualities  I  speak  as  one  who  has 
suffered  a  personal  loss.  From  the  time  he  came 
to  Portland,  in  eighteen  seventy-one,  we  were 
rear  neighbors  and  saw  much  of  each  other.  He 
shrank  from  the  more  formal  requirements  of 
social  parties  and  receptions,  but  in  his  own 
house  and  to  those  who  were  favored  with  his 
friendship  he  was  always  hospitable  and  delight- 
ful. He  was  a  reader  of  books,  and  with  his 
wife  and  son  pursued  many  paths  of  intellec- 
tual inquiry.  When  the  labor  of  the  day  was 
over  he  delighted  to  discuss  the  latest  phases  of 


80 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


social  progress  and  development.  Then  it  was 
when  he  threw  aside  the  habit  of  office  and  un- 
folded his  stores  of  learning  and  humor,  that  he 
was  both  instructive  and  delightful. 

He  was  a  constant  attendant  at  church  and  I 
think  his  creed  may  be  found  in  the  melodious 
measures  and  that  sweetest  of  poems  entitled, 
"The  Eternal  Goddess,"  which  he  was  so  fond  of 
repeating, — and  with  its  inspired  author  he  might 
well  declare: 

I  know  not  where  His  islands  lift 

Their  fronded  palms  in  air; 
I  only  know  I  cannot  drift 

Beyond  His  love  and  care. 

It  is  said  that  there  is  one  occasion  at  least 
when  the  estimation  in  which  men  are  held  is 
fully  tested,  and  that  is  the  time  of  their  death. 
But  no  one  could  stand  in  the  presence  of  the 
solemn  concourse  of  eminent  men  from  all  por- 
tions of  the  State  and  of  his  sorrowing  neighbors 
and  friends  who  came  to  express  their  grief  at 
his  decease  and  do  honor  to  his  memory,  with- 
out feeling  that  a  great  man  had  fallen,  whose 
loss  was  deplored  by  all  who  knew  him.  In  the 
beneficent  ordering  of  Providence  he  has  passed 
that  mysterious  gate  through  which  we  may  not 
j'.aze  in  mortal  life.  We  cannot  call  him  back. 
Put  we  may  cherish  the  recollection  of  his  many 
virtues,  and  be  comforted  in  remembering — 

That  Life  is  ever  Lord  of  Death, 
And  Love  can  never  lose  its  own. 

Mr.  Walker  expressed  himself  in  the  following 
impressive  manner: 

I  am  unable  to  turn  aside  from  this  branch  of 
the  subject  without  a  general  remark  upon  the 
man.  As  he  lay  almost  in  extremis  there  burst 
in  soliloquy  from  his  pale  lips,  unprovoked  by 
suggestion,  the  expression  that  in  all  administra- 
tions of  the  law  he  had  endeavored  that  justice 
should  prevail.  Who  doubts  the  endeavor?  Who 
doubts  the  propriety  of  the  endeavor  by  him  who 
holds  judicial  authority  in  his  control?  But  this 
is  not  the  occasion  for  a  protracted  review  of 
Judge  Virgin's  life,  for  anything  above  a  brief 
summary  of  the  salient  features  of  his  positions 
in  the  various  departments  of  our  government, 
and  an  averment  of  the  strong  affection  with 
which  so  many  grappled  him  to  their  hearts 
with  "hoops  of  steel." 

Shall  we  join  him,  and  that,  too,  in  an  eternal 
home  of  love,  and  individual  development  and 
growth?  So  he  believed.  Then  may  we  not 
fitly  wish  to  congratulate  him  upon  the  termina- 
tion of  life's  vicissitudes,  though  opportunity  for 
further  achievement  here  below  by  transition  to 
a  life  of  achievement  above  be  lost  forever, 
since  the  summons  of  that  pallid  messenger,  who 
goes  not  forth  except  with  the  inverted  torch, 
can  have  no  terrors  for  him,  though  he  be  de- 
scribed, 

Black  as  night, 

Fierce  as  ten  furies,  terrible  as  hell, 
He  shook  a  dreadful  dart, 

the  edge  of  which  loses  its  power  of  hurt  in  the 
sublime   faith   that, — 


There  is  no  death:  what  seems  so  is  transition; 

The  life  of  mortal  breath 
Is  but  a  suburb  of  life  elysian, 

Whose  portal  we  call  death, 

whether,  as  it  has  been  expressed,  it  be  a  jour- 
ney thither  of  but  a  single  step  across  an  im- 
perceptible frontier,  or  as  again  described,  it  be 
an  interminable  ocean,  black,  unfluctuating  and 
voiceless,  stretching  between  these  earthly  coasts 
and  those  invisible  shores?  The  skeleton  foot 
of  death  enters  with  frequent  and  familiar  step 
the  lives  of  those  who  from  age  constitute 
Justice  Virgin's  most  familiar  associates.  To  his 
survivors  the  hour  furnishes  its  admonition. 
There  is  aptness  in  those  words  of  another:  "We 
are  walking  with  unerring  steps  to  the  grave, 
and  each  setting  sun  finds  us  nearer  the  realms 
of  rest.  The  fleetness  of  time,  our  brief  and 
feeble  grasps  upon  the  affairs  of  earth,  the  cer- 
tainty of  death  and  the  magnitude  of  eternity 
all  crowd  upon  the  mind  at  such  a  moment  as 
this.  They  call  upon  us  to  think  and  speak  and 
live  in  charity  with  each  other;  for  the  last  hours 
that  must  come  to  all  will  be  sweetened  by  recol- 
lection of  such  forbearance  and  grade  in  our  own 
lives  as  we  invoke  for  ourselves  from  that  merci- 
ful Father  into  whose  presence  we  hasten." 

Harry  Rust  Virgin,  son  of  William  Wirt  Vir- 
gin, was  born  August  25,  1854,  at  Norway,  Maine. 
His  early  life  was  spent  among  the  most  favor- 
able surroundings,  and  while  still  a  mere  child 
he  began  to  imbibe  the  splendid  tradition  of  the 
law.  This  was  natural,  not  only  because  his 
father  was  in  a  large  degree  wrapped  up  in  his 
subject,  but  because  his  house  was  a  center  for 
the  meeting  of  many  eminent  attorneys  and 
jurists.  It  is  perhaps  difficult  for  those  who  have 
not  been  thus  early  the  subject  of  such  influence 
to  realize  how  very  definite  and  potent  it  may  be. 
Certainly  it  played  a  very  important  part  in  the 
life  of  young  Mr.  Virgin  and  turned  his  thoughts 
to  a  profession  which  might  almost  be  described 
as  hereditary  in  his  family  with  an  irresistible 
force.  His  early  education  was  received  in  the 
local  schools  of  Norway,  and  he  followed  up  his 
studies  there  with  a  course  at  the  Westbrook 
Seminary,  where  he  prepared  himself  for  college, 
and  from  which  he  graduated  in  1875.  In  the 
autumn  of  the  same  year  he  matriculated  at 
Tufts  College,  from  which  he  was  graduated  with 
the  class  of  1879,  and  at  once  began  the  study  of 
law  in  his  father's  office.  This  he  pursued  to 
such  good  purpose  that  in  the  year  1882  he  was 
admitted  to  practice  at  the  bar  of  Cumberland 
county,  and  at  once  began  active  legal  work  in 
the  city  of  Portland.  Since  that  time  Mr.  Virgin 
has  continued  in  practice  in  this  city  and  is  now 
regarded  as  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  bar  there. 
He  inherits  the  great  talents  of  his  ancestors  and 
handles  much  of  the  important  litigation  of  that 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


81 


region  in  a  most  capable  manner.  Mr.  Virgin 
has  also  taken  an  active  part  in  public  life  in 
Portland  and  was  elected  to  the  Common  Council 
of  the  city  in  1897  and  was  president  of  that 
body  during  his  term  there.  Two  years  later,  in 
1899,  he  was  sent  to  the  Maine  Legislature  and 
served  two  years  in  the  Lower  House.  In  1901 
he  was  elected  State  Senator  and  in  1903  was 
president  of  that  august  body.  Mr.  Virgin  is 
also  a  prominent  figure  in  the  social  life  of  the 
city  and  a  member  of  several  fraternal  bodies, 
among  which  should  be  mentioned  the  Masonic 
order  and  the  Royal  Arcanum.  He  finds  relaxa- 
tion and  recreation  in  the  wholesome  outdoor 
pastimes  of  hunting,  fishing  and  golf,  and  is  never 
quite  so  happy  as  when  spending  his  time  in  the 
open  air.  He  is  a  Universalist  in  religion  and  an 
active  member  of  the  church  of  that  denomination 
in  Portland. 

On  February  22,  1900,  Mr.  Virgin  was  united  in 
marriage  with  Emma  F.  Harward,  a  native  of 
Bordenham,  Maine,  a  daughter  of  John  F.  and 
Mary  (Tyler)  Harward,  both  deceased. 


HON.  ALBERT  R.  SAVAGE,  the  eleventh 
Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Maine,  and 
a  distinguished  figure  in  that  illustrious  group, 
was  born  December  8,  1847,  at  Ryegate,  Vermont, 
and  died  suddenly  in  his  dearly-loved  home  in 
Auburn,  Maine,  June  14,  1917.  His  parents  were 
Charles  Wesley  and  Eliza  M.  Savage,  not  rich 
in  the  things  which  vanish,  but  amply  endowed 
with  the  qualities  which  make  for  character  in 
their  descendants.  In  1856  the  family  moved  to 
Lancaster,  New  Hampshire,  and  in  those  two 
rural  towns  the  boyhood  and  youth  of  Judge 
Savage  were  passed.  One  who  knew  him  inti- 
mately in  recent  years  has  said  of  him:  "Chief 
Justice  Savage  was  truly  a  product  of  northern 
New  England.  Born  in  Vermont,  educated  in 
New  Hampshire,  his  life  work  developed  and 
completed  in  Maine,  he  was  the  very  embodi- 
ment of  the  characteristics  of  our  northern  coun- 
try. Steadfast  like  its  mountains,  placid  and 
equable  like  its  lakes,  with  a  depth  of  reserve 
power  like  its  noble  rivers,  his  nature  could  and 
did  drink  in  life's  joys  and  pleasures,  and  submit 
in  silent  strength  and  resignation  to  its  sorrows 
and  disappointments."  To  the  silent,  contem- 
plative lad,  going  about  his  somewhat  uncon- 
genial tasks  on  the  New  Hampshire  farm,  in 
whom  the  student  instinct  was  rising  to  a  pas- 
sion, the  home  environment  of  industry,  thrift, 
patience,  simple  ambitions,  and  religion  must 
sometimes  have  seemed  hard  and  narrow.  In 
the  parents'  hearts  was  the  desire — real  if  not 

MB.— 1—6 


very  hopeful — to  educate  the  boy.  A  term  or 
two  at  Newbury  Seminary,  Vermont,  began  the 
fitting  for  college.  Lancaster  Academy  com- 
pleted his  preparatory  course,  and  he  entered 
Dartmouth  College  in  1867.  His  narrow  horizon 
had  broadened.  It  never  narrowed  again.  All 
depended  now  on  himself,  and  that  self  all  who 
knew  him  learned  to  trust.  Lancaster  Academy 
reached  far  into  the  life  of  Mr.  Savage.  Liberty 
H.  Hutchinson  and  Nellie  H.  Hale  of  Lunenburg, 
Vermont,  became  his  friends  there,  the  former 
graduating  with  him,  in  1867.  The  preparatory 
and  college  years  were  years  of  hard  work  in 
vacations,  summers  on  the  farm,  and  winters 
teaching  school.  The  hard  New  England  train- 
ing, which  has  made  many  specimens  of  the  best 
type  of  American  citizenship,  gave  to  him  that 
commanding  vigor  of  physical  manhood  and  that 
tireless  mental  energy  that  characterized  the 
man. 

Mr.  Savage  was  graduated  Bachelor  of  Arts, 
at  Dartmouth  College,  in  1871,  receiving  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts  three  years  later.  Im- 
mediately after  graduation,  in  June,  he  accepted 
the  position  of  principal  of  Northwood  Academy, 
New  Hampshire,  and  on  August  17,  1871,  married 
(first)  Nellie  H.  Hale,  of  Lunenburg,  Vermont. 
They  made  their  first  home  in  Northwood,  New 
Hampshire,  where  their  son  was  born,  October 
II,  1872.  Later  Mr.  Savage  was  principal  of 
Northfield  High  School,  Vermont.  In  all  leisure 
time  and  vacations  he  was  studying  law,  and  in 
1874  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  Washington 
county,  Vermont.  Meantime  his  friend,  Mr. 
Hutchinson,  had  graduated  from  Bates  College, 
having  studied  law  during  his  senior  year,  and 
been  admitted  to  the  Androscoggin  bar,  and 
formed  a  law  partnership  in  Lewiston,  in  July, 
1871.  In  March,  1875,  his  partnership  ended,  Mr 
Savage  came  to  Auburn,  and  became  Mr.  Hutch- 
inson's  partner  in  the  Lewiston  office.  Mr. 
Hutchinson  had  already  secured  a  high  place  in 
the  esteem  of  the  profession  and  before  he  died, 
in  1882,  Mr.  Savage  had  ranged  alongside  in  the 
quality  of  his  personality  and  of  his  work.  He 
was  soon  admittedly,  through  his  commanding 
presence,  his  intuition  and  skill  in  the  conduct  of 
cases,  and  through  his  broad  and  thorough  legal 
education,  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Maine  bar. 

After  Mr.  Hutchinson's  death  Mr.  Savage  car- 
ried on  the  business  alone,  till  1884,  when  Henry 
W.  Oakes,  then  a  young  lawyer  of  Auburn,  now 
Judge  of  the  Superior  Court  of  the  county,  joined 
him,  under  the  firm  name  of  Savage  &  Oakes. 
This  proved  a  most  congenial  arrangement,  and 
the  partnership  lasted  thirteen  years,  bringing 


82 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


about  an  enduring  friendship  between  the  two 
men,  and  ending  only  when  Mr.  Savage  was  ap- 
pointed Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  the  State.  This  period  of  Mr.  Savage's  life  was 
filled  with  his  greatest  and  most  diversified  activi- 
ties. He  was  making  his  way  as  an  attorney 
whose  reputation  was  reaching  beyond  the  bounds 
of  the  State  in  the  trial  of  causes  of  constantly 
increasing  importance  in  all  the  courts  of  Maine; 
he  was  active  in  politics;  a  frequent  and  success- 
ful speaker  in  political  campaigns,  especially  in 
the  discussion  of  the  fundamental  principles  of 
the  protective  tariff,  and  was  considered  in  the 
days  when  protection  was  a  vital  issue  one  of 
its  forceful  advocates.  He  was  county  attorney 
for  Androscoggin  county  four  years,  1881-85,  dis- 
charging the  duties  of  the  position  with  skill  and 
fearlessness;  judge  of  probate  four  years,  1885-89, 
and  in  the  latter  year  was  chosen  Republican 
mayor  of  Auburn.  He  held  the  office  three  years, 
1889-91,  and  no  mayor  ever  worked  with  an  eye 
more  single  to  the  welfare  of  his  city  than  did 
he.  In  1891  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature, 
re-elected  in  1893  and  chosen  speaker  of  the 
House  of  Representatives.  He  was  said  to  have 
presided  "to  the  entire  acceptance  of  all  the  mem- 
bers, showing  an  intimate  knowledge  of  parlia- 
mentary law  and  admirable  qualities  as  a  pre- 
siding officer."  He  was  a  member  of  the  Maine 
Senate  in  1895  and  1897.  In  this  period  was 
prepared  his  Index  Digest  of  the  Maine  Re- 
ports, which  he  published  January  I,  1897.  He 
held  many  positions  of  responsibility  and  trust 
in  business  affairs  in  Lewiston  and  Auburn;  was 
one  of  the  organizers,  and  first  president,  of  the 
Lewiston  &  Auburn  Electric  Light  Company; 
president  of  the  Auburn  Loan  and  Building  As- 
sociation; a  trustee  in  the  Auburn  Trust  Com- 
pany, and  a  director  in  the  Maine  Investment 
Company.  He  was  also  prominent  in  fraternal 
organizations;  a  thirty-second  degree  Mason; 
supreme  dictator  of  the  Supreme  Lodge  of  the 
Knights  of  Honor  for  two  years  when  the  order 
numbered  150,000  members;  a  member  of  the 
Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  and  many 
other  local  orders. 

In  1896  came  the  first  of  those  bitter  sorrows 
which  led  Judge  Cornish  to  say  in  after  years: 
"He  met  with  personal  bereavements  in  the  loss 
of  family  far  beyond  the  lot  of  any  man  within 
my  acquaintance,  but  no  one  ever  heard  him 
utter  a  word  of  complaint.  With  him  tribula- 
tion indeed  worked  patience."  Charles  Hale  Sav- 
age, the  eldest  child  and  only  son  of  the  family, 
after  twenty-four  years  of  promising  boyhood 
and  exemplary  manhood,  died  after  a  brief  ill- 


ness, in  Virginia.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Bow- 
doin  College,  and  distinguished  as  scholar  and 
athlete.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  prin- 
cipal of  a  college  preparatory  school,  though  in- 
tending law  as  his  life  work.  The  family  of 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Savage  consisted  of  three  children: 
Charles  Hale,  above  mentioned;  Anna  May,  who 
died  in  infancy,  in  1875,  and  Mary  Anna,  born  in 
1876,  who  died,  after  many  years  of  illness  most 
sweetly  and  patiently  borne,  in  1911. 

In  1897  Mr.  Savage  reached  the  goal  of  his 
ambition  when  Governor  Powers  appointed  him 
as  Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court 
of  Maine.  It  was  most  congenial,  satisfying  work 
to  him,  and  the  "justices"  were  like  a  band  of 
brothers.  In  1911  Dartmouth  honored  herself 
in  honoring  her  distinguished  son  by  conferring 
upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws.  Bates 
had  given  him  that  degree  in  1898,  and  in  1909 
Bowdoin  added  her  Doctor  of  Laws.  In  the  in- 
tervals between  exacting  judicial  activities 
Judge  Savage  now  had  time  to  gratify  his  love 
of  reading  to  a  degree  that  his  strenuous  early 
life  and  stirring,  crowded  middle  life  had  not 
afforded.  He  became  an  essentially  well-read 
man.  His  love  of  history  and  biography  led  him 
to  greatly  enlarge  his  private  library,  and  no  his- 
tory of  a  country  satisfied  him  unless  it  con- 
tained the  story  of  the  rise  and  progress  of  its 
literature.  He  made  an  exhaustive  study  of  the 
Shakespearean  data.  After  the  death  of  their 
daughter,  in  1911,  Mrs.  Savage's  health,  which 
had  been  almost  imperceptibly  weakening  for 
some  years,  failed  more  rapidly,  and  after  much 
suffering,  endured  with  great  fortitude,  her  life 
ended,  in  August,  1912.  In  "silent  strength"  he 
bore  his  last  and  bitterest  sorrow.  Shakespeare 
has  words  for  nearly  all  needs,  and  in  the  lonely 
hours  of  the  two  following  years,  in  his  silent 
library  and  quiet  office  at  the  Androscoggin 
county  building,  Mr.  Savage  committed  to  mem- 
ory the  entire  text  of  five  of  Shakespeare's  trage- 
dies. In  April,  1913,  Justice  Savage — following 
the  resignation  of  Chief  Justice  William  Penn 
Whitehouse — was  appointed  Chief  Justice.  He 
was  not  arbitrary  nor  dictatorial,  but  he  was  a 
natural  leader  of  men  and  must  have  much  en- 
joyed this  honorable  position.  He  knew  he  had 
earned  and  received  the  respect  and  affection  of 
the  associate  justices,  who  called  him  "The 
Chief." 

In  September,  1914,  Chief  Justice  Savage  and 
Frances  A.  Cooke  were  married  at  the  home  of 
her  sister,  Mrs.  A.  H.  Hews,  in  Weston,  Mas- 
sachusetts. Her  birthplace  was  Dover,  New 
Hampshire,  her  education  received  from  the 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


83 


country  schools  and  Franklin  Academy  within 
the  city  limits.  She  early  became  a  teacher, 
chiefly  in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  and  Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania,  where  she  was  many  years 
head  of  the  history  department  in  the  William 
Penn  Charter  School,  a  boys'  preparatory  school. 
Before  going  there  she  was  principal  of  the 
Spring  Street  Grammar  School  in  Auburn,  1880- 
83,  and  began  the  friendship  with  the  Savage 
family  which  proved  to  be  life-long.  They  came 
to  the  house  in  Auburn  where  Mr.  Savage  had 
lived  so  long  and  suffered  so  keenly,  and  to- 
gether for  two  and  a  half  years  made  it  a  home. 
In  that  home  Mr.  Savage  (to  use  the  words  of 
Chief  Justice  Cornish)  "stepped  so  suddenly 
from  the  chamber  we  call  life  into  the  chamber 
we  call  death,"  on  the  morning  of  June  14,  1917. 
In  many  notable  ways  Chief  Justice  Savage 
during  his  incumbency  of  the  bench  contributed 
to  the  high  reputation  always  held  by  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  Maine.  The  record  made  by  him 
was  one  that  maintained  in  every  sense  the 
highest  and  most  ideal  traditions  of  the  bench 
and  bar  in  America.  The  news  of  his  death  was 
received  with  the  most  profound  sorrow  through- 
out the  State,  and  numerous  expressions  of  the 
loss  sustained  by  the  whole  community  appeared 
in  the  public  prints.  One  tribute  by  an  eminent 
jurist,  Hon.  F.  A.  Morey,  will  serve  to  convey 
a  picture  of  the  man  as  he  was  known  to  his 
colleagues  of  the  bar: 

I  have  known  Justice  Savage  as  a  lawyer  and 
judge  for  more  than  twenty-five  years.  He  was 
a  man  of  unusual  mental  attainments,  of  deep 
legal  learning,  and  possessed  of  a  power  of  con- 
centration that  few  men  have.  As  a  lawyer,  he 
had  great  persuasive  powers  over  a  jury,  and 
conducted  many  an  important  case.  As  a  judge 
he  was  always  master  of  his  courtroom,  and  held 
the  business  before  him  well  in  hand.  He  could 
dispatch  business  with  unusual  celerity,  and  did 
not  know  the  meaning  of  fatigue.  Always  of 
dignified  mien,  he  will  long  be  remembered  in 
Maine  for  his  great  legal  attainments  and  high 
ranking  ability  as  a  judge. 

Another  instance  of  the  regard  in  which  he  was 
held  by  the  men  of  his  own  mental  rank  is  shown 
in  the  tribute  of  Governor  Milliken: 

Beyond  my  own  sense  of  personal  grief  and 
shock,  I  am  deeply  sensible  of  the  loss  which  the 
State  has  suffered  in  the  death  of  Chief  Justice 
Savage.  He  exemplified  to  a  superior  degree  the 
finest  traditions  of  his  great  profession.  A  virile 
thinker,  a  constant  student,  a  jurist  whose  ripe 
scholarship  and  sterling  integrity  adorned  the 
court  over  which  he  presided,  Judge  Savage 
always  gave  himself  unstintingly  to  the  task  in 
hand.  His  life  work  will  forever  be  gratefully 
remembered  in  the  annals  of  the  State  he  served 
so  well. 


The  Androscoggin  County  Bar  Association  in 
a  meeting  which  immediately  followed  his  death 
selected  a  committee  to  prepare  and  present  a 
tribute  to  the  memory  of  Judge  Savage.  In  the 
opening  of  the  memorial  program,  Judge  George 
C.  Wing,  of  Auburn,  chairman  of  the  committee 
on  resolutions,  spoke  with  feeling  of  the  relations 
that  had  always  subsisted  between  himself  and 
his  colleagues,  and  the  noted  jurist  whose  loss 
they  were  met  to  commemorate.  He  then  of- 
fered the  following  resolutions: 

Resolved,  That  the  members  of  the  Androscog- 
gin County  Bar  Association  wish  to  express  their 
great  appreciation  of  the  character  and  service 
of  Albert  Russell  Savage,  for  many  years  a  mem- 
ber of  its  association  and  of  this  court,  and  to 
offer  this  loving  tribute  to  his  memory  to  the 
end  that  the  same  may  be  placed  on  its  records 
and  made  permanent. 

Resolved,  That  during  his  entire  career  as  a 
member  of  the  bar,  in  every  place  to  which  he 
was  called  for  public  service,  he  showed  himself 
trustworthy,  and  deserving  of  the  great  honors 
which  he  enjoyed.  He  was  kind.  He  was  patient. 
He  was  learned,  and,  best  of  all,  he  was  loyal 
to  his  friends.  He  believed  in  fair  dealing  and 
that  every  suitor  should  have  a  fair  hearing  and 
1  is  contention  be  properly  considered.  He  was 
painstaking  and  impartial,  and  approached  every 
question  with  an  open  mind.  He  earned  and  de- 
served his  reputation  for  courage,  justice,  learn- 
ing and  fairness,  and  wherever  and  whenever  he 
rendered  a  service  a  sense  of  security  prevailed. 
He  died  in  his  full  intellectual  strength.  We  sit 
in  the  shadow  and  mourn  his  loss,  for  we  loved 
him  and  he  is  no  longer  with  us. 

On  the  same  occasion  former  Chief  Justice 
William  P.  Whitehouse  made  an  eloquent  testi- 
mony to  the  life  and  character  of  Judge  Savage. 
To  quote  him  in  part: 

As  a  legislator  he  achieved  distinction  both  in 
the  House  and  in  the  Senate.  He  had  been  a 
diligent  reader  of  general  history  and  a  thought- 
ful student  of  the  history  and  philosophy  of  the 
law  and  political  science.  He  was  thus  well- 
prepared  for  legislative  service,  and  made  notable 
contribution  to  the  work  of  improvement  and 
reform  in  several  branches  of  substantive  law 
and  methods  of  procedure.  He  had  thus  become 
identified  with  the  public  life  of  the  county  and 
State,  and  he  came  to  the  bench  of  the  Supreme 
Court  in  1897  with  a  broad  and  enlightened  con- 
ception of  the  onerous  and  responsible  duties 
of  that  office,  and  in  all  respects  admirably 
equipped  and  qualified  to  perform  them.  He 
brought  with  him  not  only  high  ideals  of  the 
honor  of  the  legal  profession  and  the  dignity 
of  the  law,  and  a  full  appreciation  of  the  judicial 
character  and  functions,  but  also  an  exceptional 
capacity  and  disposition  for  prolonged  and  ardu- 
ous labor  in  the  solution  of  complex  and  dif- 
ficult legal  problems,  and  the  analytical  study  of 
great  masses  of  testimony. 
The  impress  which  he  made  on  our  jurispru- 


84 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


dence,  and  the  public  and  professional  life  of  the 
State  during  the  sixteen  years  of  his  service  as 
Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  consti- 
tute a  tribute  of  confidence  and  respect  more 
potent  than  the  most  eloquent  voice  of  eulogy. 
And  with  his  superior  administrative  ability, 
superadded  to  his  great  intellectual  gifts  and 
accurate  knowledge  of  the  law,  it  is  but  the  lan- 
guage of  truth  and  soberness  to  assert  that  he 
brought  to  the  position  of  Chief  Justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  Maine  qualifications  for  the 
office  unsurpassed  by  any  of  his  predecessors 
since  the  organization  of  our  State. 

It  was  justly  said  of  him  in  one  of  the  many 
tributes  that  appeared  at  the  time  of  his  death 
the  following,  which  summarizes  his  life  and 
service: 

No  eulogy  upon  the  life  of  Chief  Justice  Sav- 
age is  required.  He  passed  away  in  the  fulness 
of  labor  and  fame,  having  erected  by  his  benefi- 
cent life  a  monument  more  lasting  than  bronze. 
Such  a  life  and  such  service  cannot  fail  to  transmit 
to  generations  beyond  our  own  the  unimpeach- 
able fame  of  an  exemplary  citizen  and  Christian 
gentleman,  and  a  distinguished  magistrate  who 
will  ever  hold  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  front 
rank  of  the  great  judges  and  jurists  in  the  judi- 
cial history  of  Maine. 


CHARLES  FREEMAN  LIBBY.— We  all  feel 
a  strong,  instinctive  admiration  for  the  natural 
leader  of  men,  the  man  who,  because  of  the 
possession  of  some  quality  or  other,  reaches  a 
place  in  which  he  directs  the  doings  of  his  fellows 
and  is  accepted  by  them  naturally  in  that  capac- 
ity. We  all  admire  him  independently  of  what 
that  quality  may  be,  even  if  our  best  judgment 
tells  us  that  it  is  by  no  means  praiseworthy  in 
itself,  and  even  if  we  should  resent  the  exercise 
of  it  upon  ourselves.  When,  however,  that  qual- 
ity is  a  lovable  one  and  a  man  leads  in  virtue 
of  the  sway  he  holds  over  the  affections  and 
veneration  of  others,  our  admiration  receives  an 
added  power  from  our  approval,  and  this  feeling 
receives  its  final  confirmation  when  the  leader- 
ship so  won  is  directed  solely  to  good  ends.  In 
noting  the  rise  to  power  and  influence  of  such 
men  it  often  appears  that  their  achievement  is 
not  the  result  of  any  faculties  of  which  we,  as 
average  men,  are  possessed,  but  rather  that  of 
some  charm  the  secret  of  which  we  have  not 
learned,  so  easily  obstacles  seem  to  be  overcome 
and  so  completely  does  every  factor  appear  to 
bend  itself  to  the  fore-ordained  event.  In  the 
great  majority  of  cases,  however,  such  appear- 
ance is  entirely  deceptive  and  the  brilliant  out- 
come is  the  result  of  causes  as  logical  and  orderly 
as  any  in  our  most  humble  experience,  of  effort 
as  unremitting  and  arduous  as  any  with  which 
we  are  familiar.  Such  in  a  large  measure  is  true 


in  the  case  of  Hon.  Charles  Freeman  Libby,  late 
of  Portland,  Maine,  whose  name  heads  this  brief 
appreciation  and  whose  reputation  in  his  home 
State  for  success  gained  without  the  compromise 
of  his  ideals  is  second  to  none.  His  rise  to  a 
place  of  prominence  in  so  many  departments  of 
the  community's  life  was  doubtless  rapid,  but  it 
was  not  won  without  the  expenditure  of  labor 
and  effort  of  the  most  consistent  kind.  If  this 
were  not  so,  how  would  it  be  possible  to  explain 
the  large  tolerance,  the  broad  human  sympathy 
and  understanding  which  he  displayed  through 
all  his  varied  intercourse  with  his  fellow-men, 
for  it  is  beyond  dispute  that  what  we  have  not 
ourselves  experienced  we  cannot  sympathize  with 
in  others.  How  large  this  sympathy  was  and 
how  well  judged  his  tolerance  is  borne  witness 
to  by  the  general  mourning  that  was  occasioned 
throughout  the  community  by  his  death,  which 
occurred  at  his  summer  residence  at  Grasmere, 
Cape  Elizabeth,  June  3,  1915. 

Charles  Freeman  Libby  was  a  descendant  of 
John  Libby,  who  came  to  New  England  in  the 
early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century  and  set- 
tled at  Scarboro,  Maine,  and  took  a  prominent 
part  in  the  early  development  of  that  colony. 
His  parents,  James  B.  and  Hannah  C.  (Morrill) 
Libby,  were  residents  of  Limerick,  Maine,  and  it 
was  in  that  town  that  he  himself  was  born, 
January  31,  1844.  His  early  life  was  spent  in 
his  native  place  and  it  was  there  that  he  gained 
the  preliminary  portion  of  his  education.  His 
parents,  however,  removed  to  Portland  while  he 
was  still  a  mere  lad  and  he  accompanied  them 
there  and  continued  his  studies  at  the  Portland 
High  School,  where  he  was  prepared  for  college. 
He  matriculated  at  Bowdoin  College  in  the  same 
year  with  his  brother,  Augustus  Frost  Libby,  in 
1860,  and  after  leaving  behind  him  a  splendid 
record  for  scholarship,  he  was  graduated  with 
honors  in  the  class  of  1864,  and  was  its  saluta- 
torian.  During  his  college  career  he  became  a 
member  of  the  Alpha  Delta  Phi  fraternity  and 
had  the  distinction  of  being  a  Phi  Beta  Kappa 
man.  He  had  already  turned  his  thoughts  to  the 
subject  of  the  law,  with  the  intention  of  making 
it  his  career  in  life,  and  accordingly,  after  his 
graduation  from  college,  he  entered  the  office 
of  Fessenden  &  Butler,  prominent  attorneys  in 
Portland,  where  he  read  law  for  about  a  year. 
In  1865  he  entered  the  Columbia  Law  School 
in  New  York  City  and  studied  there  during  that 
year  and  the  next,  when  he  graduated  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar.  The  two  years  following  his 
admission  he  spent  in  Europe,  traveling  and 
studying,  and  adding  greatly  to  his  familiarity 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


with  art  and  literature  and  to  his  general  culture. 
He  pursued  his  studies  at  Paris  and  Heidelberg, 
and  throughout  his  after  life  found  great  value 
from  his  experience  in  those  places.  After  the 
two  years  thus  spent  in  Europe,  he  returned  to 
America  and  once  more  took  up  his  residence  in 
Portland,  where  he  became  junior  member  of  the 
law  firm  of  Symonds  &  Libby.  The  senior  part- 
ner was  the  Hon.  Joseph  W.  Symonds.  Judge 
Symonds  was  appointed  to  the  bench  in  the  year 
1872,  thus  dissolving  the  firm,  whereupon  Mr. 
Libby  formed  an  association  with  Moses  M.  But- 
ler, under  the  style  of  Butler  &  Libby.  From  the 
outset  of  his  active  career  Mr.  Libby  was  emi- 
nently successful  in  his  practice  and  it  was  not 
long  before  he  began  to  make  a  very  decided  im- 
pression upon  the  bar  of  the  city.  While  still  a 
young  man,  he  was  regarded  as  one  of  its  leaders 
and  the  reputation  which  he  established  for 
capability  was  of  such  a  nature  that  very  im- 
portant litigation  came  to  be  entrusted  to  his 
care,  while  he  was  even  yet  a  young  man.  His 
partnership  with  Mr.  Butler  was  brought  to  a 
close  in  the  year  1879  by  the  death  of  the  elder 
gentleman,  and  in  1884  he  again  became  asso- 
ciated with  the  Hon.  Joseph  W.  Symonds.  These 
two  eminent  attorneys  continued  in  partnership 
until  1891,  when  the  firm  of  Libby,  Robinson  & 
Turner  was  formed,  Mr.  Libby's  junior  partners 
being  Frank  W.  Robinson  and  Levi  Turner.  Mr. 
Turner  was  elected  a  judge  in  1906,  and  Howard 
R.  Ives  was  admitted  to  the  firm,  which  then 
became  Libby,  Robinson  &  Ives.  The  offices  of 
this  well-known  concern  were  located  for  many 
years  in  the  First  National  Bank  Building,  at 
No.  57  Exchange  street,  Portland,  and  Mr.  Libby 
continued  its  senior  partner  until  the  close  of  his 
life. 

While  one  of  the  best-known  lawyers  in  the 
city,  Mr.  Libby  was  perhaps  even  more  closely 
associated  in  the  popular  mind  with  the  various 
public  offices  that  he  held,  a  fact  which  is  not 
surprising  in  view  of  the  distinguished  service 
which  he  rendered  his  fellow-citizens  in  these 
various  responsible  posts.  In  the  year  1871  he 
was  elected  to  the  office  of  city  solicitor  and  at 
once  turned  all  his  energies  and  great  legal  skill 
and  knowledge  to  the  service  of  the  city.  He 
represented  the  corporation  in  many  most  im- 
portant cases,  and  was  unusually  faithful  in  his 
attendance  at  the  meetings  of  the  city  govern- 
ment. In  1872,  while  still  holding  this  position, 
he  was  elected  county  attorney,  an  office  which 
he  held  for  three  terms,  or  until  the  year  1878, 
when  he  voluntarily  resigned,  having  in  the  mean- 
time greatly  increased  his  reputation  as  an  advo- 


cate and  established  his  reputation  as  one  of  the 
most  forceful  speakers  and  learned  jurists  of  the 
State.  In  the  year  1882  the  city  of  Portland  paid 
him  the  highest  honor  of  which  it  was  capable 
and  elected  him  its  mayor,  in  which  responsible 
capacity  he  did  much  to  advance  the  interests  of 
the  community  and  gave  the  city  a  most  prac- 
tical and  business-like  administration.  Mr.  Libby 
had  always  been  a  staunch  Republican,  and  in 
1888  that  party  nominated  him  for  State  Senator, 
to  which  body  he  was  elected  successfully.  In 
1890  he  was  reelected  to  the  Senate  and  made 
president  of  that  body  by  his  fellow-members. 
During  his  career  as  legislator  he  had  much  to 
do  with  the  passing  of  many  valuable  laws  and 
consistently  subserved  the  interests  not  only  of 
his  constituency,  but  of  the  public-at-large.  After 
the  resignation  of  his  friend  and  associate, 
Thomas  B.  Reed,  Mr.  Libby's  name  was  pro- 
posed as  his  successor  in  the  United  States  Con- 
gress, but  against  this  were  urged  the  claims  of 
York  county  to  the  succession,  which  of  course 
had  been  held  in  abeyance  during  the  many  year* 
which  Mr.  Reed  had  served.  Mr.  Libby  was  him- 
self the  first  to  realize  and  acknowledge  this 
claim,  and  although  perhaps  personally  he  was 
the  best  fitted  and  equipped  to  take  the  place  of 
his  great  contemporary,  he  withdrew  without  the 
slightest  feeling  in  favor  of  Mr.  Allen  of  the 
sister  county.  While  thus  with  a  self  abnegation 
unusual  in  the  extreme,  he  withdrew  himself 
from  the  direct  line  of  political  preferment,  he 
was  of  such  character  that  it  was  in  a  way  im- 
possible for  him  to  retire  entirely  into  private 
life,  and  for  a  number  of  years  thereafter  he 
occupied  a  quasi-public  position  of  the  greatest 
importance  in  the  community.  This  position  was 
twofold  in  character  and  had  to  do  with  his 
continued  activities  in  connection  with  the  Re- 
publican party,  of  which  he  was  an  acknowledged 
leader  for  many  years,  and  the  other  in  connec- 
tion with  his  profession,  where  his  leadership 
was  even  more  pronounced.  He  was  a  most 
effective  public  speaker  and  for  many  years  there 
was  no  campaign  in  that  region  of  the  State 
complete  without  his  appearance  on  the  platform 
to  urge  the  causes  and  interests  which  he  had 
so  much  at  heart.  For  many  years  Mr.  Libby 
had  been  a  prominent  member  of  the  bar  asso- 
ciations of  county  and  State  and  was  president 
of  the  latter  organization  from  1891  until  1896 
and  of  the  former  in  1907.  His  connection  with 
the  American  Bar  Association  was  not  less  dis- 
tinguished, and  he  was  a  member  of  its  executive 
committee  from  1900  to  1903  and  again  from  1906 
to  1909.  In  the  latter  year  he  was  elected  its 


86 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


president,  an  office  which  he  held  in  1909  and 
1910,  being  thus  the  executive  head  of  one  of  the 
greatest  legal  bodies  in  the  world. 

Another  of  the  many  and  varied  interests  of 
Mr.  Libby  was  that  which  had  to  do  with  the 
development  of  railroad  and  financial  interests 
in  his  home  city.  He  was  very  active  in  advanc- 
ing the  cause  of  the  Portland  Railroad  Com- 
pany and  in  1904  was  elected  its  president,  in 
which  capacity  he  had  much  to  do  with  the  plac- 
ing of  the  transportation  system  of  Portland  upon 
its  present  high  level.  He  was  attorney  for  the 
First  National  Bank  of  Portland,  for  the  Port- 
land Trust  Company,  and  for  the  International 
and  the  Portland  &  Maine  Steamship  companies, 
as  well  as  many  other  large  corporations  in  the 
city.  He  was  always  keenly  interested  in  edu- 
cational matters,  and  from  1869  to  1882  was  a 
member  of  the  City  School  Committee.  In  1888 
he  was  elected  to  the  Board  of  Overseers  of 
Bowdoin  College  and  four  years  later  became 
president  of  that  body,  an  office  which  he  held 
until  1912,  when  he  resigned.  He  had  sought  to 
resign  the  previous  year,  but  his  fellow-members 
refused  to  accept  his  resignation  and  were  only 
brought  to  consider  it  by  his  plea  of  failing 
health. 

No  account  of  Mr.  Libby's  life,  however  brief, 
•would  be  complete  without  a  reference  to  the 
great  interest  that  he  felt  in  art  and  to  the  in- 
fluence which  he  exerted  in  the  development  of 
the  general  culture  of  the  community  of  which 
he  was  a  member.  Reference  has  already  been 
made  to  the  fact  that  at  so  early  an  age  as  dur- 
ing his  travels  in  Europe,  he  had  turned  his  at- 
tention with  unusual  enthusiasm  toward  the  art 
of  that  Continent.  This  enthusiasm  remained 
with  him  through  life  and  throughout  its  entire 
period  he  continued  to  enlarge  and  enrich  his 
remarkable  collection  of  paintings,  engravings 
and  books.  He  has  been  regarded  as  the  most 
capable  art  critic  in  Portland  and  certainly  his 
knowledge  of  this,  his  chosen  subject,  was  at  once 
penetrating  and  profound.  A  very  valuable  col- 
lection of  rare  etchings  and  engravings  was  be- 
queathed by  Mr.  Libby  to  the  Art  Museum  of 
Portland.  In  1902  he  was  the  recipient  of  an 
honor  which  he  greatly  prized  when  Bowdoin 
College  conferred  upon  him  the  honorary  de- 
gree of  LL.D.  It  will  perhaps  be  appropriate 
here  to  introduce  a  brief  comment  on  his  love 
of  and  taste  in  art,  which  appeared  in  an  obituary 
article  printed  in  one  of  the  local  papers  on  the 
occasion  of  his  death: 

He  traveled  widely  with  Mrs.  Libby,  and  visited 
Egypt  as  well  as  Europe.  He  was  deeply  learned 


in  the  law,  but  to  a  scarcely  less  degree  in  general 
literature,  and  he  took  great  pride  in  his  pictures 
and  in  his  books.  He  loved  art  for  art's  sake 
and  was  perhaps  the  best  judge  of  pictures  in 
Portland,  and  even  after  his  health  failed  and 
he  knew  that  his  days  of  activity  and  of  leader- 
ship were  over  he  was  the  same  delightful  com- 
panion, as  those  who  met  him  at  the  office  of 
Thomas  B.  Mosher  will  long  remember. 

Doubtless  one  of  the  honors  most  satisfactory 
to  Mr.  Libby  was  that  which  was  conferred  upon 
him  in  1907  by  the  French  Government,  which 
in  that  year  created  him  "officer  de  1'Academie 
Francaise."  Speaking  of  Mr.  Libby,  the  Port- 
land Evening  Express  said  in  part,  at  the  time  of 
his  death: 

He  was  one  of  our  most  prominent  citizens, 
having  distinguished  himself  as  a  lawyer,  a  busi- 
ness man  and  in  official  position.  The  death  of 
Mr.  Libby  terminates  a  long,  active,  brilliant  and 
successful  career.  To  his  native  abilities  he  added 
the  acquirements  of  a  liberal  education,  extensive 
travel,  wide  knowledge  and  general  interest  in 
affairs.  Forceful,  self-reliant  and  courageous  in 
his  opinions  and  convictions,  he  was  a  natural 
leader  and  easily  found  his  way  to  the  front  in 
any  matter  to  which  he  gave  his  attention. 

From  one  of  the  written  tributes  to  Mr.  Libby 
we  quote  the  following: 

Of  the  standing  of  Mr.  Libby  at  the  bar,  of 
his  great  eloquence,  and  masterful  ability  in  the 
management  of  a  cause  committed  to  him,  a 
layman  cannot  be  expected  to  speak,  but  surviv- 
ing members  of  the  profession  of  the  law  will 
accord  to  him  his  due  place  in  their  ranks,  and 
in  the  ranks  of  the  lawyers  of  the  past  who  were 
his  opponents  on  so  many  occasions. 

Once  more  we  quote  from  the  same  article 
the  following: 

And  now  he  too  has  joined  the  mighty  majority 
of  the  dead.  His  long  and  brilliant  career  has 
closed,  and  he  is  like  his  former  associates, 
Thomas  B.  Reed,  Sewell  C.  Strout,  Henry  B. 
Cleaves,  and  so  many  more,  only  a  memory  of 
the  past.  They  helped  to  make  great  a  notable 
period  of  the  bar  of  the  United  States,  and  they 
maintained  to  the  fullest  degree  its  highest  and 
noblest  traditions.  And  he  was  of  the  chiefest 
of  their  number.  Great  and  splendid  in  his  elo- 
quence when  he  was  aroused  and  had  a  cause 
worthy  of  his  best  efforts.  True  in  ln's  friend- 
ships, and  generous  in  his  treatment  of  legal  or 
political  opponents.  Great,  too,  in  his  acquire- 
ments, and  in  his  ideals,  and  may  it  not  be  added, 
that  his  private  life  was  beautiful,  and  that  his 
richest  thoughts  and  the  fruits  of  his  ripest 
scholarship  he  reserved  for  his  family  circle. 

On  December  9,  1869,  Charles  Freeman  Libby 
was  united  in  marriage  with  Alice  Bradbury, 
daughter  of  Hon.  Bion  Bradbury  and  Alice 
(Williams)  Bradbury,  his  wife.  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Libby  were  the  parents  of  two  children,  Bion 
B.,  of  Boston,  and  Hilda  L.,  who  became  the  wife 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


87 


of  Howard  R.  Ivcs,  her  father's  law  partner  for 
many  years.  Mr.  Libby  is  survived  by  his  wife 
and  children. 

The  death  of  the  Hon.  Charles  Freeman  Libby 
ovcd  one  of  the  most  striking  figures  from 
a  society  where  strong  characters  and  brilliant 
personalities  were  the  rule  rather  than  the  ex- 
ception. He  possessed  in  a  high  degree  all  those 
personal  qualities  which  mark  the  best  type  of 
his  race;  a  strong  moral  sense,  unimpeachable 
honesty  and  integrity  of  purpose,  courage  and 
unlimited  capacity  for  hard  work.  If,  as  Carlyle 
remarks,  "genius  is  an  infinite  capacity  for  tak- 
ing pains,"  then  surely  Mr.  Libby  might  make  a 
strong  plea  to  be  regarded  as  a  genius  of  high 
degree.  To  these  sterner  virtues  he  added  a 
genial  temperament,  the  humor  that  seems  an 
inseparable  accompaniment  to  a  due  sense  of 
proportion,  and  a  gentleness  toward  weakness 
that  made  men  who  felt  their  cause  to  be  just 
instinctively  turn  to  him,  as  a  friend,  for  support 
and  encouragement.  His  was  a  character  that, 
aside  from  his  great  material  achievements, 
could  not  fail  to  affect  powerfully  any  environ- 
ment in  which  it  might  have  been  placed  and 
which,  in  his  death,  left  a  gap  which  even  years 
will  fail  to  fill  entirely.  The  influence  exerted 
by  the  Hon.  Mr.  Libby's  life  it  is  not  possible 
to  gauge  by  a  mere  enumeration  of  the  offices 
held  by  him  or  the  deeds  he  was  known  to 
accomplish.  These  beyond  doubt  were  of  great 
value  to  the  community,  yet  his  distinctive  in- 
fluence lay  rather  in  his  personality  than  in 
any  of  these  things.  From  his  youth  upward  he 
had  always  breathed  the  atmosphere  of  culture 
and  enlightenment  which  did  not  fail  to  affect 
his  development  in  a  most  marked  manner,  giv- 
ing to  him  that  broad  cosmopolitan  outlook  on 
life,  that  sure  tolerance  of  other  men,  their  be- 
liefs and  customs,  that  true  democracy  of  thought, 
word  and  bearing,  which  is  worth  a  thousand 
fortunes  to  its  possessor  and  more  than  a  rich 
bequest  to  those  about  one.  He  valued  the  per- 
manent tilings,  the  things  of  true  worth,  and 
pursued  them  with  an  unwavering  constancy  that 
was  remarkable  throughout  his  entire  life.  The 
basis  of  his  character  was  honor  and  sincerity, 
hut  in  addition  to  these  he  added  all  the  graces 
which  arc  the  accompaniments  of  that  true  love 
of  the  beautiful  and  worthy,  that  is  perhaps  the 
sorest  need  of  his  countrymen.  He  also  pos- 
sessed in  large  measure  those  domestic  virtues 
that  set  so  well  upon  men  of  affairs,  and  truly 
found  his  chief  happiness  in  the  intimate  inter- 
course of  his  household  about  his  own  hearth. 
He  was  the  possessor  of  many  friends  inspired 


by  his  devotion  to  a  like  devotion  for  him.  It 
was  these,  of  course,  next  to  his  immediate  fam- 
ily, who  felt  most  keenly  the  loss  occasioned  by 
his  death,  vet  they  were  by  no  means  all,  since 
the  whole  community  were  affected  by  that  sad 
event. 


ANDREW  MITCHELL  PEABLES,  one  of 
the  best  beloved  and  most  successful  physicians 
of  Auburn,  Maine,  where  his  death  occurred  on 
May  24,  1916,  was  a  member  of  an  old  Scotch 
family,  his  ancestors  having  come  from  that 
country  to  America  and  located  at  Cape  Eliza- 
beth, Maine.  He  was  a  son  of  James  and  Mar- 
garet (Larrabec)  Peables,  the  former  a  native 
of  Cape  Elizabeth,  and  a  farmer  by  occupation 
for  many  years.  Mrs.  Peables,  Sr.,  was  also  a 
native  of  this  State,  and  both  she  and  her  hus- 
band resided  during  their  latter  years  at  Auburn, 
where  their  deaths  occurred.  He  was  a  soldier 
in  his  youth  and  served  in  the  War  of  1812. 

Rorn  September  7,  1836,  at  what  was  then  Dan- 
ville, now  Auburn,  Maine,  Dr.  Andrew  Mitchell 
Peables  attended  as  a  child  the  local  town  school. 
He  was  later  sent  to  the  Lewiston  Falls  Acad- 
emy, from  which  institution  he  was  graduated. 
After  completing  his  studies  at  this  institution, 
Mr.  Peables  first  took  up  the  profession  of  teach- 
ing, but  ere  he  had  been  engaged  in  this  line 
for  many  years  he  determined  to  become  a  physi- 
cian. With  this  end  in  view  he  entered  the 
medical  department  of  Dartmouth  College  and 
graduated  from  that  institution  with  the  class  of 
1862,  taking  his  degree  in  medicine.  The  Civil 
War  was  nt  that  time  waging  and  Dr.  Peables 
at  once  enlisted  in  the  Thirteenth  Regiment, 
LTnited  States  Volunteer  Infantry,  an  organiza- 
tion made  up  of  colored  troops,  in  which  he 
occupied  the  position  of  surgeon.  He  continued 
to  serve  in  this  capacity  throughout  the  whole 
of  the  great  war,  at  the  end  of  which  he  re- 
ceived an  honorable  discharge.  Returning  to 
the  North,  Dr.  Peables  settled  for  a  time  at 
North  Waterford  and  Norway,  Maine,  where  he 
was  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession  for 
some  five  or  six  years.  He  then  came  to  Au- 
burn and  had  continued  uninterruptedly  in  prac- 
tice there  until  the  time  of  his  death.  At  Au- 
burn he  made  a  wide  reputation  for  himself  and 
gained  the  confidence  and  affection  of  the  entire 
community  as  a  capable  physician  and  a  warm- 
hearted friend.  He  was  active  in  many  depart- 
ments of  the  life  of  this  place  and  was  con- 
nected with  the  Auburn  Savings  Bank,  and  the 
pirct  \Ti*'o:'?.l  Rank  here,  as  vice-president  of 
the  former  and  a  director  of  the  latter.  He  was 


88 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


a  staunch  Democrat  in  political  belief,  but  never 
cared  for  office,  although  he  performed  the  duties 
of  citizenship  in  a  most  conscientious  and  ade- 
quate manner.  He  was  a  member  of  the  County 
Medical  Society,  the  Maine  Medical  Society,  and 
the  American  Medical  Association,  and  vice- 
president  of  the  first  named.  He  was  president 
of  the  Maine  Academy  of  Medicine,  and  in  all 
of  these  capacities  very  active  in  promoting  the 
welfare  of  his  profession  and  colleagues. 
Although,  as  before  stated,  Dr.  Peables  was  un- 
ambitious in  the  matter  of  public  affairs,  the 
pressure  exerted  upon  him  by  his  fellow-towns- 
men often  rendered  it  impossible  for  him  to 
refuse  to  serve  them  and  he  held  several  offices 
at  different  times.  He  served  as  a  member  of  the 
school  board  and  as  school  superintendent  for 
a  number  of  years,  and  did  much  to  improve  edu- 
cational conditions  here.  He  was  also  a  member 
of  the  Auburn  City  Council  for  a  number  of 
terms,  and  represented  this  district  in  the  State 
Legislature  in  1869  and  1870,  making  an  excel- 
lent reputation  for  himself  as  a  Legislator  be- 
cause of  his  ability  and  disinterestedness.  Prom- 
inent in  social  and  fraternal  circles,  Dr.  Peables 
was  a  member  of  a  number  of  orders  and  similar 
organizations  in  this  neighborhood,  including  the 
local  lodges  of  the  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
the  Knights  of  Pythias  and  the  Auburn  Post  of 
the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic.  In  his  religious 
life  Dr.  Peables  was  a  Congregationalist  and  at- 
tended the  High  Street  Church  of  that  denom- 
ination in  Auburn. 

Dr.  Peables  was  united  in  marriage  September 
19,  1864,  with  Elizabeth  H.  Haskell,  daughter  of 
Isaac  and  Anne  (Conant)  Haskell,  and  a  member 
of  the  distinguished  Haskell  family  that  has  been 
identified  with  affairs  in  this  State  for  so  many 
generations.  The  Haskells  came  originally  from 
England  and  were  founded  here  in  the  early 
Colonial  period.  Isaac  Haskell,  the  father  of 
Mrs.  Peables,  was  a  painter  at  Auburn,  where 
he  resided  for  many  years,  and  where  his  own 
death  and  that  of  his  wife  occurred.  To  Dr. 
and  Mrs.  Peables  the  following  children  were 
born:  I.  Virginia,  who  became  the  wife  of  W.  O. 
Foss,  of  East  Orange,  New  Jersey,  to  whom  she 
has  borne  two  children:  Emma,  who  became  the 
wife  of  Arthur  E.  Kusterer,  of  Grand  Rapids, 
Michigan,  and  Andrew  P.,  who  resides  at  New- 
tonville,  Massachusetts.  2.  Elizabeth  M.,  who 
resides  with  her  mother.  3.  Margaret  Anne,  who 
became  the  wife  of  the  Rev.  William  J.  Taylor, 
of  Oak  Park,  Illinois,  where  they  now  reside. 
They  are  the  parents  of  three  children:  William 
Jackson,  Richard  Peables,  and  Elizabeth. 


The  death  of  Dr.  Peables  called  out  a.  notable 
volume  of  written  and  spoken  appreciation  and 
regret,  in  which  the  public  press  of  this  and 
adjacent  towns  joined.  The  Lewiston  Evening 
Journal,  in  its  issue  of  May  25,  1916,  had  this  to 
say  of  him : 

To  tell  in  a  word  the  story  of  the  life  of  Dr. 
Peables  for  the  past  forty  years  or  more  in 
Lewiston  and  Auburn  is  to  tell  the  story  .of  one 
who  has  done  his  duty  in  all  respects,  attended 
to  the  work  of  his  profession  with  scrupulous 
fidelity  and  who,  besides  all  this,  has  been  a 
positive  influence  for  good  cheer,  sunshine  and 
interest  in  his  fellow-men.  No  man  ever  passed 
through  life  with  more  smiles  and  "goodmorn- 
ings"  than  Dr.  Peables.  Every  one  liked  to  see 
him  because  he  always  had  a  word  of  comfort 
and  encouragement,  backed  by  a  sense  of  humor 
that  was  delicious  and  by  a  dignity  and  power  of 
personal  character  to  make  good. 

The  universal  feeling  on  Dr.  Peables'  death  is 
that  of  grief.  The  mutations  of  time  bring  these 
losses,  unconsolable  to  friends,  deep  and  lasting 
to  those  who  depend  on  the  ministrations  of 
these  who  are  gone.  In  the  case  of  Dr.  Peables 
it  is  not  as  though  a  man  of  advanced  age  had 
gone.  No  one  ever  thought  of  him  as  eighty 
years  of  age.  He  was  youthful  and  active.  His 
interest  in  affairs  was  that  of  a  young  man.  He 
was  keenly  alive  to  business  matters.  He  at- 
tended the  sick  with  the  same  assiduous  care. 
In  short,  it  has  been  given  to  few  men  to  fill 
out  so  complete  and  well-rounded  a  life  as  his, 
covering  over  half  a  century  of  active  service. 
It  is  as  though  one  had  done  all  his  work,  done 
it  faithfully,  finished  out  the  course  and  gone  to 
his  reward. 

Another  beautiful  tribute  to  Dr.  Peables  was 
that  paid  him  on  the  same  sad  occasion  by  one 
who  had  known  him  from  their  school  days  and 
who  had  kept  up  the  friendship  to  the  end. 
It  will  be  appropriate  to  close  with  his  words: 

One  term  while  I  was  a  student  at  Lewiston 
Falls  Academy,  'way  back  in  the  fifties,  a  young 
man,  several  years  older  than  myself,  joined  the 
English  department  and  showed  such  comrade- 
ship and  ambition  in  social  as  well  as  in  educa- 
tional lines  that  he  attracted  the  attention  and 
sympathy  of  the  boys,  most  of  whom  were  poor 
and  fighting  their  way  to  college  or  to  the  learned 
professions,  since  at  that  time  business  offered 
far  less  opportunity  for  educated  men  than  it 
does  today.  .  .  . 

A.  M.  Peables  came  to  us  from  Old  Danville. 
There  was  a  notion  at  that  time  that  no  prophet 
could  come  out  of  that  Nazareth.  But  live  men 
dislodge  many  half-truths.  Peables  was  at  once 
enfranchised  among  the  popular  students  of  the 
institution.  .  .  . 

Young  Peables  was  admitted  to  the  fraternity 
of  the  popular  ones  at  a  period  in  our  academic 
life  in  which  it  was  no  disgrace  to  be  poor.  He 
worked  hard,  worked  successfully,  and  amongf 
a  large  number  of  boys  and  girls  who  have  been 
heard  from  in  various  walks  of  life  since  the 
fifties,  young  Peables  is  by  no  means  least  promi- 
nent. 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


No  matter  what  hour  of  day  or  night,  the 
doctor  responded  to  the  summons  of  the  sick, 
and  to  the  very  last  it  deeply  pained  him  not 
to  be  able  to  climb  into  his  overcoat  and  go  out 
lo  respond  to  the  call  of  the  distressed.  Whether 
in  church  or  professional  life,  in  society  or  busi- 
ness, Dr.  Peables  was  a  minuteman — never  a 
man  mi-nute.  His  heart  was  large,  his  friendship 
genuine  and  broad.  His  art  of  making  many 
friends  was  instinctive — never  clouded  by  false 
standards  nor  by  questionable  practices.  His 
judgment  of  men  was  accurate;  his  charity  was 
clarified  by  justice. 

I  have  met  on  the  streets  today  more  men  and 
women  whose  eyes  were  moist  because  of  Dr. 
Peables'  death  than  I  remember  in  a  long  time 
to  have  noted  in  the  death  of  our  home  leaders. 
The  doctor's  greeting  was  one  of  the  city's  best 
assets.  The  doctor's  service  to  the  various  finan- 
cial and  other  institutions  with  which  he  was 
affiliated  was  intelligent,  conscientious  and  appre- 
ciative. His  value  to  the  cities  was  understood 
and  considered  before  he  died.  Those  who  have 
been  associated  with  him  in  business,  banking 
and  other  lines  deeply  feel  his  death.  Instant, 
in  season  and  out,  they  have  been  solicitous  for 
his  recovery  from  this,  almost  the  only  serious 
illness  of  his  durable  life;  but,  accustomed  as  the 
doctor  was  to  diagnosing  others'  physical  ail- 
ments, he  felt  for  some  days  that  this  was  his 
final  summons.  And  he  met  the  call  of  the 
Reaper  as  do  the  harvest  fields. 

In  his  profession  he  never  stood  still,  he  kept 
rp-to-date.  He  was  progressively  conservative, 
rever  hesitating  to  join  the  forward  march, 
whether  the  issue  was  scientific  in  his  profes- 
sion, or  practical  in  the  service  of  church  or 
society.  One  of  his  patients  said  to  the  writer 
today  that  when  he  called  for  Dr.  Peables'  pro- 
fessional services  late  in  life  he  found  him  as 
well  informed  touching  new  remedies  and  treat- 
ments as  he  was  in  business  and  other  lines. 

Dr.  Peables  prayed  not  that  he  might  live 
eternally  here,  or  externally  hereafter,  but  that 
whatever  happened  he  might  not  rust  out.  His 
prayer  was  answered.  He  kept  in  the  harness 
until  the  setting  sun.  He  held  a  high  standard  of 
usefulness  against  all  weariness  and  all  solicita- 
tions of  personal  comfort.  His  example  is  better 
than  dogma  touching  industry  and  opportunity. 

Most  of  all  will  Dr.  Peables  be  missed  in  a 
delightful  domestic  life.  Hundreds  of  individuals 
and  their  fireside  circles  in  this  community,  ac- 
customed *p  being  blessed  by  his  medical  minis- 
trations, will  miss  him  not  only  as  their  physi- 
cian, but  as  their  faithful  and  lifelong  friend. 

The  men  who  have  passed  out  of  our  local 
horizon  in  the  ripeness  of  age,  convey  a  useful 
lesion.  We  are  now  emerging  from  all  work 
anil  no  plav  to  too  much  play  and  too  little 
work.  The  lesson  of  Dr.  Peables'  life  is  salutary 
for  this  age.  He  had  more  joy  in  work  than  lots 
of  folks  get  out  of  ostensible  fun. 


FRANK  LEVI  GRAY,  one  of  the  most  popu- 
lar and  successful  educators  of  Maine  and  pro- 
prietor of  the  well-known  institution,  Gray's 
Portland  Business  College  and  School  of  Short- 


hand and  Typewriting,  was  born  at  the  town  of 
Hillsborough,  Indiana,  August  21,  1862,  but  was 
brought  to  Portland,  Maine,  in  infancy.  He  is 
a  son  of  Levi  Albert  Gray,  who  was  born  in 
New  York  State,  and  spent  the  major  portion 
of  his  life  teaching.  For  a  time  he  had  charge  of 
an  academy  in  Indiana  and  also  taught  in  Chi- 
cago, Illinois,  and  Providence,  Rhode  Island. 
Eventually,  however,  he  came  to  Portland, 
Maine,  and  it  was  he  that  founded  there  the 
school  of  which  his  son  is  now  the  head.  His 
death  occurred  in  Portland,  July  26,  1896,  at  the 
age  of  sixty-nine  years.  He  married  Lucia  (Ter- 
rell) Gray,  a  native  of  Oneida,  New  York,  whose 
death  occurred  in  Portland,  Maine,  in  April,  1915. 
They  were  the  parents  of  two  children,  as  fol- 
lows: Ella  G.,  who  is  now  the  wife  of  Frank  H. 
Little,  of  Cape  Elizabeth,  Maine,  and  Frank  Levi, 
of  whom  further. 

Although  born  in  the  West,  Frank  Levi  Gray 
did  not  reside  there  long  enough  to  form  any 
associations  with  his  native  region,  but  came  to 
the  East  with  his  parents  while  still  an  infant. 
They  settled  in  Portland  and  it  was  here  that 
he  gained  his  education,  attending  for  that  pur- 
pose the  local  public  schools.  Having  completed 
his  studies  in  these  institutions  and  attaining  his 
majority,  he  entered  his  father's  establishment 
as  an  assistant  and  from  that  time  to  the  present 
(1917)  has  been  associated  therewith.  This  in- 
stitution had  been  purchased  by  his  father  in  the 
year  1864  from  its  original  owners  and  its  name 
changed  from  the  Bryant  &  Stratton  to  its  pres- 
ent form.  For  some  years  he  taught  in  this 
school,  and  in  1894  was  admitted  into  partner- 
ship by  his  father.  Two  years  later  his  father 
died  and  he  at  once  assumed  entire  control  of 
the  school,  and  at  the  present  time  devotes  prac- 
tically his  entire  attention  thereto. 

Gray's  Portland  Business  College  is  the  oldest 
and  largest  of  its  kind  in  the  State  of  Maine  and 
possesses  many  conspicuous  advantages.  Its 
location  in  the  city  is  particularly  fortunate,  it 
being  placed  directly  opposite  the  handsome  new 
City  Hall,  which  has  recently  been  erected  there, 
and  occupies  the  second,  third  and  fourth  floors 
of  the  Davis  building,  on  Congress  street,  ex- 
tending from  Exchange  to  Market  street.  In 
equipment  and  general  facilities  it  is  second  to 
no  institution  of  its  kind,  and  it  contains  a  large 
number  of  important  departments  calculated  to  fit 
the  young  aspirant  for  well  nigh  any  branch  of 
business  which  he  desires  to  enter.  We  quote 
briefly  from  its  catalogue: 

A  fair  knowledge  of  the  common  English 
branches  is  sufficient  preparation  for  entering 


90 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


upon  the  regular  business  course.  No  examina- 
tion required  upon  entering.  Time  of  Entering — 
Students  can  enter  at  any  time  during  the  year 
with  equal  advantages,  as  there  are  no  term  divi- 
sions and  as  the  instruction  is  principally  indi- 
vidual. 

General  Plan  of  Instruction — The  student  en- 
tering the  Business  Department  is  first  assigned 
a  seat  in  the  department  for  beginners,  and  com- 
mences at  once  to  handle  invoices  of  merchan- 
dise, receive  and  pay  money,  make  deposits,  write 
letters,  issue  and  receive  notes,  drafts  and  checks, 
and  keep  an  accurate  record  of  each  transaction 
in  regular  books  of  entry;  in  fact,  does  in  the 
college  from  the  start  what  will  be  found  to  do 
when  entering  upon  actual  office  work.  After 
passing  a  satisfactory  examination  on  the  work 
gone  over,  the  student  is  allowed  to  enter  our 
Advanced  Department,  where  the  work  is  carried 
on  under  actual  dates,  and  by  so  doing  the  stu- 
dent is  not  simply  taught  to  do  when  instructed, 
but  learns  to  look  after  things  and  do  his  own 
planning,  such  as  collecting  the  amount  due  on 
notes  he  holds  and  paying  his  outstanding  notes 
on  the  actual  days  of  maturity,  and  feels  a  cer- 
tain amount  of  care  and  .responsibility,  the  same 
as  though  he  were  holding  a  position  of  trust. 
In  brief,  our  students  are  taught  to  do  by  doing 
and  have  office  practice  from  the  start.  In  con- 
nection with  the  regular  bookkeeping  work,  the 
student  is  expected  to  make  himself  familiar  with 
Arithmetic  and  such  portions  of  Commercial  Law 
as  govern  the  transactions,  by  studying  the  text- 
books on  these  subjects,  assisted  by  the  teacher 
in  charge. 

Individual  Instruction — Each  student  receives 
individual  instruction  suited  to  his  own  particu- 
lar needs  at  all  times,  thereby  enabling  him  to 
proceed  in  his  course  as  rapidly  as  his  own 
ability  and  application  will  permit.  By  this  plan 
all  are  encouraged  to  pursue  their  course  as  rap- 
idly as  possible,  consistent  with  thoroughness, 
none  being  held  in  restraint  by  those  less  ad- 
vanced or  less  inclined  to  improve  their  oppor- 
tunities. 

Discipline — The  management  of  the  College 
is  upon  as  liberal  a  basis  as  possible,  consistent 
with  the  proper  order  and  decorum  necessary 
for  concentration  of  thought  and  the  proper  per- 
formance of  all  business  transactions.  To  secure 
this,  we  rely  principally  on  the  manhood  and 
good  judgment  of  the  students.  The  value  of 
good  discipline  in  the  management  of  a  school 
cannot  be  overestimated.  This  is  a  question  of 
the  greatest  importance  in  deciding  what  school 
to  patronize.  Good  discipline  results  in  the 
forming  of  correct  business  habits,  which  are  of 
equal  importance  with  a  good  course  of  instruc- 
tion, and  no .  mercantile  education  is  of  any 
special  value  without  them.  Those  only  will  suc- 
ceed who  acquire  habits  of  industry,  persever- 
ance and  integrity  before  entering  upon  a  busi- 
ness career.  The  college  has  two  general 
courses,  known  as  the  business  and  shorthand 
courses,  in  the  former  of  which  occur  bookkeep- 
ing, arithmetic,  business  penmanship,  correspond- 
ence, commercial  law,  banking  and  office  prac- 
tice. In  the  shorthand  course  stenography  and 


typewriting,  punctuation,  spelling  and  letter 
writing  receive  special  attention.  One  of  the 
most  interesting  departments  of  the  school  is 
that  for  beginners,  there  being  no  examination 
required  here  for  entrance.  Business  corre- 
spondence is  given  particular  attention  and  under 
the  heading  of  arithmetic  are  taught  such  sub- 
jects as  percentage,  banking  and  general  ac- 
counts. The  important  subject,  commercial  law, 
is  thus  referred  to  in  the  prospectus  of  the  school. 
Commercial  law  is  a  very  important  study  in 
most  business  schools  and  receives  special  at- 
tention. Although  not  contemplating  a  profes- 
sional course  of  instruction  in  law,  we  have,  nev- 
ertheless, found  it  necessary  to  embrace  in  our 
list  of  requirements  a  sufficient  knowledge  of 
law  to  render  the  student  familiar  with  the  gen- 
eral principles  which  govern  business  transac- 
tions, and  which  will  enable  him,  as  a  merchant, 
to  steer  clear  of  the  thousand  little  informalities 
and  indiscretions  which  so  often  lead  to  ex- 
pensive litigations,  perplexities  and  losses.  Our 
course  in  this  branch  of  study  embraces  the  fol- 
lowing general  subjects:  Contracts  in  general, 
Agency,  Commercial  Paper,  Bailment,  Partner- 
ship, the  points  on  real  estate  that  every  business 
man  should  know.  For  a  few  years  after  the 
College  was  established  these  subjects  were  pre- 
sented in  lectures  by  a  member  of  the  bar,  but 
in  due  time  this  method  was  abandoned  as  not 
proving  satisfactory,  from  the  fact  that  the  stu- 
dents remembered  but  very  little  of  the  excellent 
matter  presented  in  the  lectures.  Now  the  stu- 
dents may  study  the  subjects  carefully  from  the 
textbook  furnished  by  the  College,  and  then  re- 
view them  with  the  teacher,  who  is  thoroughly 
conversant  with  the  subjects  treated.  This 
method  is  found  by  experience  to  produce  a 
much  more  permanent  benefit  to  the  student. 

There  have  been  special  arrangements  made 
whereby  the  students  of  this  college  can  easily 
take  advantage  of  the  privileges  offered  by  the 
gymnasium  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation of  Portland,  a  fact  of  which  many  are 
only  too  glad  to  take  advantage  and  which  tends 
to  maintain  a  high  standard  of  health  among 
them. 

Mr.  Gray  is  a  well-known  figure  in  the  social 
life  of  Portland,  a  member  of  the  Woodford  Club, 
and  spends  as  much  of  his  spare  time  as  pos- 
sible automobiling,  of  which  he  is  very  fond. 

On  June  15,  1887,  in  the  city  of  Portland,  Mr. 
Gray  was  united  in  marriage  with  Carrie  E. 
Pennell,  a  native  of  Portland,  whose  death  oc- 
curred October  26,  1915.  To  them  were  born 
two  children:  Lucien  Edwin  Charles,  December 
i,  1890,  who  now  assists  his  father  in  the  con- 
duct of  the  school,  and  Eleaonora,  born  July  17, 
1896. 

The  service  rendered  to  the  cause  of  teach- 
ing by  Mr.  Gray  during  the  many  years  of  devo- 
tion to  this  chosen  profession  would  be  difficult 


90 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


upon  the  regular  business  course.  No  examina- 
tion required  upon  entering.  Time  of  Entering — 
Students  can  enter  at  any  time  during  the  year 
with  equal  advantages,  as  there  are  no  term  divi- 
sions and  as  the  instruction  is  principally  indi- 
vidual. 

General  Plan  of  Instruction — The  student  en- 
tering the  Business  Department  is  first  assigned 
a  seat  in  the  department  for  beginners,  and  com- 
mences at  once  to  handle  invoices  of  merchan- 
dise, receive  and  pay  money,  make  deposits,  write 
letters,  issue  and  receive  notes,  drafts  and  checks, 
and  keep  an  accurate  record  of  each  transaction 
in  regular  books  of  entry;  in  fact,  does  in  the 
college  from  the  start  what  will  be  found  to  do 
when  entering  upon  actual  office  work.  After 
passing  a  satisfactory  examination  on  the  work 
gone  over,  the  student  is  allowed  to  enter  our 
Advanced  Department,  where  the  work  is  carried 
on  under  actual  dates,  and  by  so  doing  the  stu- 
dent is  not  simply  taught  to  do  when  instructed, 
but  learns  to  look  after  things  and  do  his  own 
planning,  such  as  collecting  the  amount  due  on 
notes  he  holds  and  paying  his  outstanding  notes 
on  the  actual  days  of  maturity,  and  feels  a  cer- 
tain amount  of  care  and  .responsibility,  the  same 
as  though  he  were  holding  a  position  of  trust. 
In  brief,  our  students  are  taught  to  do  by  doing 
and  have  office  practice  from  the  start.  In  con- 
nection with  the  regular  bookkeeping  work,  the 
student  is  expected  to  make  himself  familiar  with 
Arithmetic  and  such  portions  of  Commercial  Law 
as  govern  the  transactions,  by  studying  the  text- 
books on  these  subjects,  assisted  by  the  teacher 
in  charge. 

Individual  Instruction — Each  student  receives 
individual  instruction  suited  to  his  own  particu- 
lar needs  at  all  times,  thereby  enabling  him  to 
proceed  in  his  course  as  rapidly  as  his  own 
ability  and  application  will  permit.  By  this  plan 
all  are  encouraged  to  pursue  their  course  as  rap- 
idly as  possible,  consistent  with  thoroughness, 
none  being  held  in  restraint  by  those  less  ad- 
vanced or  less  inclined  to  improve  their  oppor- 
tunities. 

Discipline — The  management  of  the  College 
is  upon  as  liberal  a  basis  as  possible,  consistent 
with  the  proper  order  and  decorum  necessary 
for  concentration  of  thought  and  the  proper  per- 
formance of  all  business  transactions.  To  secure 
this,  we  rely  principally  on  the  manhood  and 
good  judgment  of  the  students.  The  value  of 
pood  discipline  in  the  management  of  a  school 
cannot  be  overestimated.  This  is  a  question  of 
the  greatest  importance  in  deciding  what  school 
to  patronize.  Good  discipline  results  in  the 
forming  of  correct  business  habits,  which  are  of 
equal  importance  with  a  good  course  of  instruc- 
tion, and  no.  mercantile  education  is  of  any 
special  value  without  them.  Those  only  will  suc- 
ceed who  acquire  habits  of  industry,  persever- 
ance and  integrity  before  entering  upon  a  busi- 
ness career.  The  college  has  two  general 
courses,  known  as  the  business  and  shorthand 
courses,  in  the  former  of  which  occur  bookkeep- 
ing, arithmetic,  business  penmanship,  correspond- 
ence, commercial  law,  banking  and  office  prac- 
tice. In  the  shorthand  course  stenography  and 


typewriting,  punctuation,  spelling  and  letter 
writing  receive  special  attention.  One  of  the 
most  interesting  departments  of  the  school  is 
that  for  beginners,  there  being  no  examination 
required  here  for  entrance.  Business  corre- 
spondence is  given  particular  attention  and  under 
the  heading  of  arithmetic  are  taught  such  sub- 
jects as  percentage,  banking  and  general  ac- 
counts. The  important  subject,  commercial  law, 
is  thus  referred  to  in  the  prospectus  of  the  school. 
Commercial  law  is  a  very  important  study  in 
most  business  schools  and  receives  special  at- 
tention. Although  not  contemplating  a  profes- 
sional course  of  instruction  in  law,  we  have,  nev- 
ertheless, found  it  necessary  to  embrace  in  our 
list  of  requirements  a  sufficient  knowledge  of 
law  to  render  the  student  familiar  with  the  gen- 
eral principles  which  govern  business  transac- 
tions, and  which  will  enable  him,  as  a  merchant, 
to  steer  clear  of  the  thousand  little  informalities 
and  indiscretions  which  so  often  lead  to  ex- 
pensive litigations,  perplexities  and  losses.  Our 
course  in  this  branch  of  study  embraces  the  fol- 
lowing general  subjects:  Contracts  in  general, 
Agency,  Commercial  Paper,  Bailment,  Partner- 
ship, the  points  on  real  estate  that  every  business 
man  should  know.  For  a  few  years  after  the 
College  was  established  these  subjects  were  pre- 
sented in  lectures  by  a  member  of  the  bar,  but 
in  due  time  this  method  was  abandoned  as  not 
proving  satisfactory,  from  the  fact  that  the  stu- 
dents remembered  but  very  little  of  the  excellent 
matter  presented  in  the  lectures.  Now  the  stu- 
dents may  study  the  subjects  carefully  from  the 
textbook  furnished  by  the  College,  and  then  re- 
view them  with  the  teacher,  who  is  thoroughly 
conversant  with  the  subjects  treated.  This 
method  is  found  by  experience  to  produce  a 
much  more  permanent  benefit  to  the  student. 

There  have  been  special  arrangements  made 
whereby  the  students  of  this  college  can  easily 
take  advantage  of  the  privileges  offered  by  the 
gymnasium  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation of  Portland,  a  fact  of  which  many  are 
only  too  glad  to  take  advantage  and  which  tends 
to  maintain  a  high  standard  of  health  among 
them. 

Mr.  Gray  is  a  well-known  figure  in  the  social 
life  of  Portland,  a  member  of  the  Woodford  Club, 
and  spends  as  much  of  his  spare  time  as  pos- 
sible automobiling,  of  which  he  is  very  fond. 

On  June  IS,  1887,  in  the  city  of  Portland,  Mr. 
Gray  was  united  in  marriage  with  Carrie  E. 
Pennell,  a  native  of  Portland,  whose  death  oc- 
curred October  26,  1915.  To  them  were  born 
two  children:  Lucien  Edwin  Charles,  December 
i,  1890,  who  now  assists  his  father  in  the  con- 
duct of  the  school,  and  Eleaonora,  born  July  17, 
1806. 

The  service  rendered  to  the  cause  of  teach- 
ing by  Mr.  Gray  during  the  many  years  of  devo- 
tion to  this  chosen  profession  would  be  difficult 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


91 


to  gauge.  Throughout  this  long  period  he  ap- 
pears the  typical  scholar,  whose  delight  is  in 
knowledge  and  the  enlightened  cosmopolitan 
mind  which  knowledge  brings.  In  teaching,  as  in 
all  vocations,  the  quality  of  the  work  accom- 
plished undoubtedly  depends  primarily  upon  the 
profession  of  certain  fundamental  virtues  by  the 
teacher.  Of  these  virtues  perhaps  simplicity  and 
zeal  are  the  chief,  and  both  these  are  the  pos- 
session of  Mr.  Gray  in  good  measure.  He  has 
no  other  purpose  than  the  very  best  develop- 
ment of  his  pupils,  and  his  ardor  in  this  cause 
is  exhaustless.  But  despite  this  ardor,  despite 
his  unwearied  efforts  on  their  behalf,  he  is  never 
impatient  or  lacking  in  sympathy  even  for  the 
least  gifted.  So  long  as  effort  is  shown  he  is 
appreciative  of  it,  however  little  the  result.  The 
only  person  with  whom  he  is  a  stern  taskmaster 
is  himself,  for  whom  he  holds  unabated  the 
standards  of  his  New  England  conscience.  It  is 
not  that  he  is  incapable  of  showing  his  disap- 
proval for  what  is  unworthy,  nor  backward  about 
doing  so.  Let  him  but  discover  a  sham  of  any 
kind  or  insincerity,  and  no  one  is  more  ready  to 
utter  a  rebuke.  Over  the  strong  framework  of 
those  virtues  which  in  his  ancestors  had  often 
seemed  harsh,  he  draws  a  mantle  of  culture  and 
the  tolerance  which  culture  lends.  The  men 
who  truly  know  the  world  grow  charitable  toward 
it,  and  there  are  but  few  departments  of  knowl- 
edge in  which  Mr.  Gray  is  not  at  home,  albeit 
his  classes  are  mostly  in  the  subjects  in  connec- 
tion with  a  modern  training  for  business.  His 
tastes  are  what  might  be  expected  of  a  whole- 
some nature  such  as  his,  and  consist  so  far  as 
recreation  goes  in  outdoor  sports  of  every  sort. 


JOSEPH  RALPH  LIBBY— The  story  of  the 
life  of  the  late  Joseph  Ralph  Libby,  who  up  to 
the  time  of  his  death,  November  5,  1917,  was  one 
of  the  best-known  merchants  of  Portland,  Maine, 
proprietor  of  the  great  department  store  of  J.  R. 
Libby  Company,  and  one  of  the  most  influential 
and  public-spirited  citizens  of  the  community, 
was  one  of  steady  and  persistent  effort  towards 
worthy  ambitions,  and  of  the  wise  and  just  use 
of  power  and  prestige  when  once  he  had  achieved 
them.  Occupying  an  enviable  position  among 
the  most  prominent  citizens  of  Portland,  he 
might  claim  with  satisfaction  that  he  gained  his 
place  through  no  favor  or  mere  accident,  but 
by  his  own  native  ability  and  sound  judgment, 
and  the  wise  foresight  with  which  he  carefully 
fitted  himself  for  the  work  into  which  his  inclina- 
tions urged  him.  High  ideals  were  coupled  in 
him  to  that  force  of  character  and  that  tenacity 


of  purpose  which  must  inevitably  bear  the  fruit 
of  a  well-merited  success.  Mr.  Libby  was  a 
member  of  a  family  that  for  many  generations 
has  been  identified  with  this  region  and  with 
New  England  in  general.  The  Libbys,  indeed, 
can  claim  an  antiquity  greater  than  their  Ameri- 
can residence,  the  line  being  traceable  for  a  num- 
ber of  generations  prior  to  their  coming  here, 
in  the  native  home  in  England.  The  American 
branch  with  which  we  are  here  concerned  was 
founded  in  Maine  in  the  year  1634,  when  Mr. 
Libby's  ancestors  settled  at  Scarboro,  and  from 
that  time  to  this  its  members  have  been  promi- 
nent in  the  several  communities  where  they  have 
made  their  homes.  Mr.  Libby's  parents  were 
Ivory  and  Eliza  Ann  (Davis)  Libby,  life-long 
residents  of  Buxton,  Maine,  where  the  former 
operated  a  flourishing  farm  and  was  active  in  the 
life  of  the  community.  They  were  of  the  strong 
and  able  type  that  has  come  to  be  regarded  as 
characteristic  of  New  England  in  general  and 
of  the  "Pine  Tree  State"  in  particular. 

Born  March  20,  1845,  at  Buxton,  Maine,  Joseph 
R.  Libby  gained  the  elementary  portion  of  his 
education  at  the  public  schools  of  his  native 
region.  He  later  attended  the  Limington  Acad- 
emy and  there  completed  his  schooling.  Even 
as  a  lad  he  took  a  keen  interest  in  business  and 
began  to  develop  early  the  qualities  of  good 
judgment  and  foresight,  together  with  prompt- 
ness of  decision,  that  were  the  materials  of  which 
his  subsequent  success  was  fashioned.  Upon 
completing  his  studies  he  secured,  while  still  little 
more  than  a  lad,  a  clerical  position  in  a  store 
at  Bonny  Eagle,  a  small  country  establishment, 
where,  nevertheless,  he  was  able  with  his  quick 
apprehension  and  intelligence,  to  master  the  ele- 
ments of  business,  and  the  principles  upon  which 
such  commercial  enterprises  are  founded.  With 
a  mind  as  brilliant  as  his  it  only  required  the 
opportunity  to  expend  these  underlying  princi- 
ples to  whatever  power  the  size  of  the  business 
required,  and  proceed  to  the  application  of  them. 
It  was  in  the  autumn  of  1861  that  Mr.  Libby  be- 
came connected  with  this  concern,  and  for  a 
time  the  novelty  of  the  life  and  the  fact  that 
he  was  learning  something  that  his  mind  per- 
ceived was  of  value  kept  him  sufficiently  occu- 
pied, but  as  time  went  on  and  he  became  entirely 
familiar  with  the  small  business,  it  was  natural 
that  his  enterprising  nature  should  cause  him  to 
turn  to  other  and  larger  fields  in  search  of 
greater  opportunities,  and  it  was  not  long  before 
he  was  on  his  way  to  Boston,  where  he  felt  that 
they  were  to  be  found.  In  that  city  he  secured 
employment  in  one  of  the  large  mercantile  con- 


92 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


cerns  of  the  place,  and  it  was  there  that  the  real 
training  for  his  future  career  was  carried  on. 
He  quickly  became  familiar  with  every  branch  of 
the  business  and  became  so  valuable  that  he 
was  made  a  salesman  and  traveled  through  the 
country  representing  the  firm  in  various  places. 
Continuing  his  brilliant  work,  it  was  within  but 
a  few  years  of  entering  the  concern  that  he 
became  its  chief  salesman  and  was  given  the 
State  of  New  York  for  his  territory.  But  in  spite 
of  this  rapid  promotion,  Mr.  Libby  was  by  no 
means  satisfied.  He  had  always  a  strong  ambi- 
tion to  engage  in  business  for  himself  and  how- 
ever great  might  be  his  success  as  the  employee 
of  another,  he  never  lost  sight  of  it.  He  was 
therefore  very  well  pleased  when  a  little  later 
he  found  himself  in  a  position  to  form  a  partner- 
ship with  a  Mr.  Vickery,  of  Portland,  Maine,  and 
there  open  a  mercantile  establishment  of  their 
own.  This  venture  met  with  a  very  gratifying 
success.  The  original  store  in  Portland,  which 
he  now  gave  up,  was  situated  on  Free  street, 
only  a  short  distance  from  the  subsequent  great 
establishment.  It  was  at  about  this  time  that 
his  attention  began  to  be  turned  to  the  West, 
where  the  young  but  rapidly  growing  communi- 
ties seemed  to  afford  opportunities  more  tempt- 
ing than  anything  to  be  found  in  the  slower 
East,  and,  after  a  few  years  with  the  Boston 
concern,  he  determined  to  try  his  fortunes  there. 
In  1871  he  settled  at  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  and 
opened  a  large  mercantile  house.  In  spite  of  a 
marked  initial  success,  however,  Mr.  Libby's 
western  venture  was  not  continued  by  him  for 
a  long  period.  This  was  due  to  the  fact  that 
within  a  year  a  very  liberal  offer  was  made  to 
him  for  the  purchase  of  his  already  flourishing 
business,  with  which  he  quickly  closed,  although 
he  felt  a  sincere  regret  to  giving  up  his  enter- 
prise in  that  progressive  place.  There  was  one 
consideration,  however,  which  weighed  strongly 
with  him,  and  that  was  his  intense  love  for 
New  England  and  New  England  ways  of  doing, 
and  his  desire  to  be  once  more  in  that  environ- 
ment, a  feeling  that  never  left  him,  but  rather 
grew  and  developed  with  age.  Thus  it  was  that 
the  year  1872  saw  him  once  more  in  the  State 
of  Maine,  and  this  time  settled  in  the  town  of 
Biddeford,  where  he  promptly  began  operations. 
He  purchased  a  dry  goods  store  and  a  carpet 
store  and  combined  the  two,  thus  founding  what 
was  the  first  department  store  of  the  place.  He 
continued  to  conduct  this  enterprise  successfully 
until  1890,  when  he  finally  came  to  Portland  and 
there  opened  the  store  that  has  since  grown  to 
such  enormous  proportions.  In  order  to  give  it 


the  scope  that  he  desired,  Mr.  Libby  proceeded 
as  he  had  already  done  at  Biddeford,  only  upon 
a  larger  scale.  He  purchased  the  dry  goods  busi- 
ness, already  of  large  proportions,  conducted  by 
the  firm  of  Turner  Brothers  &  Newcomb,  in 
the  building  now  occupied  by  the  Eastman 
Brothers  &  Bancroft  Company.  He  also  pur- 
chased the  business  of  Horatio  Staples,  at  the 
corner  of  Middle  and  Cross  streets,  and  these 
two  he  combined  to  form  the  store  of  the  J.  R. 
Libby  Company,  which  met  with  the  most  grati- 
fying success  from  the  outset.  Mr.  Libby's 
business  judgment  never  seems  to  have  gone 
astray,  and  one  particularly  good  example  of  his 
foresight  was  given  in  1897,  when  he  took  a  step 
against  the  advice  of  the  great  majority  of  his 
associates.  He  had  been  keenly  observing  the 
trend  of  the  city's  growth  towards  the  west,  and 
this,  and  the  fact  that  his  original  quarters  on 
Monument  Square  were  growing  too  cramped  for 
his  increasing  trade,  induced  him  to  lease  a  large 
store  space  in  the  Baxter  Block,  at  the  intersec- 
tion of  Congress,  Oak  and  Free  streets.  For 
more  than  twenty  years  the  business  thus  estab- 
lished by  Mr.  Libby  has  grown  uninterruptedly 
until,  at  the  time  of  his  death,  it  was  one  of  the 
largest  enterprises  of  its  kind  in  the  State.  All 
this  great  development  was  guided  and  directed 
by  Mr.  Libby  personally,  who  continually  super- 
vised the  entire  operation  of  the  establishment 
even  to  its  details.  A  number  of  years  ago  he 
admitted  into  partnership  with  himself  his  two 
sons,  Ralph  G.  and  Harold  T.  Libby,  and  his 
son-in-law,  William  R.  Cutter,  and,  after  more 
than  half  a  century  of  uninterrupted  activity, 
partially  withdrew,  leaving  to  a  certain  extent 
the  conduct  of  affairs  to  these  young  men,  all 
of  whom  he  had  carefully  trained  in  the  business 
under  his  own  supervision.  Even  more  familiar 
with  the  business  than  they,  however,  was  Mrs. 
Libby,  who  had  always  been  made  a  confidante 
by  her  husband,  and  had  come  to  know  every  de- 
tail scarcely  less  well  than  he.  Her  advice,  in- 
deed, was  continually  sought  by  him  in  every 
matter  concerning  the  conduct  of  the  concern, 
and  was  the  greatest  single  factor  in  determining 
his  policies.  Since  his  death  the  responsibility 
for  the  company  has  fallen  to  a  large  extent 
upon  the  shoulders  of  the  young  men,  his  suc- 
cessors, but  they  have  been  guided  and  sup- 
ported by  the  kindly  advice  and  assistance  of 
Mrs.  Libby,  who,  being  so  thoroughly  familiar 
with  her  husband's  plans,  is  peculiarly  well 
equipped  to  supervise  their  carrying  out.  The 
combination  of  executive  ability  and  wise  counsel 
has  proved  a  strong  one  and  the  great  business 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


93 


has  continued  to  develop  since  the  death  of  the 
founder  until  it  has  attained  even  greater  pro- 
portions than  before. 

Mr.  Libby  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  or- 
der, and  was  president  of  the  Young  Men's  Chris- 
tian Association.  He  was  a  staunch  Republican 
in  his  political  views  and  took  an  active  part  in 
the  affairs  of  the  party.  He  was  a  friend  of 
James  G.  Elaine  and  of  Thomas  B.  Reed.  He 
was  sent  by  the  party  as  delegate  to  the  Re- 
publican National  Convention  at  Chicago  which 
nominated  Garfield  for  President  of  the  United 
States.  He  was  a  Congregationalist  and  served 
as  moderator  in  the  State  conventions  of  that 
body  several  times  and  was  frequently  a  speaker. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Williston  Church  at 
Portland  for  many  years.  He  was  also  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Portland  Club.  Both  he  and  his  wife 
were  extremely  fond  of  travel  and  together  they 
took  many  trips  both  in  this  country  and  abroad. 
He  was  extremely  kind  to  the  poor  and  generous 
in  gifts  to  charitable  and  religious  organizations 
with  which  he  was  affiliated.  At  one  time  he 
personally  supported  three  missionaries  in  foreign 
lands.  To  one  in  Pekin  he  sent  a  printing  press, 
said  to  have  been  the  first  in  China,  that  the  man 
might  print  extracts  from  the  Bible,  and  hymns 
for  use  in  his  work.  This  missionary  was  killed 
in  the  Boxer  uprising,  and  with  the  indemnity 
received  for  the  destruction  of  the  printing 
press,  Mr.  Libby  sent  out  more  foreign  mis- 
sionaries. 

One  of  the  greatest  interests  in  the  life  of 
Mr.  Libby  was  the  prohibition  movement,  to 
which  he  gave  his  entire  allegiance,  and  which 
he  furthered  in  every  way,  speaking  upon  the 
subject  and  working  indefatigably  for  the  cause. 
In  the  year  18 — ,  he  made  two  tours  of  the  State 
and  delivered  a  series  of  lectures  upon  the  sub- 
ject in  the  various  cities  and  towns,  in  which  he 
urged  the  adoption  of  laws.  He  was  intensely 
religious  and  never  wearied  in  his  work  for  the 
church  and  for  the  abolition  of  the  evils  of  the 
liquor  traffic.  He  was  one  of  the  strongest  in- 
fluences for  good  in  the  community  and  his  great 
prestige  as  a  business  man  and  man  of  affairs 
added  to  the  respect  with  which  he  was  listened 
to  by  his  fellows. 

On  November  24,  1870,  Mr.  Libby  was  mar- 
ried, at  Limington,  Maine,  to  Helen  Louise  Lar- 
rabee,  a  native  of  that  town,  and  a  daughter  of 
Eben  Irish  and  Mary  (Thaxter)  Larrabee,  old 
and  highly  respected  residents  of  the  place.  Mrs. 
Libby  has  already  been  mentioned  as  her  hus- 
band's companion  and  confidante  in  the  matter 
of  his  business,  and  his  comrade  on  his  travels, 


and  this  relation  extended  into  every  department 
of  their  affairs,  so  that  their  long  married  life 
was  an  unusually  happy  and  harmonious  one. 
She  is  a  member  on  both  sides  of  the  house  of 
distinguished  New  England  families,  and  is  her- 
self a  worthy  scion  of  her  brilliant  ancestors. 
To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Libby  seven  children  were  born, 
as  follows:  I.  Edith  Emma,  wife  of  William 
Russell  Cutter,  a  member  of  the  firm.  They 
have  two  children:  i.  Alice  Louise,  and  ii.  Philip 
Russell.  2.  Royal  Sumner,  died  May  12,  1874,  at 
the  age  of  six  months.  3.  Mary  Louise,  wife  of 
Arthur  H.  Chamberlain,  secretary-treasurer  of 
the  American  Iron,  Steel  &  Heavy  Hardware 
Association,  with  headquarters  in, .  New  York. 
They  reside  in  Mt.  Vernon,  New  York,  and  have 
three  children:  i.  William  Hale.  ii.  Mary.  iii. 
Austin  Hunter.  4.  Annie  Belle,  died  May  3,  1877, 
aged  four  and  a  half  months.  5.  Alice  Helena, 
wife  of  Merle  Sedgwick  Brown,  a  broker  in  Port- 
land. They  have  one  child,  Merle  S.,  Jr.  6. 
Ralph  Garfield,  married  Hattie  Payson  Brazier, 
and  is  a  member  of  the  firm.  They  reside  in 
Portland,  and  have  three  children:  i.  Ralph 
Garfield,  Jr.  ii.  Ellen  Brazier,  iii.  Daniel  Bra- 
zier. 7.  Harold  Thaxter,  a  member  of  the  firm; 
resides  in  Portland. 

Joseph  R.  Libby  was  one  of  those  men  whose 
lives  and  characters  form  the  underlying  struc- 
ture upon  which  are  built  the  prosperity  and 
homes  of  this  country.  The  careers  of  such 
men  as  he  show  the  opportunities  open  in  a 
commonwealth  like  Maine  to  those  who  possess 
great  business  abilities  and  the  high  integrity 
that  forms  the  basis  alike  of  the  good  citizen 
and  the  good  business  man.  His  ambition  along 
the  worthiest  line,  his  perseverance,  his  stead- 
fastness of  purpose,  his  tireless  industry,  all  fur- 
nish lessons  to  the  young  men  of  coming  genera- 
tions, and  the  well-earned  success  and  esteem  he 
gained  prove  the  inevitable  result  of  the  practice 
of  these  virtues.  His  whole  life  was  devoted  to 
the  highest  and  the  best,  and  all  his  endeavors 
were  for  the  furtherance  of  those  noble  ideals  he 
made  the  rule  of  his  daily  conduct.  The  success 
won  by  him  as  a  business  man  never  elated  him 
unduly  or  caused  him  to  alter  the  usual  tenor  of 
his  way.  A  nature  of  singular  sweetness,  open- 
ness and  sincerity,  he  never  made  lasting  ene- 
mies, but  any  estimate  of  his  character  would 
be  unjust  which  did  not  pay  tribute  to  the  in- 
herent force  and  power  that  caused  him  to  sur- 
mount all  difficulties  which  met  him  on  the  road 
to  success,  or  point  to  the  natural  ability  and 
keen  mental  gifts  which  he  improved  by  daily 
use  and  exercise.  He  had  a  profound  knowledge 


94 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


of  human  nature  and  his  judgments  upon  men 
were  sound  and  unerring.  He  had  a  strong  and 
dominating  personality,  and  his  power  over  other 
men  was  not  the  result  of  aggressiveness  but  of 
the  momentum  of  character  and  strength.  His 
loyalty  to  his  State,  his  desire  to  promote  every 
measure  that  would  tend  to  the  advancement  of 
the  public  good,  gave  him  a  title  second  to  none 
to  be  represented  in  the  historical  annals  of  a 
great  State  such  as  Maine. 


EDGAR  CROSBY  SMITH,  Lawyer,  Historian. 
— It  has  been  truly  said  that  to  trace  the  ances- 
try of  the  various  Smiths  would  be  like  trying 
to  write  a  genealogy  of  the  North  American 
Indians.  When  Dr.  Holmes  wrote  of  the  author 
of  "America,"  and  said:  "Fate  tried  to  conceal 
him  by  naming  him  Smith,"  he  might  have  ap- 
plied the  statement  to  several  hundred  other 
distinguished  Smiths  besides  Dr.  Samuel  F. 
Smith  of  the  famous  class  of  1829.  One  should 
feel  proud  to  belong  to  so  numerous  and  re- 
spectable a  family,  but  one  cannot  help  wish- 
ing that  they  had  taken  a  little  more  pains  to 
preserve  their  ancestral  records.  The  following 
branch  cannot  be  traced  further  than  Berwick, 
Maine.  Whether  they  originally  came  from  Mas- 
sachusetts, or  whether  they  may  be  connected 
with  the  New  Hampshire  Smiths,  of  whom  no 
less  than  nineteen  different  lines  have  been 
traced,  must  remain  a  matter  of  conjecture. 
Daniel  Smith,  born  1796,  removed  about  1820 
from  Berwick,  Maine,  to  Brownville,  same  State, 
where  he  died  April  23,  1856.  He  was  undoubt- 
edly an  offshoot  of  the  Berwick  family  of  Smiths, 
which  had  numerous  representatives  in  that  town, 
possibly  a  son  of  Daniel  Smith,  who  was  born 
there  June  12,  1757,  and  was  a  minute-man  in 
I77S-  October  3,  1822,  Daniel  Smith  married 
Mary  Stickney,  born  January  31,  1799,  in  Weare, 
New  Hampshire,  died  March  25,  1883,  in  Brown- 
ville, Maine,  a  descendant  of  William  Stickney, 
who  came  from  Hull,  in  Yorkshire,  England,  in 
1637,  and  was  admitted  to  the  First  Church  in 
Boston  with  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  November  24, 
1639.  His  son,  John  Stickney,  was  the  father 
of  Samuel  Stickney,  whose  son,  William  (2) 
Stickney,  had  Samuel  (2)  Stickney,  born  May 
13,  1762,  in  Rowley,  Massachusetts.  He  married 
(second),  April  29,  1792,  in  Bradford,  Patty 
(Polly  or  Martha),  daughter  of  Benjamin  and 
Martha  (Hardey)  Atwood,  of  Bradford,  Massa- 
chusetts, born  September  21,  1772,  who  survived 
him,  and  died  in  Brownville,  October  2,  1845. 
Five  years  before  her  death  she  was  awarded 
a  pension  from  the  government  on  account  of 


her  husband's  Revolutionary  services.  At  the  age 
of  fifteen  years  he  entered  the  Revolutionary 
Army,  and  saw  much  service.  He  enlisted  July 
6,  1778,  as  a  fifer,  in  Captain  Simeon  Brown's 
company,  Colonel  Wade's  regiment,  later  became 
a  sergeant  in  Captain  Benjamin  Peabody's  com- 
pany, and  was  a  member  of  the  Thirty-first  Divi- 
sion which  marched  in  1780  from  Springfield,  at 
this  time  described  as  being  eighteen  years  of 
age,  ruddy  complexion,  stature  five  feet,  nine 
inches,  enlisted  from  Bradford.  He  enlisted  from 
Rowley,  August  4,  1781,  serving  to  November  27 
of  that  year  as  a  fifer  in  Captain  John  Robinson's 
company,  Colonel  William  Turner's  regiment  of 
five  months'  men,  service  in  Rhode  Island.  His 
fourth  daughter,  Mary,  became  the  wife  of  Daniel 
Smith,  of  Brownville,  as  previously  noted.  Their 
eldest  child  was  Samuel  Atwood  Smith,  born 
October  13,  1830,  in  Brownville;  married,  Jan- 
uary 8,  1860,  Martha  L.  J'enks,  born  July  4,  1836, 
in  Brownville,  daughter  of  Eleazer  Alley  and 
Eliza  (Brown)  Jenks.  Their  youngest  child  was 
Edgar  Crosby  Smith,  subject  of  this  biography. 
Through  his  mother,  Edgar  C.  Smith  is  de- 
scended from  Joseph  Jenks,  one  of  the  most 
prominent  and  active  of  the  early  Massachusetts 
immigrants,  born  in  the  neighborhood  of  Lon- 
don, and  active  in  establishing  the  first  iron 
works  in  America.  His  son  John  was  the  father 
of  Captain  John  Jenks,  of  Lynn,  Massachusetts, 
father  of  William  R.  Jenks,  born  May  29,  1749, 
at  Lynn,  the  first  to  settle  in  Maine,  locating  at 
Portland,  where  he  died.  He  was  the  father 
of  Eleazer  Alley  Jenks,  born  in  Portland, 
who  married  Clarina  Parsons  Greenleaf,  of 
New  Gloucester,  Maine,  born  November  12, 
1779,  in  Newburyport,  Massachusetts,  died  at 
Brownville,  Maine,  December  12,  1841.  Their 
second  son,  Eleazer  Alley  (2)  Jenks,  married 
Eliza  Brown,  and  was  the  father  of  Martha  L. 
Jenks,  wife  of  Samuel  Atwood  Smith,  above 
noted.  The  Greenleaf  family  is  one  of  the  oldest 
in  this  country,  descended  from  Edmund  Green- 
leaf,  born  1573,  baptized  January  2,  1574,  died 
March  24,  1671.  He  came  from  England  to  Mas- 
sachusetts about  1635,  was  one  of  the  original 
settlers  of  Newbury,  the  father  of  Stephen  Green- 
leaf,  baptized  August  10,  1628,  at  St.  Mary's 
in  England,  died  December  I,  1690,  at  Newbury. 
His  third  son,  John  Greenleaf,  was  the  father  of 
Daniel  Greenleaf,  grandfather  of  Hon.  Jonathan 
Greenleaf,  born  in  July,  1723,  at  Newbury,  died 
there  May  24,  1807.  His  son,  Captain  Moses 
Greenleaf,  born  May  19,  1755,  at  Newbury,  died 
in  New  Gloucester,  Maine,  December  18,  1812. 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


95 


He  married  Lydia  Parsons,  born  April  3,  1755, 
died  March  21,  1854,  daughter  of  Rev.  Jonathan 
and  Phebe  (Griswold)  Parsons,  of  Newburyport. 
Phebe  Griswold,  daughter  of  Judge  John  Gris- 
wold, inherited  the  blood  of  the  Griswolds  and 
Walcotts,  two  of  the  most  distinguished  Con- 
necticut families  which  have  supplied  the  country 
with  twelve  State  Governors  and  thirty-six  judges 
of  the  higher  courts.  The  only  daughter  of 
Captain  Moses  Greenleaf  was  Clarina  Parsons, 
born  November  12,  1775,  in  Newburyport,  who 
became  the  wife  of  Eleazer  Alley  Jenks,  of  pre- 
vious mention. 

Edgar  Crosby  Smith  was  born  February  12, 
1870,  at  Brownville,  and  attended  the  common 
schools  and  East  Maine  Seminary  at  Bucksport. 
His  first  business  experience  was  as  clerk  in  a 
bank,  and  later  he  was  employed  in  the  office  of 
the  clerk  of  courts  at  Ellsworth,  Maine.  During 
this  time  he  devoted  his  leisure  to  the  study  of 
law,  and  from  July,  1891,  to  the  spring  of  1892 
he  read  law  in  the  office  of  Miles  W.  Mclntosh, 
of  Brownville.  For  two  years  he  conducted  a 
shoe  store  in  that  town,  which  he  sold  out  in 
1894,  and  again  engaged  in  the  study  of  law 
with  Mr.  Mclntosh.  On  the  removal  of  the 
latter  to  California,  Mr.  Smith  purchased  his  law 
library  and  began  practice.  This  was  in  1895, 
the  year  of  his  admission  to  the  bar.  For  two 
years  he  continued  in  independent  practice,  and 
removed  to  Dover,  Maine,  where  he  formed  a 
partnership  with  Colonel  J.  B.  Peaks.  Four 
years  later  Mr.  Smith  was  appointed  judge  of  the 
Municipal  Court,  and  continued  to  hold  that  posi- 
tion until  it/ii.  In  the  meantime  he  has  engaged 
in  gener.il  practice.  Mr.  Smith's  home  is  in  Fox- 
croft.  He  has  long  been  active  as  a  political 
worker  in  the  interest,  first  of  good  government, 
and  second  of  the  Republican  party.  For  sev- 
eral years  he  served  on  the  County  Committee  of 
his  party,  during  two  years  of  which  time  he 
was  its  chairman.  He  has  filled  various  town 
offices,  including  that  of  tax  collector  for  five 
years.  While  at  Brownville  he  was  superin- 
tendent of  schools,  and  has  served  on  the  school 
board  of  Foxcroft.  Mr.  Smith  has  given  much 
attention  to  historical  research,  is  a  member  of 
the  Maine  Historical  Society  and  Piscataquis 
Historical  Society.  He  is  the  author  of  various 
monographs  relating  to  State  and  local  affairs, 
including  "Life  of  Moses  Greenleaf,  the  Map- 
maker,"  who  plotted  and  executed  and  published 
the  first  map  made  by  an  inhabitant  of  Maine. 
He  has  also  written  a  bibliography  of  the  maps 
of  Maine,  and  a  history  of  the  Revolutionary 
soldiers  who  settled  in  Piscataquis  county.  In 


1917  Judge  Smith  contributed  to  this  work  a 
chapter  regarding  the  boundary  contentions  with 
the  mother  country  as  to  the  limits  of  Maine 
territory  (see  Chapter  VII).  Mr.  Smith  is 
active  in  various  departments  of  the  life  of  his 
home  town,  is  a  past  master  of  Pleasant  River 
Lodge,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  a  member  of 
Piscataquis  Chapter,  Royal  Arch  Masons,  and 
of  the  order  of  the  Royal  Arcanum.  Religiously 
he  agrees  with  the  tenets  of  the  Congregational 
church. 

Mr.  Smith  married,  January  18,  1893,  Harriet 
M.  Ladd,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Eliza  (Chase) 
Ladd,  of  Garland,  Maine,  who  died  October  14, 
1917.  He  has  one  child,  Martha  Eliza,  born 
May  s,  loor. 


GEORGE  CROSWELL  CRESSEY  —The 
Cressey  family  while  not  large  is  of  old  Colonial 
stock,  and  is  scattered  over  most  of  the  States 
of  the  Union,  and  has  furnished  many  men  of 
energy,  activity  and  courage.  The  pioneer  set- 
tler of  the  family  in  America  was  Mighill  Cres- 
sey, who  with  his  brother,  William,  landed  in 
Salem,  Massachusetts,  probably  in  the  year  1649. 
In  1658,  when  he  was  thirty  years  of  age,  he 
lived  for  a  time  in  the  family  of  Lieutenant 
Thomas  Lathrop,  afterwards  Captain  Lathrop, 
who  with  sixty  of  his  soldiers  during  King 
Phillip's  War  fell  at  Bloody  Brook,  in  Deerfield, 
Massachusetts.  He  afterwards  lived  in  the  family 
of  Joshua  Ray  at  "Royal  Side,"  Salem,  near 
Beverly,  Massachusetts.  Here  he  married,  in 
1658,  Mary,  daughter  of  John  and  Elizabeth 
Bachelder,  of  "Royal  Side."  She  was  baptized 
at  Salem,  April  19,  1640,  and  died  at  the  birth 
of  her  first  born.  Mighill  removed  to  Ipswich, 
Massachusetts,  in  1660,  where  he  married  (sec- 
ond), April  16,  1660,  Mary  Quilter,  who  was  born 
in  Ipswich,  May  2,  1641,  a  daughter  of  Mark 
Quilter;  and  by  his  second  wife  Mighill  Cressey 
had  three  children,  Mighill,  William  and  Mary. 
His  death  probably  occurred  at  Ipswich  about 
1671,  as  his  widow  with  her  three  children  moved 
to  Rowley,  Massachusetts,  in  April,  1671,  and 
died  in  that  town  May  7,  1707.  The  Christian 
name  is  sometimes  spelled  "Michael"  on  the  old 
records,  but  Mighill  Cressey  the  immigrant 
spelled  his  name  "Mighil  Cresse."  The  surname 
of  the  family  is  of  local  derivation,  from  a  town 
in  France  by  that  name,  and  there  is,  therefore, 
no  doubt  of  its  Anglo-Norman  extraction.  On 
various  records  the  name  is  spelled  in  twenty- 
three  different  ways. 

From  these  two  sons  of  Mighill  and  Mary 
(Quilter)  Cressey,  the  Rowley's  Massachusetts 


96 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


families  are  descended.  John  Cressey,  one  of 
these  descendants,  was  born  in  Rowley,  Mas- 
sachusetts, in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  He  was  engaged  in  farming,  was  a 
Whig  in  politics  and  was  a  member  of  the 
Congregational  church.  He  had  a  family  of  five 
sons  and  three  daughters.  His  sons  were 
Thomas,  John,  Nathaniel,  Bradstreet,  and  George 
Washington.  The  last  was  born  in  Rowley, 
Massachusetts,  December  10,  1810.  He  was  a 
Trinitarian  Congregational  clergyman  and  was 
a  member  of  the  Republican  party.  He  married 
Sarah  Palmer,  daughter  of  Dr.  Samuel  P.  Cros- 
well,  a  resident  of  Boston,  born  in  Falmouth, 
Massachusetts,  in  1819,  and  died  at  Buxton, 
Maine,  in  1856.  The  children  by  this  marriage 
were  George  Bradstreet,  who  died  in  infancy; 
Mary  Croswell  Cressey,  born  September,  1853, 
and  George  Croswell  Cressey,  see  below.  Two 
years  after  the  death  of  his  wife,  in  1856,  he 
married  Nancy  Wentworth,  of  Buxton,  Maine, 
who  survived  him.  Rev.  George  Washington 
Cressey  died  in  Buxton,  Maine,  February  12, 
1867. 

George  Croswell  Cressey,  the  youngest  son 
and  child  of  the  Rev.  George  Washington  and 
Sarah  Palmer  (Croswell)  Cressey,  was  born  at 
Buxton,  Maine,  April  I,  1856.  He  obtained  his 
preliminary  education  through  private  instruc- 
tion, entering  the  Bath  High  School  at  the  age 
of  eleven  years,  and  graduated  from  Bowdoin 
College  in  1875,  receiving  the  degree  of  A.B. 
A  year  was  then  spent  at  the  Yale  University 
Graduate  School.  Mr.  Cressey  then  went  abroad 
and  became  a  student  at  the  University  of  Leip- 
zig, from  which  he  was  graduated  in  1880.  Re- 
turning to  America  he  was  from  1880  to  1882 
professor  of  modern  languages  at  Washburn 
College,  Topeka,  Kansas.  He  was  in  the  Yale 
Divinity  School  1882-83,  and  in  Andover  Theo- 
logical Seminary  in  1883-84,  graduating  from 
the  latter  in  1884.  He  entered  the  Unitarian 
ministry  in  that  year  and  became  pastor  of  the 
Unitarian  Church,  Bangor,  Maine,  where  he  re- 
mained in  charge  six  years.  He  then  received  a 
call  to  the  First  Unitarian  Church  of  Salem, 
Massachusetts,  where  six  years  were  spent  in  the 
pastoral  charge  of  that  congregation.  In  1896 
he  became  minister  of  the  Unitarian  Church  of 
Northampton,  Massachusetts,  and  after  serving 
this  congregation  five  years  he  was  placed  in 
pastoral  charge  of  the  Unitarian  Church  of  Port- 
land, Oregon,  where  he  remained  over  four 
years.  The  summers  of  1892  and  1897  were  spent 
in  European  travel. 


Dr.  Cressey,  in  1907,  during  a  few  weeks'  rest 
in  Europe,  received  a  call  to  preach  at  the  Effra 
Road  Unitarian  Church  at  London,  England,  and 
of  this  he  had  the  charge  for  six  years.  During 
this  period  he  was  a  delegate  of  both  the  Ameri- 
can Unitarian  Association,  and  the  British  For- 
eign Unitarian  Association  at  the  National  Lib- 
eral convention  in  Nymwegen,  Holland.  Re- 
turning to  his  native  country,  he  became  pastor 
of  the  Church  of  the  Redeemer  of  New  Brighton, 
Borough  of  Richmond,  New  York  City,  a  posi- 
tion (1918)  which  he  now  fills.  He  was  lecturer 
at  the  Unitarian  College  in  Manchester,  Eng- 
land, in  1912,  and  at  the  Meadville  Theological 
School  at  Meadville,  Pennsylvania,  in  1914.  He 
is  the  author  of  "Philosophy  of  Religion,"  1892; 
"Mental  Evolution,"  1894;  "The  Essential  Man," 
1895;  "The  Doctrine  of  Immortality  in  Liberal 
Thought,"  1897;  "Soul  Power,"  1899;  "Outline  of 
Unitarian  Belief,"  1905;  "A  Talk  with  Young 
People  on  Liberal  Religious  Thought,"  1912;  and 
numerous  reviews,  published  sermons  and  ad- 
dresses. 

The  honorary  degree  of  A.M.  was  conferred 
upon  him  by  Bowdoin  College  in  1873,  and  that 
of  D.D.  in  1899.  The  University  of  Leipzig  in 
1880  gave  him  the  degree  of  Ph.D.  and  in  1894 
this  degree  was  conferred  by  the  Wooster  Uni- 
versity. He  is  a  member  of  the  college  fraterni- 
ties, Delta  Kappa  Epsilon  and  Phi  Beta  Kappa, 
and  for  several  years  he  has  been  a  member  of 
the  Twentieth  Century  Club  of  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts. In  his  politics  he  is  an  Independent 
Democrat. 

Dr.  Cressey  married  at  Bangor,  Maine,  April 
19,  1888,  Lilian  A.  Maling,  a  daughter  of  William 
H.  and  Joanna  A.  (White)  Maling.  Her  father 
was  a  land  and  lumber  merchant  and  she  was 
born  in  Brewer,  Maine,  May  8,  1865. 


JAMES      HERBERT      DRUMMOND.  —  The 

name  of  Drummond  suggests  men  of  science, 
theology,  engineering  skill  and  poetic  genius  in 
Sctoland.  In  the  current  encyclopedias  we  find 
Henry  Drummond,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  LL.D.  (1851- 
1897),  theologian  and  scientist;  Thomas  Drum- 
mond (1797-1840),  inventor  of  the  Drummond 
light.  William  Drummond,  of  the  Hawthorndale 
(1585-1641),  poet,  friend  of  Ben.  Jonson  and 
author  of  "Notes  in  Ben  Jonson's  Conversa- 
tion." 

The  Drummonds  are  of  Scotch  origin,  and 
date  back  to  the  clan  Drummond,  the  Gaelic 
word  for  children,  which  had  an  organized  exist- 
ence as  early  as  1070.  There  are  perhaps  twenty 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


97 


coats-of-arms  in  the  clan,  but  the  coat-of-arms 
which  every  Drummond  is  entitled  to  consists 
of  a  shield  supported  on  each  side  by  nude  men 
with  a  huge  club  over  the  shoulder,  the  shield 
surmounted  by  a  crown  as  a  crest,  with  the 
motto  "Gang  Warily,"  which  is  the  Scotch  equiv- 
alent of  "Be  Cautious"  or  "Go  Carefully."  The 
colors  are  red,  yellow,  and  green.  Every  High- 
land clan  had  its  badge,  taken  from  the  forest 
or  the  flowers.  The  badge  of  the  Drummonds 
is  the  wild  thyme  or  the  holly,  both  being  used 
indifferently.  The  clan  pipe  music  is  a  march 
with  an  unpronounceable  Gaelic  name  which, 
translated  into  English,  means  "The  Duke  of 
Perth  March."  The  clan  tartan  or  plaid  is  a 
dark  colored  plaid  in  reddish  brown,  black,  green, 
purple  and  yellow,  the  dark  colors  predominating. 
The  present  head  of  the  clan  is  William  Huntley 
Drummond,  fifteenth  Earl  of  Perth.  The  earl- 
dom of  Perth  has  always  been  held  by  a  Drum- 
mond, who  has  been  the  hereditary  head  of  the 
clan  since  the  earldom  was  established.  Prior 
to  the  establishment  of  the  earldom,  the  head 
of  the  clan  held  other  titles,  among  the  modern 
creations  are  the  Earls  of  Kinnoul,  Earls  of 
Melfort,  Viscount  Strathallen,  and,  in  France, 
the  Dukes  of  Melfort. 

The  clan  Drummond  were  strong  adherents  of 
the  House  of  Stuart  in  their  struggles  with  the 
House  of  Hanover,  and  for  generation  after 
generation  they  had  to  flee  the  country,  emi- 
grating to  France  and  America,  where  many  of 
its  members  were  hung,  drawn  and  quartered. 
It  was  not  until  1853  that  Queen  Victoria  re- 
stored the  Drummond  to  all  his  rights  and  titles, 
out  of  which  the  family  had  been  kept  for  sev- 
eral generations.  One  of  the  earliest  martyrs 
to  American  liberty  was  that  Drummond  who 
followed  Nathaniel  Bacon  in  the  famous  outbreak 
in  1676  in  Virginia.  A  peculiar  feature  of  the 
Drummond  family  is  that,  unlike  so  many  other 
Scotch  clans,  it  never  has  been  domiciled  to  any 
extent  in  England,  and  only  to  a  slight  extent 
in  Ireland,  and  every  research  of  any  family 
goes  back  to  the  Scotch  clan. 

Alexander  Drummond,  the  progenitor  of  the 
Drummonds  in  America,  was  born  in  Scotland 
and  emigrated  to  Ireland,  locating  in  Cappa.  He 
was  a  Scotch  Presbyterian  by  faith  and  inherit- 
ance, and  on  his  emigration  to  New  England,  in 
1729,  with  a  family  of  children  and  grandchil- 
dren, he  and  his  family  were  fully  imbued  with 
the  religious  views  of  that  sort.  He  buried  his 
wife  in  Ireland  before  he  undertook  the  journey, 
and  his  family  consisted  of  two  sons,  Patrick 
and  James,  a  daughter,  Frances,  married  to  Alex- 


ander Campbell;  a  daughter  Mary,  a  widow  of 
one  Kneely,  or  Nealy  or  McNeil,  and  her  two 
daughters,  Margaret  and  Jane.  This  pioneer's 
object  in  emigrating  from  the  old  country  was 
to  find  a  freedom  that  Scotland  or  Ireland  did 
not  afford.  He  located  in  Georgetown  (which 
is  now  Bath),  Maine,  at  a  place  known  as  Chopps, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Kcnnebec  river,  not  far  from 
Dodge  Ferry.  His  life  in  this  locality  was  of 
short  duration,  as  he  was  killed  at  an  advanced 
age  by  the  falling  of  a  tree  in  the  winter  of 
1730. 

Patrick  Drurrrtnond,  the  son  of  Alexander 
Drummond,  was  born  at  Cappa,  Ireland,  June 
II,  1694.  The  inscription  on  his  tombstone  is 
"In  Memory  of  Patrick  Drummond,  Esquire, 
who  was  born  at  Cappa,  Ireland,  June  n,  1694, 
came  with  his  brother  and  two  sisters  to  Amer- 
ica in  A.  D.,  1729,  and  died  at  Georgetown,  De- 
cember 28,  1761,  aged  67  years."  Patrick  was 
married  when  he  came  to  America,  but  the  only 
thing  known  of  his  wife  is  that  her  name  was 
Margaret.  His  children  by  this  wife  were  as 
follows:  i.  Ann,  who  married  Rev.  William  Mc- 
Lanahan.  2.  Margaret,  born  in  Georgetown; 
married  William  Campbell.  3.  Elijah,  married 
Ann  Butler.  Patrick  Drummond's  second  wife 
was  Susanna,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Ruth- 
erford, a  Scotch  Presbyterian  clergyman,  who 
was  a  pioneer  preacher  of  that  denomination 
who  settled  in  Maine,  east  of  the  Kennebec 
river,  and  of  the  same  family  that  gave  to  Scot- 
land Samuel  Rutherford  (1600-1661),  the  theo- 
logian controversialist,  silenced  for  preaching 
against  the  article  of  Perth  and  banished  to 
Aberdeen,  1636,  Rector  of  St.  Andrew's  Uni- 
versity, and  commissioner  to  the  Westminster 
Assembly.  The  children  by  the  marriage  of  Pat- 
rick and  Susanna  (Rutherford)  Drummond  were 
as  follows:  I.  Jane,  born  July  27,  1741,  and 
married  Alexander  Drummond.  2.  John,  of  fur- 
ther mention.  3.  Mary,  born  November  4,  1747, 
and  died  in  childhood.  4.  Catherine  or  Catrin, 
born  November  8,  1749,  and  died  August  25,  1750. 
5.  Leteitia  or  Letters,  born  April  8,  1753;  mar- 
ried James  McFadden.  6.  Nancy  or  Ann,  born 
July  6,  1755;  married  John  Campbell.  7.  Eliza- 
beth, who  died  young.  Mrs.  Susanna  (Ruther- 
ford) Drummond  died  July  12,  1771,  in  her  forty- 
ninth  year. 

John  Drummond,  son  of  Patrick  and  Susanna 
(Rutherford)  Drummond,  was  born  in  George- 
town, Maine,  September  27,  1744,  and  married 
Mary,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Margaret  (Stim- 
son)  McFadden.  Their  children  were  Ruther- 
ford and  John.  He  died  in  Georgetown,  Maine, 


ME.— 1—7 


98 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


September  10,  1771.  The  headstone  over  his 
grave  was  taken  from  the  old  graveyard,  which 
had  become  a  pasture,  in  1884,  and  removed  to 
the  Drummond  cemetery  in  Winslow,  Maine, 
where  it  was  placed  by  that  of  his  wife. 

Rutherford  Drummond,  eldest  son  of  John  and 
Mary  (McFadden)  Drummond,  was  born  at 
Georgetown,  Maine,  October  20,  1770.  By  the 
death  of  his  father  when  he  was  an  infant  it 
involved  on  his  widowed  mother  to  care  for  him 
and  his  brother  John.  They  remained  in  their 
native  town  until  they  became  of  age,  when  they 
sold  their  real  estate  and  sought  a  new  home 
near  Seven  Mile  Brook,  in  Anson,  Maine.  Here 
they  cleared  a  farm,  planted  a  large  field  of 
corn  that  gave  promise  of  an  abundant  crop, 
but  an  early  frost  in  August  killed  their  crops 
and  blighted  their  hopes.  Discouraged,  the 
young  farmers  abandoned  their  farm,  and  going 
down  the  river  Rutherford,  located,  on  July  24, 
1795,  on  the  most  northern  farm  in  Vassalboro, 
Maine,  next  to  the  town  line  of  Winslow,  on 
the  river  road.  His  brother  John,  who  was  the 
great-grandfather  of  the  late  James  H.  Drum- 
mond, was  a  leading  attorney  in  Portland,  Maine, 
and  a  prominent  member  of  the  Masonic  order. 
His  farm  was  located  on  the  banks  of  the  river 
in  the  town  of  Winslow,  just  one  mile  north  of 
his  brother's  farm.  Rutherford  Drummond  sub- 
sequently removed  to  Sidney,  Maine.  He  mar- 
ried Rebecca  Davis.  Of  their  ten  children,  all  but 
John,  who  died  in  infancy,  reached  maturity. 
They  were  James,  Albert,  Alfred,  Robert,  Joshua, 
Nancy,  Olive,  Eliza  and  Jane. 

The  first  named,  James  Drummond,  was  born 
in  Sidney,  Maine,  married  Sophronia  Thomas. 
Their  children  were  James,  Rutherford,  George 
Lincoln,  Harriet,  Olive,  Eliza  and  Frances;  all 
these  excepting  the  last  named,  who  died  at  the 
age  of  nineteen  years,  married  and  reared  fami- 
lies. James  Drummond  died,  March  14,  1874,  at 
the  age  of  seventy-five  years  and  four  days. 

George  Lincoln  Drummond,  son  of  James  and 
Sophronia  (Thomas)  Drummond,  was  born  at 
Winslow,  Maine,  August  17,  1832.  He  married, 
July  2,  1859,  Mary  Partridge  Murphy,  born  at 
Bristol,  Maine,  July  24,  1840.  He  followed  the 
pursuit  of  farming,  was  a  member  of  the  Metho- 
dist church,  and  a  Republican  in  politics.  The 
children  of  George  Lincoln  and  Mary  Partridge 
(Murphy)  Drummond  were:  I.  Fessenden  C., 
born  July  I,  1860.  2.  Lola  Mary,  born  January 
13,  1862;  married,  September  25,  1908,  - 
Stanley,  of  Iron  River,  Wisconsin.  3.  James 
Herbert,  see  below.  4.  Flora,  born  July  19,  1868, 


died  September  19,  1871.  5.  Cora  L.,  born  Janu- 
ary 20,  1872;  married,  June  12,  1899,  Leonard  J. 
Arey.  6.  Alton  H.,  born  March  26,  1875,  died 
February  17,  1890.  7.  George  Wilfred,  born 
August  6,  1877,  died  October  6,  1892.  8.  Grace  E., 
born  September  4,  1880;  married,  March  25,  1916, 
Theodore  Thompson,  of  Riverside,  Maine.  9. 
Ernest  W.,  born  March  15,  1884;  married,  Decem- 
ber i,  1914,  Bertha  Ladd,  of  Waterville,  Maine. 
George  Lincoln  Drummond  died  at  Winslow, 
Maine,  October  16,  1886.  His  wife's  death  oc- 
curred at  the  same  place,  July  8,  1913. 

James  Herbert  Drummond,  the  third  child  of 
George  Lincoln  and  Mary  Partridge  (Murphy) 
Drummond,  was  born  at  Winslow,  Kennebec 
county,  Maine,  November  23,  1865.  On  the  ma- 
ternal side  he  is  descended  from  Peter  McMur- 
phy,  who  was  his  great-grandfather.  Peter  Mc- 
Murphy  was  one  of  the  early  pioneers  of  the 
country  and  was  engaged  in  the  Indian  and 
Revolutionary  wars.  He  had  a  series  of  stirring 
adventures  during  his  Indian  campaigns,  being 
more  than  once  a  prisoner,  compelled  to  run  the 
gauntlet,  condemned  to  be  burned  at  the  stake; 
and  survived  all  these  to  become  the  founder  of 
a  family.  One  of  his  sons,  William  Murphy,  mar- 
ried Mary  Jameson,  whose  mother  was  a  Wads- 
worth,  and  a  sister  of  Henry  Wadsworth  Long- 
fellow's mother,  so  that  Mr.  Drummond  is  re- 
lated in  a  degree  to  the  great  poet.  Hiram  Mur- 
phy, son  of  William  Murphy,  and  grandfather  of 
subject,  married  Margaret  Mclntyre,  daughter 
of  Colonel  William  Mclntyre,  of  Revolutionary 
fame.  The  martial  spirit  of  the  sons  by  this 
marriage,  who  inherited  the  same  spirit  of  ad- 
venture that  characterized  the  earlier  generations, 
were  asserted  in  serving  in  the  Civil  War  and  in 
the  later  Indian  troubles  in  the  West. 

Mr.  Drummond  spent  his  early  days  on  a  farm, 
receiving  a  good  common  school  education  in  the 
schools  of  his  native  town,  and  also  attended  the 
Oak  Grove  Seminary  at  Vassalboro,  Maine.  He 
left  his  native  State  in  1888,  animated  by  the 
spirit  of  his  pioneer  ancestors  to  improve  his 
fortune  in  the  western  country-  Locating  at 
Iron  River,  Wisconsin,  he  secured  a  claim  of 
government  land,  which  was  heavily  timbered, 
and  in  time  became  valuable.  He  served  a  hard 
apprenticeship  in  this  northern  part  of  Wiscon- 
sin, being  a  hunter,  trapper  and  lumberman,  and 
had  several  narrow  escapes  from  the  wolves, 
which  were  numerous  in  that  country.  While  liv- 
ing in  this  section  of  the  country  he  read  law, 
learned  how  to  estimate  lumber,  did  a  good  deal 
of  work  for  different  lumber  companies,  handled 


4     /aJi" 


& 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


99 


lands  on  commission  and  finally  secured  financial 
backing  which  enabled  him  to  lay  the  foundation 
of  his  fortune.  At  the  breaking  out  of  the  Span- 
ish-American War,  he  enlisted  in  the  Fourth 
Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry  and  was  made  a 
sergeant  in  Company  K.  The  Fourth  Wis- 
consin went  into  camp  at  Anniston,  Alabama, 
and  were  mustered  out  of  the  State's  service  on 
the  last  day  of  February,  1899,  without  being 
ordered  to  the  front.  Mr.  Drummond  on  re- 
ceiving his  discharge  commenced  to  explore 
lands  and  investigate  lumber  propositions  in  the 
South.  He  visited  Georgia,  Florida,  Alabama, 
Mississippi,  Louisiana,  Texas  and  Arkansas.  He 
then  went  North  and  was  instrumental  in  organ- 
izing a  company  to  buy  timber  lands  in  Florida, 
making  his  headquarters  at  Blountstown,  in  that 
State,  but  later  removed  to  St.  Andrew.  The 
company  he  organized  acquired  large  tracts  of 
timber  land  in  Florida,  and  his  judgment  as  pur- 
chaser has  been  fully  justified  by  the  increase  in 
value  of  their  holdings.  In  a  few  years  prices 
advanced  so  for  timbered  land  in  Florida  that 
he  turned  his  attention  to  British  Columbia  and 
became  interested  in  the  timber  in  that  section, 
and  through  his  efforts  the  Cascade  Timber  Com- 
pany, a  Wisconsin  corporation,  was  formed.  This 
company  made  heavy  investments  in  timber  lands 
in  British  Columbia,  and  Mr.  Drummond  became 
treasurer  of  the  company.  Though  he  is  a  large 
stockholder  in  the  Florida  and  Wisconsin  cor- 
porations, he  is  also  heavily  interested  in  other 
tracts  of  timber  lands. 

In  his  effort  to  build  up  and  also  develop  his 
residential  city,  St.  Andrew,  Florida,  he  became 
interested  in  banking,  commercial  and  mercantile 
business  of  that  city.  He  is  president  of  the 
Bank  of  St.  Andrew;  president  of  the  St.  An- 
drew's Ice  &  Power  Company;  president  of  the 
Bay  Fisheries  Company,  and  a  member  of  the 
Ware  Mercantile  Company.  He  served  for  the 
first  four  years  as  mayor  of  the  incorporated 
city  of  St.  Andrew.  He  is  vice-president-at- 
large  of  the  Mississippi  to  Atlantic  Inland  Water- 
way from  Boston  to  the  Rio  Grande,  an  im- 
portant part  of  which  will  be  a  canal  through 
Georgia,  known  as  the  Woodrow  Wilson  Canal, 
a  survey  for  which  is  being  made  (1917). 

Mr.  Drummond  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic 
order,  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  and  a  Grange, 
located  at  Winslow,  Maine,  of  the  Patrons  of 
Husbandry.  He  married,  October  I,  1002,  at  St. 
Andrew,  Florida,  Grace  Edith,  daughter  of  Henry 
Fisher  and  Margaret  Mellville  (Smith)  Day. 
Mrs.  Drummond  also  comes  from  pioneer  stock. 


She  was  born  at  Frcdonia,  Minnesota,  Decem- 
ber 15,  1877.  Her  father,  a  Civil  War  veteran, 
was  born  February  3,  1825,  and  married  Mar- 
garet Mellville  Smith,  who  was  born  February 
22,  1836.  They  were  pioneers  in  Minnesota,  and 
migrated  from  that  State  to  Florida.  The  chil- 
dren of  James  Herbert  and  Grace  Edith  (Day) 
Drummond  are:  James  Herbert,  Jr.,  born  March 
ii,  1905;  Charles  Day,  born  August  19,  1910. 
Mr.  Drummond  is  yet  in  the  prime  of  life;  he 
has  already  accomplished  great  things,  and  is  now 
in  position  to  do  even  greater  ones.  He  has 
never  hesitated  to  incur  any  hardship  in  the 
carrying  out  of  his  plans,  and  on  one  occasion, 
with  his  younger  brother  and  a  few  Indians, 
traveled  on  foot  one  hundred  and  seventy-five 
miles  into  the  wilderness  of  British  Columbia, 
carrying  their  packs  on  their  backs.  The  record 
of  the  life  and  antecedents  of  Mr.  Drummond  is 
a  worthy  example  in  a  marked  degree  why  the 
American  people  have  accomplished  great  results. 
Their  pioneer  forefathers  had  to  contend  with 
difficulties  that  made  men  of  them  and  they 
transmitted  to  their  descendants  such  virility 
that  made  them  equal  to  meet  any  difficulty 
which  might  arise  in  the  prosecution  of  their 
plans.  The  Drummonds  have  been  lumbermen, 
farmers,  lawyers  and  bankers,  and  have  without 
exception  lived  up  to  the  family  motto  of  "Gang 
Warily." 


HENRY  E.  PALMER— The  story  of  the  life 
of  the  late  Henry  E.  Palmer,  of  Bath,  Maine, 
who,  during  a  career  of  almost  sixty  years,  was 
a  business  man  of  wide  reputation  in  this  region, 
was  one  of  steady  and  persistent  effort  towards 
worthy  ambitions,  and  of  the  success  which,  step 
by  step,  was  won  by  his  industry  and  talent. 
Occupying  a  recognized  and  enviable  position 
among  the  prominent  citizens  of  Bath,  he  might 
point  with  prfde  to  the  fact  that  he  had  gained 
this  place  owing  to  no  favor  or  mere  accident, 
but  to  his  own  native  ability  and  sound  judgment, 
and  by  the  indefatigable  endeavors  with  which 
he  pressed  ever  onward  to  his  objective.  High 
ideals  were  coupled  in  him  with  that  force  of 
character  and  tenacity  of  purpose  which  must 
inevitably  bring  forth  fruit  in  well-merited  suc- 
cess. Mr.  Palmer  was  a  member  of  a  family 
which  settled  in  this  country  during  the  earliest 
Colonial  period,  and  the  members  of  which  have 
ever  since  maintained  a  high  place  in  the  esteem 
of  their  fellow-citizens  and  distinguished  them- 
selves in  many  different  callings  and  departments 
of  the  community's  affairs.  It  was  founded  in 


100 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


America  by  two  brothers  who  came  from  Not- 
tinghamshire, England,  in  1629,  in  one  of  the  six 
ships  under  the  direction  of  John  Endicott,  and 
landed  at  Salem.  Abraham  and  Walter  Palmer 
were  among  the  Puritans  who  made  a  temporary 
home  in  the  two  towns  of  Charlestown  and  Reho- 
both,  but  later,  in  1653,  settled  at  Stonington, 
Connecticut.  Walter  Palmer,  from  whom  Henry 
E.  Palmer  was  descended,  was  the  father  of 
twelve  children,  and  in  many  ways  was  a  very 
striking  personality.  It  is  told  of  him  that  he 
was  about  six  feet  in  height,  weighed  over  three 
hundred  pounds,  and  his  voice  seems  to  have 
carried  much  influence  with  his  fellow-townsmen. 
It  was  at  his  house  that  the  first  religious  services 
at  Stonington  were  held. 

(II)  Nehemiah  Palmer,  son  of  Walter  Palmer, 
was  born  in  the  year  1637,  and  died  in  1717. 
He  was  married  in  1662  to  Hannah  Stanton  and 
among  their  children  was  Nathan,  mentioned 
below. 

(Ill)  Dr.  Nathan  Palmer,  son  of  Nehemiah 
and  Hannah  (Stanton)  Palmer,  was  born  in  1711 
and  died  in  1795.  He  married  Phebe  Billings  and 
they  were  the  parents  of  Captain  Asa  Palmer, 
mentioned  below. 

(IV)  Captain  Asa  Palmer,  son  of  Dr.  Nathan 
and   Phebe    (Billings)    Palmer,   was   born   in   the 
year  1742.     His  life  was  passed  amid  the  stirring 
times  preceding  the   Revolution  and  during  that 
historic  struggle,  in  which  he  played  a  prominent 
part.     He   was   captain   of   a   privateer   and   dis- 
tinguished himself  in  that  most  hazardous  service, 
one   of  his  achievements  being  the  capture  of  a 
British   brig   laden   with    supplies    for   the   army, 
which  he  diverted  and  managed  to  send  to  Wash- 
ington's   troops    at    Valley    Forge.      In    1802    he 
came  to  Bath,  Maine,  and  there  settled,  his  death 
occurring  eighteen  years   later  at  his  new  home. 
His   grave   is  now  marked  by  the   Daughters   of 
the  American   Revolution  and  his  name  thus  fit- 
tingly honored.     Captain  Palmer  married,  in  1776, 
Lois  Stanton,  and  among  their  children  was  Asa 
Palmer,    Jr.,    the    father    of    the    Mr.    Palmer    of 
this  sketch. 

(V)  Asa  Palmer,  son  of  Captain  Asa  and  Lois 
(Stanton)  Palmer,  was  born  at  Stonington,  Con- 
necticut, in  the  year  1791,  and  was  eleven  years 
of  age  when  he  accompanied  his  parents  to  Bath, 
Maine,  where  the  remainder  of  his  life  was  spent. 
Upon    reaching    manhood    he    opened    a    general 
mercantile    establishment    in    the    town.      When 
his   seven   children   were    growing   up   he   bought 
a  farm  in  Gorham,  Maine,  thinking  it  would  be 
better  for  his  four  boys.     He  lived  on  the  farm 


until  1853,  when  he  moved  to  Gorham  village, 
and  lived  there  until  the  death  of  his  wife,  in 
1864,  when  he  returned  to  Bath.  He  was  a  man 
of  high  principles  and  ability  and  was  much  re- 
spected and  esteemed  here.  His  death  occurred 
in  1873,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-two 
years  and  three  months.  Asa  Palmer  married, 
May  21,  1826,  Maria  Hyde,  a  native  of  Lebanon, 
where  she  was  born  in  1796,  and  they  were  the 
parents  of  Henry  E.  Palmer,  with  whose  career 
we  are  especially  concerned. 

(VI)  Born  January  27,  1829,  at  Bath,  Maine, 
Henry  E.  Palmer  spent  his  childhood  in  the  home 
of  his  birth.  This  was  the  old  house  on  Center 
street,  which  is  now  used  for  business  purposes, 
and  is  occupied  by  the  Atlantic  &  Pacific  Tea 
Company  and  Allen's  Candy  Store.  He  attended 
as  a  lad  the  private  school  of  Miss  Lee,  for 
whom  he  gained  the  deepest  affection  and  devo- 
tion, and  who  seems  to  have  been  a  woman  of 
charming  personality  and  much  talent  in  her  pro- 
fession. He  later  attended  the  Gorham  Academy 
for  Boys,  but  at  the  age  of  sixteen  left  his 
studies  to  begin  the  task  of  earning  his  own 
livelihood.  Mr.  Palmer  did  not  serve  the  long 
apprenticeship  that  most  lads  must  do  in  the 
employ  of  others,  but  in  spite  of  his  youth,  em- 
barked upon  a  business  venture  of  his  own,  and 
opened  a  small  grocery  store  on  the  northwest 
corner  of  Water  and  Center  streets.  He  was 
successful  from  the  outset,  but  did  not  continue 
in  this  line  a  great  while,  as  he  saw  an  oppor- 
tunity to  engage  in  the  dry  goods  business  on  a 
larger  scale.  In  his  new  venture  he  was  asso- 
ciated with  William  Ledyard  directly  across,  the 
street  from  his  first  store,  where  larger  quarters 
were  to  be  had.  Success  again  waited  upon  his 
enterprise  and  the  business  grew  so  rapidly  that 
within  a  few  years  larger  quarters  were  again 
necessary,  and  a  new  building  was  erected  a  short 
distance  to  the  east  of  the  original  place  and 
here  the  firm  continued  under  the  name  of  Led- 
yrxrd  &  Palmer  for  a  number  of  years.  Eventu- 
ally Mr.  Ledyard  withdrew  from  the  association 
and  Mr.  Palmer's  brother,  Gershom  Palmer,  be- 
came his  partner.  In  1868  this  partnership  was 
dissolved  and  for  a  time  Mr.  Palmer  was  the 
sole  owner  of  the  business.  Shortly  afterwards 
he  admitted  into  partnership  Mr.  William  Pen- 
dexter,  the  firm  becoming  Henry  E.  Palmer  & 
Company,  and  its  successful  career  was  continued 
under  this  name  until  1890,  when  Mr.  Palmer 
finally  retired  and  sold  his  interest  to  his  asso- 
ciate. This  move  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Palmer  did 
not,  however,  mean  that  he  gave  up  all  his  busi- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


101 


ness  activities  for  a  life  of  leisure.  On  the  con- 
trary, he  was  quite  as  busy  as  ever,  only  that  he 
then  devoted  all  his  time  and  attention  to  his 
real  estate  and  banking  interests,  of  which  he 
had  many.  He  was  affiliated  with  a  number  of 
financial  institutions  in  this  region  and  wielded 
a  decided  influence  in  the  business  world.  For 
twenty-five  years  he  was  a  director  of  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Bath,  and  for  six  years  a 
trustee  of  the  Bath  Savings  Institution,  while 
shortly  before  his  death  the  newly-organized 
Bath  Trust  Company  appointed  him  to  its  board 
of  trustees.  His  investments  in  real  estate  were 
also  large  and  made  with  a  degree  of  foresight 
and  sound  judgment  that  seemed  never  to  be 
wrong  and  betokened  a  careful  study  of  the  situa- 
tion in  the  city,  as  well  as  a  high  degree  of 
natural  perspicacity.  That  he  was  successful  is 
no  unique  distinction,  but  that  he  was  as  success- 
ful as  he  was,  and  that  without  overriding  the 
rights  and  interest  of  others,  or  ever  forgetting 
the  welfare  of  the  community  at  large,  that  was 
indeed  an  achievement  of  which  to  be  proud. 
In  a  memorial  address  delivered  by  the  Rev. 
David  L.  Yale  at  the  time  of  Mr.  Palmer's  death, 
Mr.  Yale  referred  to  his  business  career  in  these 
words: 

I  need  not  speak  of  Mr.  Palmer  as  a  business 
man.  The  messages  I  have  read  from  his  busi- 
ness associates  are  sufficient.  Recall  the  words 
they  have  used  of  him. 

"Rare  good  judgment,  free  from,  hypocrisy, 
correct  principles,  courage,  intelligence,  industry, 
thrift,  just,  faithful,  fine  straightforward  honesty, 
exemplary,  kindly,  sterling.  The  best  type  of 
New  England  civilization." 

A  man  who  lived  for  fifty-eight  years  in  the 
business  life  of  Bath,  winning  unusual  financial 
success,  and  at  the  close  have  both  associates  and 
competitors  speak  thus  of  him,  was  not  an  ordi- 
nary man. 

In  addition  to  his  business  activities,  Mr. 
Palmer  was  a  participant  in  local  public  affairs 
and  no  man  in  the  community  was  listened  to 
with  more  respect  than  he  on  questions  of  mu- 
nicipal policy.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Repub- 
lican party  and  a  staunch  supporter  of  its  prin- 
ciples, and  when  the  local  organization  desired 
him  to  be  its  candidate  for  membership  in  the 
city  government,  he  accepted.  As  a- matter  of 
fact  he  was  quite  without  political  ambition,  and 
derived  no  personal  satisfaction  from  his  excur- 
sion into  politics,  being  moved  to  do  so  purely 
from  a  sense  of  duty.  He  lived  in  the  community, 
and  was  benefited  by  the  circumstances  of  its 
life,  and  he  felt  that  if  his  fellow-citizens  wanted 
some  of  his  time  and  energies  in  return  he  had 
no  right  to  refuse.  Men  of  this  sort  make  the 
best  type  of  public  servants,  because  the  element 


of  self-interest  is  entirely  removed  from  their 
official  acts,  leaving  them  free  to  consider  only 
the  advantage  of  the  community,  and  Mr.  Palmer 
was  a  fine  example  of  this  truth.  During  the 
several  years  in  which  he  served  as  a  member  of 
the  city  government  he  exerted  his  influence  con- 
sistently on  the  side  of  reform  and  improvement, 
and  was  responsible  for  much  of  the  progress 
that  was  made  during  that  period. 

No  notice  of  the  life  of  Mr.  Palmer  would  be 
in  any  way  complete  that  did  not  take  into  con- 
sideration his  religious  experience,  which  played 
a  more  considerable  part  in  it  than  is  the  case 
with  most  men.  He  was  a  Congregationalist  and 
attended  for  many  years  the  Central  Church  of 
that  denomination  at  Bath.  For  more  than  half 
a  century  his  membership  lasted,  and  during 
practically  all  that  long  period  he  was  active  in 
the  work  of  the  church  and  officially  connected 
with  it  in  somie  capacity.  For  twenty  years  he 
was  a  teacher  in  the  Sunday  school,  and  for 
eighteen  years  following  he  was  superintendent 
thereof,  while  he  occupied  the  honorable  office 
of  deacon  for  a  quarter  of  a  century,  always  giv- 
ing of  his  time  and  fortune  to  whatever  need 
arose  in  the  congregation.  It  is  possible,  how- 
ever, to  be  all  these  things  and  yet  lack  true 
religion,  and  Mr.  Palmer's  claim  to  be  truly 
religious  does  not  rest  on  these  facts  alone.  In 
the  sermon  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Yale,  already  quoted 
from,  there  occurs  the  following  passage,  which, 
coming  from  the  lips  of  his  pastor,  carries  addi- 
tional weight: 

It  is  unnecessary  to  say  that  Deacon  Palmer 
was  a  religious  man.  One  needed  but  to  hear 
the  prayers  he  offered  to  know  that  he  "walked 
with  God." 

His  religious  life  and  professions  were  notably 
free  from  all  shams  and  cant.  His  words  in 
prayer  and  religious  conservation  were  straight- 
forward. Long  ago  he  had  "left  the  God  of 
things  as  they  seem,  for  the  God  of  things  as 
they  are." 

Only  once  has  he  opened  the  chambers  of  his 
religious  life  to  me.  It  was  few  weeks  ago. 
We  were  returning  from  a  home  where  we  had 
administered  the  sacrament  of  baptism  to  a 
dying  girl.  As  we  talked  slowly  along  through 
the  night  he  began  to  talk  of  the  life  to  come 
and  of  the  close  and  vital  relation  between  this 
life  and  the  next. 

He  spoke  as  a  man  of  many  years  who  was 
looking  forward  to  his  own  transition. 

His  words  contained  that  sweet  reasonableness 
and  calm  assurance  which  come  only  from  reli- 
gious knowledge,  translated  by  years  of  life  into 
a  large  and  living  faith. 

I  knew,  that  night,  that  the  best  prize  this 
world  and  these  years  can  bestow  on  any  man 
had  been  given  to  him. 

He  was  one  of  that  great  multitude  who  dwell 
in  the  secret  place  of  the  Most  High  and  who 


102 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


abide  under  the  shadow  of  the  Almighty. 

In  the  matter  of  his  charity  and  personal  self- 
sacrifice  in  the  interest  of  others,  the  sincerity  of 
his  religious  feelings  shone  forth.  Of  this  side 
of  his  character  Mr.  Yale  had  the  following  to 
say: 

Deacon  Palmer  was  an  unselfish  man. 

For  many  years  he  gave  one-tenth  of  his  in- 
come to  religious  and  benevolent  work. 

More  than  that,  he  gave  himself. 

Think  what  he  has  given  to  our  Sunday  school. 
For  more  than  twenty  years  he  was  a  teacher, 
an  office  demanding  much  time  and  strength  for 
study  and  preparation  as  well  as  for  teaching. 

Recall  the  eighteen  years  given  to  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Sunday  school  as  its  superintendent, 
filling  an  office  that  makes  large  demands  on  a 
man's  time  and  physical  and  mental  strength. 

Few  have  known  of  his  unselfishness  as  deacon 
of  the  church.  Not  a  few  evenings  during  those 
last  four  years  has  he  left  the  comforts  of  home 
and  gone  out  sometimes  into  the  wet  or  cold  that 
he  might  attend  the  routine  of  church  busi- 
ness. .  .  . 

That  is  a  partial  record  of  his  unselfishness.  A 
half  century  of  regular  and  generous  giving  of 
himself,  for  others,  always  without  pay,  often 
without  thanks.  His  gifts  in  money  were  gener- 
ous, but  his  gift  of  himself  was  more. 

Henry  Edwin  Palmer  was  united  in  marriage, 
July  15,  1856,  with  Miss  Fannie  Cushman,  a  na- 
tive of  Brunswick,  Maine,  where  she  was  born 
January  12,  1837,  and  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Solomon 
Paddleford  and  Harriet  (Whitney)  Cushman. 
highly  respected  residents  of  Brunswick.  Mrs. 
Palmer's  mother,  Harriet  Whitney,  was  a  native 
of  Maine,  but  was  sent  to  Cambridge,  Massachu- 
setts, to  finish  her  education,  and  lived  while 
there  in  the  Craigy  house,  which  afterward  be- 
came the  home  of  Longfellow.  Three  children 
were  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Palmer,  as  follows: 
Annie  Ledyard,  who  resides  in  the  old  Palmer 
home;  Hattie  Cushman  and  Asa  Hyde,  both  of 
whom  died  in  infancy.  Mrs.  Palmer's  death  oc- 
curred April  20,  1910. 

This  brief  sketch  cannot  end  more  appropri- 
ately than  in  the  words  of  two  of  Mr.  Palmer's 
old  friends  and  associates,  who  spoke  of  him  at 
the  time  of  his  death.  The  first  of  these  is 
James  C.  Ledyard,  of  Bath,  who  wrote: 

Our  late  brother,  Henry  E.  Palmer,  of  whose 
fellowship  we  have  so  recently  been  deprived, 
and  whose  absence  from  his  accustomed  place 
in  our  midst  we  note  with  sorrow  and  regret. 

As  a  son  and  youth  he  was  obedient  and  sub- 
missive to  authority,  a  lover  of  the  woods,  fields 
and  the  sea,  fond  of  those  sports,  hunting,  boat- 
ing and  fishing,  that  brought  him  more  closely 
into  contact  with  nature,  of  which  he  was  an 
appreciative  admirer. 

As  a  young  man  he  was  upright,  considerate, 


industrious,  and,  as  the  years  passed  on,  these 
characteristics  became  the  fixed  habits  of  thought 
and  action  to  the  end. 

As  a  church  member  he  was  consistent  in  his 
living,  steadfast  in  his  belief,  seeking  to  promote 
the  well-being  of  his  fellow-men,  contributing 
by  his  presence  and  his  means  to  the  support  and 
spreading  of  the  Gospel  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  dis- 
charging all  duties  without  ostentation,  and  in 
the  love  of  righteousness, — his  was  a  notably 
worthy  life. 

The  other  tribute  is  from  the  Rev.  Mr.  Yale, 
already  quoted  from: 

I  have  mentioned  certain  facts  of  Deacon 
Palmer's  life  and  character  which  show  him  to 
have  been  a  remarkable  man. 

Beginning  more  than  half  a  century  ago,  he  has 
used  his  time  well.  He  has  used  it  intelligently 
and  for  essentials. 

He  has  lived  to  an  unusual  degree  an  unselfish 
life,  giving  his  money  and  himself  freely  for 
others. 

He  has  sought  convictions  on  great  matters 
of  life  and  duty,  and  gaining  them,  has  wrought 
them  into  his  character  and  deeds. 

The  secret  of  it  all  is  to  be  found  in  this. 
More  than  half  a  century  ago,  under  the  ministry 
of  Dr.  Ray  Palmer,  he  became  a  Christian.  He 
accepted  Christ  as  his  Teacher  of  whom  he  should 
learn,  as  his  Master  whom  he  should  obey,  and 
as  his  Savior  whom  he  should  trust  and  love. 

During  all  the  years  that  followed  Christ  has 
been  a  personal  force  in  his  life,  and  has  made 
it  of  the  fashion  that  it  was. 

It  is  not  the  build  and  equipment  of  a  ship 
that  guarantees  its  safe  arrival  at  the  harbor,  far 
away  across  the  ocean,  but  rather  the  captain 
that  is  in  command. 

They  are  not  its  human  qualities,  however  ex- 
cellent, that  guarantee  the  safe  arrival  of  a  soul, 
in  the  Harbor  of  Heavenly  Rest,  but  rather  the 
Christ  who  is  in  command. 

The  secret  of  his  successful  life  is  this.  Fifty- 
five  years  ago  Henry  E.  Palmer  asked  Christ  to 
take  command. 


OLNEY  DEWEY  BLISS— Beyond  doubt, 
talents  and  abilities  run  through  generation  after 
generation  of  a  family  and  are  inherited  directly 
from  father  to  son.  The  case  of  Olney  Dewey 
Bliss,  president  of  the  well-known  Bliss  College 
of  Lewiston,  Maine,  who  comes  of  a  family  of 
educators,  well  exemplifies  this.  He  is  not  a 
native  of  Lewiston,  having  come  from  Ohio  to 
this  place  in  the  year  1897,  and  it  was  in  Ohio 
he  was  born  and  resided  for  a  number  of  years. 

Olney  Dewey  Bliss  is  a  son  of  Frank  Lee 
Bliss,  a  native  of  Conneaut,  Ohio.  Mr.  Bliss,  Sr., 
was  possessed  of  those  particular  talents  which 
qualify  a  man  for  teaching,  and  was  in  addition 
a  remarkable  organizer,  so  that  the  several 
schools  which  he  founded  met  with  a  high  degree 
of  success.  While  comparatively  a  young  man, 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


103 


lie  went  to  Michigan  and  in  the  town  of  Sagi- 
naw  founded  the  Bliss  system  of  schools,  at  the 
head  of  which  he  remained  for  a  number  of  years. 
He  later  returned  to  his  native  town  of  Con- 
neaut,  where  he  remained  a  number  of  years,  and 
in  1897  came  to  Lewiston,  Maine,  where  with  his 
son,  Olney  Dewey  Bliss,  he  founded  the  Bliss 
Business  College.  His  death  occurred  very 
shortly  after  in  the  same  year,  about  three 
months  after  the  school  was  opened.  Mr.  Bliss 
married  Rose  Elizabeth  Thompson,  like  himself 
a  native  of  Conneaut,  Ohio.  Mrs.  Bliss  died  De- 
cember 14,  1915,  in  California. 

Born  November  30,  1879,  at  Conneaut,  Ohio, 
Olney  Dcwey  Bliss  passed  his  childhood  and 
early  youth  in  his  native  town.  For  the  pre- 
liminary portion  of  his  education  he  attended  the 
local  public  schools,  from  which  he  was  gradu- 
ated with  the  class  of  1894.  He  then  became  a 
student  in  Bliss  College  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  where 
he  studied  for  about  a  year  and  was  graduated 
in  1895.  Two  years  later  he  accompanied  his 
father  to  Lewiston,  Maine,  and  aided  the  elder 
man  in  the  foundation  of  the  now  celebrated 
Bliss  College  there.  After  his  father's  death,  Mr. 
Bliss  became  sole  owner  and  manager  of  this 
institution  and  to  the  present  day  occupies  the 
position  of  president  thereof.  He  has  made  the 
school  his  life's  work  and  endeavored  to  realize 
in  it  the  very  best  educational  ideals  and  striven 
to  make  it  serve  that  most  important  of  pur- 
poses, the  training  of  young  men  and  women  in 
those  departments  of  knowledge  which  have  an 
immediate  and  practical  application  in  the  daily 
affairs  of  life.  In  this  effort  Mr.  Bliss  has  met 
with  a  phenomenal  success,  and  the  school  has 
become  well  known  through  a  larpe  part  of  New 
England  as  affording  an  excellent  education  for 
those  desiring  a  complete  knowledge  of  business, 
commercial  and  financial  matters.  In  the  pros- 
pectus of  this  college,  Mr.  Bliss-  has  published 
what  he  considers  to  be  the  five  things  requisite 
to  a  successful  business  college.  They  are  as 
follows: 

First:  The  equipment  should  be  thorough  and 
should  include  every  modern  office  appliance  and 
machine,  and  the  courses  of  study  should  be  so 
complete  as  to  permit  of  the  most  efficient  in- 
struction in  every  detail  of  business  training. 

Second:  The  teachers  you  will  have  to  instruct 
you.  If  they  are  not  thorough  and  capable,  no 
student  can  reach  his  highest  efficiency. 

Third:  The  surroundings  and  environments 
play  a  big  part  in  the  success  of  a  student's 
work.  The  lighting  and  ventilation  are  impor- 
tant. 

Fourth:     The    standing  of   the    college    in    the 


business  community — its  ability  to  take  care  of 
you,  and  place  you  in  a  position  of  responsibility 
and  trust  after  you  have  completed  the  course. 

Fifth:  The  financial  responsibility  to  meet  its 
obligations — a  college  that  is  assured  of  perma- 
nency. 

The  Bliss  College  qualifies  highly,  as  tested  by 
every  one  of  these  criterions,  and  the  work  that 
it  has  done  already  and  is  now  doing  is  an  ex- 
ceedingly valuable  one  for  the  community,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  individual  student  who  profits 
by  its  training.  Mr.  Bliss  has  this  same  advice, 
commingled  with  much  valuable  information,  for 
those  who  would  receive  this  type  of  education: 

A  real  business  training  can  be  acquired  in  a 
High  Grade  Business  College.  That  the  Bliss 
College  is  such  a  school  needs  no  affirmation. 
Its  reputation  as  an  institution  in  which  to  train 
students  for  banking  positions,  as  expert  account- 
ants, for  private  secretaryships,  for  the  civil  ser- 
vice, for  railroad  office  positions,  as  expert 
stenographers,  as  court  reporters,  as  commercial 
and  shorthand  teachers,  has  become  a  national 
one. 

Business  men  send  their  sons  and  daughters 
to  Bliss  College  because  they  know  we  have  the 
teaching  force  and  the  facilities  to  develop  the 
business  instinct.  Our  young  men  become  busi- 
ness men,  for  bookkeeping  is  but  a  part  of  a 
broad  business  course  which  not  only  includes 
business  law  and  business  customs,  but  lessons 
in  salesmanship  and  business  efficiency  as  well. 
Lectures  and  discussions  by  prominent,  success- 
ful salesmen  and  business  men  put  enthusiasm 
into  our  young  people.  We  place  these  students 
in  first-class  positions.  They  go  into  the  busi- 
ness world  with  confidence  and  so  the  success 
of  Bliss  graduates  becomes  our  greatest  adver- 
tisement. 

Attend  the  Bliss  College  and  you  will  be  taught 
by  the  Actual  Business  System,  not  only  in  the 
Business  Department,  but  in  the  Shorthand  De- 
partment also,  secure  a  real  business  training. 
It  will  mean  success. 

We  are  convinced,  after  years  of  experience 
jn  educating  young  people  for  business,  that  there 
is  only  one  practical  result-getting  system  of 
teaching,  and  this  is  the  office  system.  Theory 
will  not  suffice.  You  must  learn  by  doing  the 
work.  In  this  respect,  The  Bliss  System  of  Ac- 
tual Business  almost  approaches  perfection. 

The  Actual  Business  System  will  not  work  in 
a  small  school.  There  must  be  a  large  number 
of  students  present  to  properly  illustrate  business 
transactions  and  represent  business  on  a  small 
scale.  This  is  why  small  schools  fail.  The  work 
of  small  schools,  from  the  very  nature  of  things, 
must  be  theoretical  and  superficial,  and,  further- 
more, the  school  located  in  a  small  city  cannot 
find  positions  for  graduates.  Asked  by  business 
men  where  you  attended  school,  you  will  refer, 
with  satisfaction  and  pride,  to  the  fact  that  you 
were  graduated  from  a  school  of  national  repu- 
tation. This  will  impress  any  employer  and 
insure  you  consideration  when  you  apply  for  a 


104 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


position.  You  will  be  given  opportunity  to  dem- 
onstrate your  ability.  Your  application  will  be 
accepted. 

It  is  to  your  interest  to  have  the  very  best 
training,  for  the  kind  of  training  you  receive  will 
determine  your  success. 

Make  up  your  mind  that  no  matter  how  far 
you  must  go,  or  what  you  must  sacrifice,  you 
should  attend  the  school  that  will  develop  your 
best  Possibilities. 

The  curriculum  of  the  school  is  varied  and 
complete  and  takes  the  student  not  only  through 
those  branches  which  are  necessary  to  all  busi- 
nesses, but  into  many  special  departments,  and 
carries  on  his  practical  education  to  almost  any 
point  that  he  may  desire — penmanship,  spelling, 
commercial  arithmetic,  rapid  calculation,  audit- 
ing, corporation  accounting  and  commercial  law 
are  all  included,  and  yet  it  is  possible  for  the 
really  ambitious  student  to  gain  an  excellent 
knowledge  of  whatever  subject  he  chooses  to 
take  up  in  so  short  a  time  as  from  six  to  ten 
months,  a  knowledge  which  will  well  fit  him  to 
begin  that  most  serious  of  all  of  life's  activities, 
the  making  of  a  livelihood.  In  connection  with 
the  time  that  it  requires  to  complete  a  course  in 
this  school,  the  following  from  the  prospectus 
is  of  interest  and  value: 

The  time  to  complete  the  Business  Course 
varies  according:  First,  to  the  age  of  the  stu- 
dent; second,  to  his  previous  education  and 
knowledge  of  business  affairs;  third,  to  the  men- 
tal ability  and  application  of  the  student;  fourth, 
to  the  rapidity  and  quality  of  his  handwriting; 
fifth,  to  his  knowledge  of  and  accuracy  in  cal- 
culations; sixth,  to  the  degree  of  correctness, 
order  and  system  with  which  he  performs  the 
various  duties  of  the  student  bookkeeper; 
seventh,  to  the  amount  of  systematic  and 
thoughtful  home  study  done.  These  elements 
considered,  the  time  varies  from  six  to  ten 
months. 

By  those  who  have  taken  courses  in  the  Bliss 
courses  and  have  since  gone  out  into  the  world, 
there  is  expressed  a  universal  approbation  of  the 
school  and  what  it  stands  for.  Among  these 
many  well-known  and  successful  business  men 
and  men  of  affairs  have  expressed  themselves 
definitely  upon  this  point  and  the  quality  of  their 
praise  may  be  seen  from  the  letter  of  Mr.  George 
VV.  Goss,  cashier  of  the  First  National  Bank  of 
Lewiston,  which  follows: 

Bliss  Business  College,  Lewiston,  Maine: 

Our  Bank  is  at  the  present  time  employing 
five  of  your  graduates,  and  I  find  them  to  be 
just  as  recommended,  exceptionally  well-trained, 
and  equipped  with  a  business  education  suiting 
them  to  meet  the  demands  of  modern  business. 
Quite  often  your  graduates,  direct  from  the 
school,  impress  one  that  they  have  had  business 


experience,  which  is  due  to  the  fact  that  your 
school  gives  practical  office  training  as  part  of 
its  courses,  and  that  your  teachers  are  specialists 
in  their  departments.  You  certainly  have  my 
heartiest  endorsement,  as  I  know  the  great  good 
you  are  doing  the  young  men  and  women  of 
Maine,  and  the  benefit  you  are  to  the  business 
public.  (Signed.) 

Another  who  adds  his  contribution  to  this 
chorus  of  praise  is  Mr.  E.  E.  Parker,  cashier  of 
the  Manufacturers'  National  Bank  of  Lewiston, 
who  says: 

My  dear  Mr.  Bliss: 

It  affords  me  a  great  pleasure  to  testify  to  the 
work  of  Bliss  College  in  this  day  and  community. 
The  beneficiaries  of  your  college  are  wielding  a 
great  influence  in  the  business  world  today  on 
account  of  the  knowledge  given  in  your  most 
excellent  school  of  modern  business  training.  We 
have  a  number  of  your  graduates  in  our  bank 
and  they  are  worthy  examples  of  careful  business 
training.  I  congratulate  you  on  your  success  in 
equipping  young  men  and  women  for  business 
life,  and  I  know  that  a  great  many  more  would 
avail  themselves  of  the  opportunity  of  attending 
your  school  could  they  but  be  made  to  realize 
the  importance  of  a  practical,  not  theoretical, 
business  education,  and  the  opportunity  afforded 
a  well-trained  young  man  or  woman.  (Signed.) 

One    of    the    most   valued    tributes    is    that    of 
Mr.  Bert  M.  Fernald,  United  States  Senator  from 
Maine,  who  has  this  to  say: 
My  dear  Mr.  Bliss: 

I  understand  that  you  are  about  to  issue  several 
circulars  in  the  near  future,  regarding  your  insti- 
tution. 

I  desire  to  take  advantage  of  this  in  saying 
that  I  have  known  many  of  your  students  who 
have  attended  your  school,  and  several  of  them 
have  been  in  my  employ,  and  I  cannot  express 
to  you  the  satisfaction  it  gives  me  in  recommend- 
ing your  school  as  among  the  best  in  the  State. 
My  son  attended  some  years  since,  and  he  as 
well  as  myself  was  much  pleased  with  the  prog- 
ress he  made. 

What  is  thought  of  the  Bliss  College  by  other 
institutions  of  learning  may  be  gathered  from  the 
following  quotations  from  various  authorities  as- 
sociated with  important  schools  and  institutions 
throughout  the  country: 

Mr.  H.  W.  Behnke,  president  Behnke-Walker 
Business  College,  Portland,  Oregon.  "We  believe 
the  Bliss  System  of  Actual  Business  is  without 
a  peer  in  preparing  young  men  and  women  for 
first-class  positions." 

Mr.  W.  F.  M,athews,  principal,  commercial  de- 
partment, Beloit,  Wisconsin,  Business  College. 
"I  will  say  that  I  find  the  Bliss  System  the  most 
actual,  thorough  and  up-to-date  system  pub- 
lished." 

Mr.  A.  K.  Burke,  Kirksville,  Missouri,  Business 
College.  "The  best  system  of  bookkeeping  on 
the  market  today  is  the  'Bliss,'  and  bookkeepers 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


105 


who  arc  trained  under  it  do  not  have  to  learn 
all  over  again  when  they  go  into  an  office." 

Mr.  W.  O.  Davis,  president  Davis  Business 
and  Shorthand  School,  of  Erie,  Pennsylvania. 
"The  longer  we  use  your  system  the  better 
pleased  we  are  with  it.  Our  students  are  doing 
some  remarkable  work  and  we  feel  that  we  have 
every  reason  to  recommend  the  Bliss  system." 

Mr.  A.  J.  Parks,  Woonsocket,  Rhode  Island, 
Business  University.  "Our  school  has  increased 
over  double  the  attendance  of  that  last  year  at 
this  time,  and  the  Bliss  System  seems  very  in- 
teresting to  our  students.  Mr.  Bellows  and  my- 
self both  enjoy  the  work." 

Mr.  Charles  McMullen,  principal  commercial 
department,  Butte,  Montana.  "The  enthusiasm 
in  the  bookkeeping  classes  is  simply  wonderful. 
It  is  not  necessary  for  me  to  say  I  am  delighted." 

Graduates  of  other  colleges:  "Who  desire  to 
do  more  advanced  work  in  the  courses  they  com- 
pleted than  was  possible  in  the  schools  they  at- 
tended will  find  our  Office  Training  course  for 
stenographers,  and  our  Higher  Accounting 
course  of  particular  advantage  in  finishing  up 
their  preparation  for  business.  Many  graduates 
of  other  schools  have  come  to  this  college  for  a 
finishing  course  which  has  proved  exceedingly 
profitable." 

Besides  the  energy  and  attention  given  by  Mr. 
Bliss  to  the  conduct  of  his  great  institution,  there 
are  many  other  departments  of  the  life  of  the 
community  which  interest  and  enlist  his  activity. 
Particularly  is  this  the  case  in  connection  with 
social  life  and  he  is  a  member  of  a  number  of 
important  and  prominent  organizations,  both  of 
the  fraternal  character  and  club.  He  is  particu- 
larly prominent  in  Masonic  circles,  in  which  he 
has  taken  the  thirty-second  degree,  and  is  a 
member  of  Rabboni  Lodge,  Ancient  Free  and 
Accepted  Masons;  King  Hiram  Chapter,  Royal 
Arch  Masons;  Dunlap  Council,  Royal  and  Select 
Masters;  Lewiston  Commandery,  Knights  Tem- 
plar; Maine  Consistory,  Sublime  Princes  of  the 
Royal  Secret;  Kora  Temple,  Ancient  Arabic  Or- 
der Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine.  He  is  also  a 
member  of  the  Lewiston  Lodge,  Benevolent  and 
Protective  Qrder  of  Elks,  of  the  Rotary  and 
Calumet  clubs,  and  several  other  important  so- 
cieties. He  is  a  Republican  in  politics  and  a 
staunch  supporter  of  the  principles  and  policies 
of  that  party,  but  the  demands  upon  his  time  and 
energy  made  by  the  conduct  of  his  school  ren- 
der it  impossible  for  him  to  devote  himself  in 
any  way  to  political  life,  nor  indeed  has  he  any 
ambition  to  hold  public  office.  In  his  religious 
belief  Mr.  Bliss  is  a  Congregationalist  and  at- 
tends the  Pine  Street  Church  of  this  denomina- 
tion at  Lewiston. 


Mr.  Bliss  was  united  in  marriage,  June  II, 
1001,  at  Durham,  Maine,  with  Katherine  Mount- 
fort,  a  native  of  Leominster,  Massachusetts,  and 
a  daughter  of  William  C.  and  Mary  Elizabeth 
(Wentworth)  Mountfort.  One  child  has  been 
born  of  this  union,  a  son,  Addison  Mountfort, 
born  February  25,  1003. 


JAMES  SMALL  LIBBY,  late  of  Portland. 
Maine,  where  his  death  occurred  on  March  16, 
1885,  was  one  of  the  conspicuous  men  of  affairs 
connected  with  the  great  development  of  the 
railroad  system  of  this  State  during  the  past 
generation.  Mr.  Libby  was  a  member  of  an  ex- 
ceedingly old  and  distinguished  New  England 
family,  which  was  founded  in  this  country  at  a 
very  early  period  in  its  Colonial  history,  and  the 
members  of  which  have  for  many  years  occu- 
pied prominent  positions  in  various  callings 
throughout  the  country. 

(I)  The  Libby  family  came  from  England, 
probably  Cornwall  or  Devonshire,  the  name  be- 
ing found  under  various  spellings  in  the  early 
records  of  that  region,  and  the  founder  of  the 
family  in  this  country  was  one  John  Libby,  whose 
birth  occurred  in  England  about  the  year  1602, 
and  who  came  to  the  New  England  colonies, 
where  he  was  employed  in  the  fisheries  by  Robert 
Trelawney,  who  had  a  grant  of  land  embracing 
Richmond's  Island,  and  other  tracts  about  Cape 
Elizabeth,  in  Maine.  The  records  of  the  fishing 
industry  show  that  John  Libby  was  in  the  em- 
ploy of  Robert  Trelawney  some  four  years,  or 
from  1635  to  1639.  He  was  himself  the  recipient 
of  a  grant  of  land  at  Scarboro,  Maine,  on  the 
bank  of  a  stream,  which  has  since  been  called 
Libby  river,  and  where  he  built  a  house.  It  is 
believed  that  he  divided  his  time  between  fishing 
and  agriculture  and  in  1663  he  is  described  in 
an  old  document  as  a  "planter."  He  was  con- 
stable of  Scarboro  in  1664,  and  his  name  stands 
first  of  the  four  selectmen  in  a  town  grant  bear- 
ing the  date  of  1669.  He  was  one  of  the  suf- 
ferers from  the  Indian  wars  of  that  period,  and 
in  King  Philip's  War  (1675)  l°st  a"  h's  posses- 
sions, with  the  exception  of  his  plantation.  We 
find  the  following  entry  in  the  diary  of  Captain 
Joshua  Scottow:  "Eight  or  nine  deserted  houses 
belonging  to  Libby  and  his  children  were  burned 
by  the  Indians  September  seventh  1675."  John 
Libby  and  his  wife,  and  their  younger  children, 
were  in  Boston  July  10,  1677,  and  on  his  peti- 
tion at  that  time,  his  two  sons,  Henry  and  An- 
thony, were  discharged  from  Black  Point  garri- 
son. He  probably  returned  to  his  old  home  at 


106 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Black  Point,  Maine,  shortly  afterwards,  and  it 
was  here  that  he  acquired  a  comfortable  property 
and  that  his  death  occurred  at  the  age  of  eighty 
years.  John  Libby  was  twice  married,  but  little 
is  known  of  the  first  wife,  save  that  she  was  the 
mother  of  all  of  his  sons,  excepting  Matthew 
and  Daniel,  and  probably  of  all  his  daughters. 
Of  the  second  wife  it  is  only  known  that  her  first 
name  was  Mary.  The  children  of  John  Libby, 
probably  all  born  in  this  country  except  the  eld- 
est, were  as  follows:  John,  James,  Samuel,  Jo- 
anna, Henry,  Anthony,  Rebecca,  Sarah,  Hannah, 
David,  Matthew,  who  is  mentioned  below;  and 
Daniel. 

(II)  Matthew   Libby,   son   of  John   and   Mary 
Libby,  was  born  in   1663,  at  Scarboro,  and  died 
at  Kittery,  Maine,  in  March,   1741.     In  the  time 
of  the  Indian  troubles  of  1690,  he  went  to  Ports- 
mouth ana  from  there  to  Kittery,  in  the  winter 
of    1699-1700.      His    house    was    constructed    of 
hewn  timber  and  was  provided  with  a  projecting 
upper  story,  so  built  that  in  case  of  an  attack  by 
Indians    those    within    could    shoot    or    pour   hot 
water    on    them    from    above.      This    interesting 
place  was  situated  at  Kittery  and  there  he  lived 
until    his    death.      Not    long   before    the    second 
organization  of  the  town  of  Scarboro,  Matthew 
Libby,   Roger   Deeming,  John   Libby  and   Roger 
Hunnewell  went  to  Black  Point,  and  there  estab- 
lished    a     saw-mill     on     the     Nonesuch     river. 
Matthew    Libby,    however,    afterwards    bestowed 
his  interest  in  this  mill  on  his  three  sons,  Wil- 
liam, John  and  Andrew.     He   married  Elizabeth 
Brown,  daughter  of  Andrew  Brown,  a  prominent 
citizen  of  Black  Point,  and  she  survived  her  hus- 
band two  or  three  years.    They  were  the  parents 
of     fourteen     children,     as     follows:      William, 
Matthew,  Mary,  Rebecca,  Hannah,  John,  Andrew, 
who  is  mentioned  below;  Sarah,  Nathaniel,  Dor- 
cas, Samuel,  Mehitable,  Lydia,  and  Elizabeth,  all 
of  whom  grew  to  maturity  and  married. 

(III)  Lieutenant  Andrew  Libby,  seventh  child 
and     fourth     son     of     Matthew     and     Elizabeth 
(Brown)   Libby,  was  born  December   I,   1700,  at 
Kittery  (now  Eliot),  Maine,  and  died  January  5, 
1773,   in   the  seventy-third  year   of  his   age.     He 
returned  to  the  early  home  of  his  father  at  Scar- 
boro, where  he  became  one  of  the  most  promi- 
nent and   successful   farmers   of  the   region,   and 
left    behind    him    a    valuable    property.      He    did 
not  take  a  great  part  in  public  affairs,  devoting 
himself  principally  to  his  own  business,  and  the 
only  record  of  his  participation  in  the  general  life 
of   the    town    is    contained   in    an    entry    of    1743, 
where  he  is  mentioned  as  one  of  a  committee  of 


three  selected  "to  get  a  schoolmaster."  It  is  not 
known  from  the  records  where  he  was  in  actual 
service  during  the  French  War,  but  this  is  ex- 
ceedingly probable,  since  he  was  universally 
known  as  Lieutenant  Andrew  Libby.  He  and  his 
first  wife  were  members  of  the  Congregational 
church.  Lieutenant  Andrew  Libby  married 
(first)  Esther  Furbcr,  daughter  of  Jethro  Furber, 
of  Newington,  New  Hampshire.  She  died,  Octo- 
ber i,  1756,  and  he  married  (second)  in  1757, 
Eleanor  (Libby)  Trickey,  who  survived  him,  and 
died  September  27,  1781.  The  children  of  Lieu- 
tenant Libby  were  all  by  his  first  wife,  as  fol- 
lows: Andrew,  Joshua,  who  is  mentioned  below; 
Elizabeth,  Henry,  Abigail,  Joseph,  Daniel,  Ed- 
ward, Sarah,  Esther  and  Simon. 

(IV)  Deacon    Joshua    Libby,    second    son    of 
Lieutenant  Andrew  and  Esther   (Furber)   Libby, 
was   born    March    17,    1734,   at    Scarboro,    Maine, 
and  died  January  13,  1814,  at  the  age  of  seventy- 
nine  years.    As  a  lad  he  learned  the  shoemaker's 
trade,   but   never   followed   that   occupation.     He 
married    Hannah    Larrabee,    November    2,    1755, 
and  settled  on  the   Nonesuch   river,  about   three 
miles    north    of    Oak   Hill,    where    he   became    a 
successful   farmer.     In   addition  to  his   extensive 
farming,    he    engaged    in    shipbuilding    and    the 
West  India  trade,  and  became  one  of  the  richest 
and  most  influential  men  in  the  town.     He  was 
chairman    of   selectmen    in    1792-93-94,   and   town 
treasurer  from   1800  until  his  death,  on  January 
13,   1813.     He  and  his  wife  became   members  of 
the   Congregational  church  in  July,   1792,  and  he 
was    afterwards    chosen    deacon    and    filled    that 
position   at   the   time   of  his   death.     He   and  his 
wife,  whose   death   occurred   December   13,   1818, 
were   the   parents   of   eight   children,   as   follows: 
Esther,    who    died    in    infancy;    Sarah,    Matthias, 
Lydia,   Joshua,  who  is   mentioned  below;  Theo- 
dore, Hannah,  and  Salome. 

(V)  Captain  Joshua  (2)   Libby,  son  of  Deacon 
Joshua   (i)   and   Hannah    (Larrabee)    Libby,  was 
born  August  31,   1768,  at   Scarboro,   Maine.     Ho 
succeeded    to   his    father's    homestead,    where    he 
resided   during  his   entire   life,  and   died   October 
23,  1824,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six  years.     He  was  a 
prosperous    farmer   and   a   man   highly   respected 
in   the   community,  being  of  a   conservative   dis- 
position  and   of   excellent  judgment,   so   that   his 
fellow-citizens   reposed   great   confidence   in  him. 
He  was  a  selectman  of  Scarboro  in  1822-26  and 
1827,  and  was  town  treasurer  from   1817  to  1827. 
He  married,  February  16,  1791,  Ruth  Libby,  born 
October  16,  1773,  a  daughter  of  Simon  and  Eliza- 
beth   (Thompson)    Libby,   of   Scarboro,   and   her 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


107 


death  occurred  November  24,  1831.  They  were 
the  parents  of  thirteen  children,  as  follows:  Sher- 
born,  Joshua,  who  is  mentioned  at  length  below; 
Simon,  Johnson,  Addison,  who  died  in  early 
youth;  Addison  and  Hannah  (twins),  Woodbury, 
Francis,  Matthias,  Ruth,  George,  and  Esther. 

(VI)  Joshua  (3)  Libby,  second  son  of  Captain 
Joshua  (2)  and  Ruth  (Libby)  Libby,  was  born 
at  Scarboro,  July  10,  1793,  and  died  March  5, 
1848,  at  the  age  of  fifty-six  years.  Mr.  Libby 
was  a  man  of  high  moral  character  and  strong 
religious  convictions.  He  lived  on  his  father's 
farm  and  administered  his  acres  after  the  thrifty 
manner  of  most  main  land  holders  in  the  "twen- 
ties," "thirties"  and  "forties."  He  left  enough 
property  to  make  two  large  farms,  both  of  them 
richly  wooded.  One  of  these  became  the  estate 
of  James  Small  Libby,  and  is  now  in  the  pos- 
session of  his  daughters.  The  other  part  his 
brother,  Johnson  Libby,  inherited,  and  it  is  now 
owned  and  occupied  by  Eugene  H.  Libby,  his 
son.  The  Joshua  Libbys  were  all  buried  in  a 
cemetery  on  the  old  farm,  but  their  graves  were 
removed  to  the  Black  Point  Cemetery  in  1886. 
Joshua  (3)  Libby  married,  in  1816,  Mary  Small, 
born  April  30,  1792,  a  daughter  of  Captain 
James  and  Mary  (Fogg)  Small,  of  this  place. 
Mrs.  Libby,  the  mother  of  James  Small  Libby, 
was  an  ideal  mother  and  won  hosts  of  friends 
by  her  remarkably  sunny  and  genial  disposition. 
Her  father,  Captain  James  Small,  was  a  son  of 
Samuel  Small,  Esq.,  and  his  wife,  Dorothy  (Hub- 
bard)  Small.  Captain  James  Small  was  born  at 
Scarboro,  in  1757,  and  served  five  years  in  the 
Revolutionary  War.  He  was  present  at  the  sur- 
render of  Burgoyne,  and  after  the  close  of  hos- 
tilities returned  to  Scarboro  and  married  a 
daughter  of  the  colonel  of  his  regiment,  Colonel 
Reuben  Fogg.  Captain  James  Small  was  named 
for  his  grandfather,  Ensign  James  Heard,  of  Kit- 
tery,  Maine.  He  was  a  Revolutionary  pensioner 
and  attended  the  dedication  of  Bunker  Hill  mon- 
ument. His  death  occurred  in  1845,  while  on  a 
visit  at  the  home  of  Joshua  Libby,  at  the  age 
of  eighty-eight  years.  Samuel  Small,  Esq.,  father 
of  Captain  James  Small,  was  a  native  of  Kittery, 
Maine,  where  he  was  born  in  the  year  1717,  and 
his  father,  Samuel  Small,  Sr.,  came  to  Scarboro 
about  1729.  He,  in  association  with  Joshua  Han- 
scom  and  Zebulon  Trickey,  bought  land  when 
they  first  came  from  Kittery.  These  two  Samuels 
were  men  of  large  prominence  in  Scarboro  and 
Samuel,  Jr.,  usually  known  as  Samuel,  Esq.,  was 
deacon  of  Black  Point  Church  for  many  years. 
He  was  also  town  clerk  for  more  than  four  dec- 


ades, land  surveyor  and  justice  of  the  peace 
(his  commission  is  still  held  by  a  descendant 
of  his,  and  is  signed  by  John  Hancock).  He  was 
appointed  member  of  nearly  every  committee  of 
importance  in  Scarboro,  both  ecclesiastical  and 
civil,  for  a  period  of  almost  fifty  years.  When 
the  regiment  sent  from  old  Scarboro  to  serve 
in.  the  Revolutionary  War  left  for  Cambridge  to 
join  General  Washington,  they  assembled  in  the 
Samuel  Small  dooryard  and  marched  the  entire 
distance.  Samuel  Small,  Esq.,  died  in  1791,  at 
the  age  of  seventy-four  years.  His  great-grand- 
father, Francis  Small,  was  the  founder  of  this 
family,  together  with  his  father,  Edward  Francis, 
in  this  country,  and  the  two  men  came  from 
Devonshire,  England,  about  1632.  Edward  Fran- 
cis was  styled  "the  great  landowner,"  and  one 
historian  claims  that  he  unquestionably  owned 
more  land  than  any  other  person  in  Maine.  He 
bought  this  great  estate  from  the  Indians,  and 
all  of  the  towns  in  Northern  York  county  were 
owned  by  him,  as  well  as  large  tracts  near 
Portland.  He  was  for  a  time  at  Cape  Small 
Point,  and  the  place  took  his  name.  He  died 
at  Truro,  Cape  Cod,  about  1714,  at  the  age  of 
ninety-four  years.  Joshua  (3)  and  Mary  (Small) 
Libby  were  the  parents  of  the  following  chil- 
dren: Elizabeth  M.,  Johnson,  who  died  in  early 
youth;  James  Small,  with  whose  career  we  are 
here  especially  concerned;  Benjamin,  Johnson, 
Sarah,  Maria,  Emily,  Francis,  Washington, 
Joshua,  Mary  Frances,  and  Reuben  Crosby. 

(VII)  James  Small  Libby  was  a  native  of  Scar- 
boro, Maine,  where  he  was  born  July  19,  1820, 
and  died  in  Portland,  March  16,  1885.  He  was 
born  on  the  ancestral  homestead,  to  the  posses- 
sion of  which  he  succeeded  after  the  death  of  his 
father,  and  although  he  removed  to  Portland  in 
1870,  the  old  place  was  always  retained  by  him 
and  always  thought  of  as  his  home.  Indeed,  he 
added  a  number  of  parcels  of  land  to  it  from 
time  to  time  and  always  kept  it  in  a  high  state 
of  cultivation  and  repair.  For  many  years  Mr. 
Libby  carried  on  an  extensive  contracting  busi- 
ness at  Portland  and  was  intimately  identified 
with  the  construction  of  many  railroads  in  this 
part  of  the  State,  and  of  various  public  works. 
He  was  one  of  the  principal  contractors  in  the 
construction  of  the  Ogdensburg  railroad,  and  the 
Kennebunkport  railroad,  and  in  these  and  other 
operations  gave  employment  to  a  large  number 
of  men  and  contributed  materially  to  the  develop- 
ment and  upbuilding  of  the  city.  He  was  a  man 
of  shrewd  business  ability  and  in  the  manage- 
ment of  his  affairs  was  notably  prompt  and  deci- 


108 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


sive,  gaining  the  respect  and  esteem  of  all  his 
associates  in  the  business  world,  as  well  as  of 
his  great  host  of  personal  friends.  Mr.  Libby's 
life  was  one  of  unusual  activity  and  success,  and 
his  sterling  integrity  and  the  high  sense  of  honor 
which  were  always  maintained  by  him  in  every 
relation  of  life  gained  him  a  reputation  second 
to  that  of  no  one  in  the  community.  He  was 
very  active  in  the  public  affairs  of  Portland  and 
Scarboro,  and  represented  the  latter  place  in  the 
State  Legislature  in  the  years  1858  and  1859, 
being  a  contemporary  in  that  body  of  General 
Neal  Dow,  the  Hon.  William  McCrillis,  of  Ban- 
gor,  and  the  Hon.  James  G.  Elaine,  of  Augusta. 
He  was  a  political  opponent,  however,  of  the 
last  named  of  his  great  colleagues  and  ardently 
supported  Democratic  principles  throughout  his 
career.  If  his  ability  made  him  a  formidable 
competitor  in  business,  his  comprehensive  knowl- 
edge of  men  and  things  afforded  him  a  high  sense 
of  duty  towards  others  less  fortunate  than  him- 
self, and  he  was  notably  apt  and  ready  to  give 
aid  whenever  it  was  needed,  both  to  individuals 
and  to  any  movement  undertaken  for  the  general 
welfare  of  the  community.  Many  of  his  friends 
and  acquaintances  still  speak  feelingly  of  favors 
and  assistance  rendered  by  him  and  his  great 
liberality  in  every  worthy  cause.  Mr.  Libby  was 
a  Congregationalist  at  heart  and  although  he 
made  no  great  outward  display  of  his  religious 
convictions,  his  life  itself  in  many  respects  might 
well  be  called  a  noble  Christian  epic. 

James  Small  Libby  was  united  in  marriage  with 
Jane  R.  Wescott,  a  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Bet- 
sey (Jordan)  Wescott,  and  a  direct  descendant 
of  the  Rev.  Robert  Jordan,  of  Cape  Elizabeth, 
Maine.  Mrs.  Libby's  death  occurred  in  the  year 
1897.  They  were  the  parents  of  three  daughters, 
who  survive  them,  as  follows:  Ella  Wescott, 
Mary  Abby,  and  Josephine  Wescott,  who  spend 
their  summers  at  the  old  Scarboro  homestead. 
James  Small  Libby  was  one  of  that  group  of 
successful  men  whose  careers  have  been  closely 
identified  with  the  greatest  and  most  recent 
period  in  the  development  of  the  city  of  Port- 
land, Maine;  one  of  those  broad-minded,  public- 
spirited  citizens,  whose  efforts  have  seemed  to 
be  directed  quite  as  much  to  the  advancement 
of  the  city's  interest  as  to  their  own.  There  is 
a  type  of  business  man,  only  too  common  today, 
of  which  this  cannot  truly  be  said,  whose  ener- 
gies are  never  expended  in  the  interests  of  others, 
whose  aims  and  purposes  are  purely  personal,  not 
broad  enough  to  comprehend  a  larger  entity. 
But  of  these  men  of  a  generation  past,  whose 


enterprises  have  spelled  growth  and  increased 
prosperity  for  the  community  of  which  they  were 
members,  and  especially  of  the  distinguished 
gentleman  whose  name  heads  this  brief  article, 
the  praise  is  entirely  appropriate.  Of  this  class, 
and  of  him,  so  prominent  a  member  thereof,  it 
is  entirely  true  that  the  ventures  and  enterprises 
they  engaged  in  were  of  so  wide  a  calibre  that 
the  welfare  of  their  city  was  as  directly  sub- 
served as  their  own,  that  they  were  unable  to 
entertain  an  aim  in  which  the  rights  and  interests 
of  others  were  set  aside  or  even  negatively  dis- 
regarded. 


WILLIAM  ALFRED  BARTLETT,  D.D.,  the 

popular  pastor  of  the  Pine  Street  Congregational 
Church  of  Lewiston,  Maine,  and  one  of  the  most 
potent  religious  influences  in  that  city  and  State 
today,  comes  of  an  old  and  distinguished  New 
England  family,  of  which  more  than  one  member 
has  made  a  place  for  himself  as  a  clergyman  and 
scholar.  He  is  a  son  of  Dr.  Samuel  Colcord 
Bartlett,  who  was  born  at  Salisbury,  New  Hamp- 
shire, November  25,  1817.  Dr.  Bartlett,  Sr.,  was 
a  very  eminent  man,  and  between  the  years  1877 
and  1892  was  president  of  Dartmouth  College. 
For  a  number  of  years  prior  to  this  he  resided 
in  Chicago,  and  was  a  founder  and  professor  of 
the  Chicago  Theological  Seminary.  He  was  also 
the  first  pastor  of  the  New  England  Congrega- 
tional Church  of  Chicago,  and  exerted  a  very 
considerable  influence  upon  the  religious  life  of 
that  city. 

Born  February  17,  1858,  in  the  city  of  Chicago, 
Dr.  William  Alfred  Bartlett  remained  in  that  city 
during  a  portion  of  his  childhood.  He  was  a 
student  for  a  time  in  the  preparatory  department 
of  the  North  Western  University,  Evanston,  and 
later  in  Phillips  Academy,  Andover,  Massachu- 
setts. Upon  his  father's  removing  to  the  East, 
when  he  was  called  to  the  presidency  of  Dart- 
mouth College,  the  boy  accompanied  him  and  in 
course  of  time  himself  attended  that  institution, 
graduating  therefrom  with  the  class  of  1882. 
While  in  college  he  took  the  first  prize  in  the 
junior  class  literary  contest,  was  class  historian 
senior  year,  and  was  elected  class  poet  at  gradua- 
tion, in  1882.  He  had  in  the  meantime  decided 
to  follow  in  his  father's  footsteps  and  devote 
himself  to  religious  work,  and  with  this  end  in 
view  entered  the  Hartford  Theological  Seminary, 
from  which  he  was  graduated  with  the  class  of 
1885.  During  his  three  years  in  Hartford,  Mr. 
Bartlett  largely  supported  himself  as  organist 
and  choir  master  in  the  First  Baptist  Church 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


109 


of  that  city.  He  returned  to  the  West,  there- 
after, and  was  pastor  of  three  Chicago  churches. 
He  was  called  first  to  what  is  now  the  Welling- 
ton Avenue  Congregational  Church  of  Chicago, 
of  which  indeed  he  was  both  an  organizer  and 
the  first  pastor,  and  which  under  his  most  capable 
direction  has  become  one  of  the  strongest  on 
the  north  side  of  the  city.  He  was  also  the  first 
pastor  of  the  Second  Congregational  Church, 
situated  at  Oak  Park,  Chicago,  and  during  his 
pastorate  added  two  hundred  to  its  membership. 
He  was  also  for  nine  years  the  pastor  of  the  old 
First  Church  of  Chicago,  which  he  reorganized 
to  meet  the  necessities  of  a  down-town  church  so 
successfully  that  it  has  become  noted  throughout 
the  country  for  its  institutional  and  musical  work, 
and  at  times  employed  as  many  as  seven  trained 
assistants.  One  of  the  distinctions  of  this  church 
is  that  its  doors  are  never  closed,  day  or  night, 
and  it  includes  in  its  work  the  training  of  five 
great  chorus  choirs.  Dr.  Bartlett  was  at  one 
time  in  charge  of  the  Farmington  Avenue  Con- 
gregational Church  at  Hartford,  which  attained 
its  largest  membership  during  the  time  of  his 
ministry.  His  work  with  young  people  in  a 
"Pleasant  Sunday  Afternoon,"  reaching  a  mem- 
bership of  one  hundred  and  fifty,  was  described 
at  length  in  a  special  article  appearing  in  the 
Outlook.  Another  work  accomplished  by  Dr. 
Bartlett  in  Chicago  was  in  connection  with  the 
Sunday  Closing  League,  of  which  he  was  elected 
president  at  a  gathering  composed  of  the  repre- 
sentatives of  seventeen  denominations  in  the  city. 
He  was  most  active  in  accomplishing  the  aims  of 
this  association  and  brought  suit  in  his  own  name 
as  representing  the  people  of  Illinois  against  a 
number  of  city  officials  and  liquor  men,  who  were 
accused  of  non-conformity  with  the  law  on  Sun- 
day closings.  These  cases  were  tried  before 
Supreme,  Superior  and  Appellate  courts,  all  of 
which  were  in  entire  agreement  with  the  league 
and  Dr.  Bartlett  in  the  position  which  they  took, 
but  claimed  non-jurisdiction  in  the  matter.  The 
pressure,  however,  brought  by  the  league  and  the 
general  opinion  of  the  people  behind  it  eventually 
forced  the  State's  attorney  to  take  up  the  work, 
after  which  material  progress  was  made.  For  his 
work  in  the  matter  Dr.  Bartlett  was  made  an 
honorary  member  of  the  Chicago  Congregational 
Club  for  "distinguished  service  in  civic  reform." 
When  Sunday  closing  of  saloons  went  into  ef- 
fect in  Chicago,  in  1916,  leading  lawyers  and 
reformers  wrote  to  Dr.  Bartlett  congratulating 
him  as  pioneer,  and  the  decision  was  based  on 
tlie  court  actions  of  that  time. 


The  great  energy  of  Dr.  Bartlett  and  his  in- 
defatigable zeal  is  well  illustrated  in  the  work 
which  he  has  done  as  an  independent  lecturer  on 
religious  subjects.  He  has  gained  an  extraor- 
dinary popularity  throughout  New  England  in 
this  line  and  is  now  called  upon  by  many  churches 
both  for  special  occasions  and  to  do  supply  work. 
Indeed,  so  great  have  been  the  demands  made 
upon  his  time  that  he  has  recently,  on  the  advice 
of  many  of  his  friends,  devoted  himself  particu- 
larly to  this  kind  of  work  and  has  reserved  his 
time  exclusively  for  such  engagements.  In  one 
year  Dr.  Bartlett  made  as  many  as  fifty-two  ad- 
dresses in  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts,  in  con- 
nection with  the  "Men  and  Religion"  movement, 
as  well  as  on  the  subjects  of  temperance,  men's 
work  in  the  churches,  and  a  number  of  special 
addresses  in  eleven  of  the  Hartford  churches  and 
in  many  of  its  public  schools  and  institutions. 
He  organized  the  Inter-Church  Luncheon,  held 
weekly  in  a  Hartford  hotel,  and  at  which  the 
Business  Men's  Luncheon  of  that  city  was  first 
suggested.  During  his  pastorate  of  the  Kirk 
Street  Church  in  Lowell,  Dr.  Bartlett  took  a  most 
active  part  in  the  general  religious  life  of  that 
community,  and  the  attendance  at  that  church 
was  the  greatest  in  its  history.  The  auditorium 
was  entirely  rebuilt  and  a  new  organ  added,  and 
so  great  was  the  attendance  that  people  were 
frequently  turned  away  from  the  evening  service. 
On  two  occasions  over  fifty  came  into  the  church 
on  confession  of  faith  through  revivals  conducted 
in  the  evening  services.  He  also  organized  the 
first  Men's  Club  in  Lowell,  and  one  of  the  first 
in  New  England,  and  suggested  the  formation  of 
the  Lowell  Congregational  Club,  which  was  after- 
ward founded  and  of  which  he  drew  up  the  con- 
stitution. 

Dr.  Bartlett  received  the  degree  of  Master  of 
Arts  from  Dartmouth  College,  at  the  time  of  his 
graduation  from  the  Hartford  Theological  Semi- 
nary, and  that  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  in  1000. 
In  the  year  1900,  Dr.  Bartlett  was  appointed 
delegate  to  the  International  Council  in  Edin- 
burgh, Scotland,  and  read  a  paper  on  "Temper- 
ance Legislation  in  America."  In  the  year  1901 
he  was  offered  the  same  degree  by  the  University 
of  Illinois,  but  declined  it.  He  was  elected  a 
trustee  of  the  Hartford  Seminary  in  191 1,  and 
was  also  elected  by  the  Dartmouth  Alumni  Asso- 
ciation of  Chicago  as  chairman  of  its  executive 
committee  and  for  a  time  was  also  its  president. 
At  the  time  of  leaving  Chicago,  he  was  first  vice- 
president  of  the  Congregational  Club  and  later 
held  the  presidency  of  the  Dartmouth  Alumni 


110 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Association  of  Connecticut.  Following  a  speech 
delivered  by  him  before  the  Lowell  Board  of 
Trade,  he  was  elected  a  member  of  that  body, 
and  he  was  appointed  a  corporate  member-at- 
large  of  the  American  Board  ,of  the  Congrega- 
tional church.  Dr.  Bartlett  came  very  conspicu- 
ously before  the  public  in  connection  with  the 
"Quickening  Services"  in  the  First  Congrega- 
tional Church  of  Lowell,  which  were  undertaken 
by  him  in  January,  1915,  at  the  invitation  of  the 
men  of  that  church.  These  services  met  with  a 
great  success  and  were  attended  by  men  of  all 
denominations,  including  the  Roman  Catholic,  as 
well  as  by  city  officials  and  the  public-at-large, 
both  church  members  and  those  who  were  allied 
with  no  church.  The  sermons  preached  by  Dr. 
Bartlett  on  these  occasions  were  printed  in  full 
by  the  Lowell  Courier-Citizen  and  long  extracts 
from  them  appeared  in  the  evening  paper,  the 
Lowell  Sun,  together  with  much  favorable  com- 
ment. The  Courier-Citizen  said  at  the  beginning 
of  the  series: 

Dr.  Bartlett  has  had  big  parishes  since  his 
pastorate  in  Lowell  several  years  ago.  He  has 
filled  churches  in  Chicago,  Illinois,  and  Hart- 
ford, Connecticut,  and  has  gained  the  reputation 
of  an  efficiency  engineer  in  church  work.  His  ex- 
perience with  the  big  problems  of  the  unchurched 
has  made  him  brush  aside  much  that  is  eccle- 
siastical, and  strike  with  shoulder  blows,  at  the 
theme  he  has  under  discussion.  .  .  .  He 
preached  for  a  full  hour,  but  held  his  audience, 
and  at  the  close  of  the  service  hundreds  remained 
to  greet  him. 

In  another  place  the  Courier-Citizen  said,  with 
reference  to  his  sermon  on  "The  Sin  Which 
Christ  Hates  Most":  "Every  person  in  the  great 
audience  was  held  spellbound  by  the  eloquence 
of  the  speaker  as  he  drove  home  his  message." 
Again,  later,  "By  a  rising  vote  more  than  one 
thousand  attendants  of  the  Sunday  evening  ser- 
vice at  the  First  Congregational  Church  endorsed 
a  resolution  against  the  liquor  traffic  last  night. 
The  resolution  was  introduced  at  the  close  of  the 
service,  and  unanimous  action  was  taken  by  the 
audience  rising  to  its  feet  amid  great  enthusiasm." 
Other  comments  upon  Dr.  Bartlett's  sermons 
were  to  be  found  in  the  Lowell  Sun  (Catholic 
and  Democratic),  which  in  one  of  its  articles  had 
the  following:  "Dr.  Bartlett  delivered  one  of  the 
most  powerful  Temperance  and  No-License  ser- 
mons ever  heard  in  Lowell,"  and  a  little  later 
the  same  paper  attributed  the  improvement  in 
police  regulations  which  it  noted  in  Lowell  to 
the  influence  of  these  sermons.  The  last  of  them 
was  delivered  Easter  night,  and  in  commenting 
upon  it  the  Courier-Citizen  said:  "While  these 


have  not  been  intended  for  Evangelistic  meet- 
ings, but  have  been  known  as  quickening  ser- 
vices, they  have  developed  more  and  more  on 
the  former  lines  each  week,  and  came  very  close 
to  a  revival  in  their  culmination."  The  Congre- 
gationalist,  in  the  course  of  an  article  on  the 
subject,  said  in  part  as  follows: 

The  series  of  special  Sunday  evening  services 
at  the  First,  with  Dr.  Bartlett  as  preacher  and 
the  co-operation  of  the  choirs  and  pastors  of  that 
church  and  his  own  former  parish,  Kirk  Street, 
lengthened  out  to  the  number  of  ten  with  an 
average  attendance  of  over  a  thousand.  Gener- 
ous advertising,  striking  subjects,  bold  speech  and 
dramatic  delivery,  and  the  abounding  enthusiasm 
and  personal  grip  of  the  preacher,  drew  larger 
numbers  than  had  been  anticipated  and  attracted 
the  attention  and  attendance  of  many  not  habitual 
churchgoers  as  well  as  regular  members  of  other 
congregations.  ...  A  proposal  to  have  a 
monster  church  and  Sunday  school  temperance 
parade,  to  conserve  and  display  the  sentiment 
aroused  by  these  meetings,  is  now  being  dis- 
cussed. Among  the  subjects  upon  which  Dr. 
Bartlett  has  recently  addressed  audiences  in  vari- 
ous parts  of  New  England,  may  be  mentioned  the 
following:  "Clara  Barton,  heroine,"  "Come  & 
See,"  "Christ  and  Modern  Achievement,"  "Facts 
not  generally  known  of  the  Religious  Life  of 
Abraham  Lincoln,"  "Testimonies  of  Great  Men 
Concerning  the  Bible,"  "The  Efficient  Man," 
"Billy  Sunday  and  the  Churches,  a  psychological 
study,"  "Music,  religious  and  otherwise,"  "Christ 
and  Throne;  definite  beliefs  to  make  Strong 
Churches." 

After  resting  from  his  strenuous  labors  from 
1913  to  1915,  following  his  pastorate  in  Hart- 
ford, Connecticut,  Dr.  Bartlett  accepted  a  call 
from  the  Pine  Street  Congregational  Church  of 
Lewiston,  Maine.  Although  it  was  in  his  mind 
to  take  things  easy,  he  was  soon  in  the  thick  of 
church  and  community  activities.  The  attend- 
ance of  the  church  has  increased  two  hundred 
per  cent.  A  Men's  Bible  Class  was  organized 
which  reached  a  membership  of  one  hundred  in 
less  than  a  year.  Under  the  organized  efforts  of 
this  class,  great  "Search  Light"  evening  services 
were  held  in  the  winter  and  spring  of  1916  which 
taxed  the  capacity  of  the  auditorium  beyond  any- 
thing in  the  history  of  the  church.  The  sermons 
were  an  hour  long,  and  were  both  intensely  per- 
sonal and  dealt  also  with  conditions  of  the  city. 
Later  that  same  spring,  the  mayor  of  the  city 
challenged  Dr.  Bartlett  to  a  public  debate  in  his 
own  pulpit,  as  a  consequence  of  the  pastor's 
utterances.  The  challenge  was  immediately  ac- 
cepted. For  days  the  papers  were  filled,  and  the 
Lewiston  Evening  Journal  said  nothing  like  this 
had  ever  been  known  in  a  Maine  pulpit.  On  the 
night  of  the  debate  the  church  was  filled  in  less 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


111 


than  ten  minutes  after  the  doors  were  opened 
with  fifteen  hundred  people.  Curiously  enough, 
the  chairman  of  the  police  commission  was  a 
leader  in  the  Bible  Class,  and  under  his  orders 
eleven  policemen  and  six  plain  clothes  men  were 
on  hand  to  preserve  order,  and  closed  the  doors 
when  the  church  was  filled,  although  hundreds 
were  unable  to  obtain  admission,  including  a 
former  mayor.  On  this  occasion  Dr.  Bartlett 
made  a  complete  exposure  of  the  city  conditions 
and  challenged  the  mayor  to  disprove  his  asser- 
tions. But  that  challenge  has  never  been  ac- 
cepted, but  it  is  said  the  eyes  of  the  citizens 
were  opened  as  they  never  were  before. 

At  the  present  time  Dr.  Bartlett  is  engaged  in 
the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  cam- 
paign, and  has  been  appointed  special  writer  to 
furnish  articles  for  the  papers  each  day  in  prepa- 
ration for  the  final  drive.  Fourteen  young  men 
of  the  church  have  gone  to  the  front,  whose 
names  are  on  the  Roll  of  Honor  in  The  Pine 
Cone,  the  church  paper,  and  the  Bible  Class,  at 
Dr.  Bartlett's  suggestion,  has  just  sent  them  a 
beautiful  copy  of  the  New  Testament.  During 
the  summer  of  1917,  Dr.  Bartlett  supplied  the 
pulpits  of  the  two  largest  churches  in  Chicago, 
and  visited  the  forts  and  training  stations  near 
Chicago,  bringing  him  in  close  touch  with  some 
of  his  former  church  "boys,"  several  of  whom 
went  to  France.  Between  them,  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Bartlett  have  seven  nephews  and  one  niece  in 
service,  all  but  two  being  in  France,  and  two  of 
them  having  miraculously  escaped  from  death. 

Besides  his  great  accomplishment  as  a  preacher 
and  organizer,  Dr.  Bartlett  is  also  an  accom- 
plished musician  and  composer.  He  has  recently 
composed  two  Christmas  carols,  one  of  which 
was  published  by  the  Chicago  Kindergarten  As- 
sociation and  is  used  by  them,  and  the  other  was 
purchased  by  the  Century  Company  for  one  of 
its  hymn  books.  He  also  wrote  a  hymn,  words 
and  music,  sung  by  the  four  choirs  of  the  First 
Church  in  Chicago  on  Forefather's  Night,  at  the 
Congregational  Club  in  Chicago.  Another  com- 
position is  known  as  "Love  Divine,"  which  has 
been  sung  in  many  churches.  Dr.  Bartlett  is 
prominently  identified  with  the  Masonic  order. 

William  Alfred  Bartlett  was  united  in  marriage, 
February  23,  1892,  at  Chicago,  with  Ester  Ade- 
laide Pitkin,  a  daughter  of  John  J.  and  Susan 
Jeannette  (Thompson)  Pitkin,  old  and  highly  re- 
spected residents  of  that  city.  Mrs.  Bartlett, 
before  her  marriage,  sang  in  church  quartette 
choirs  both  in  Chicago  and  Evanston.  Three 
children  have  been  born  to  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Bartlett, 


as  follows:  William  P.,  who  died  December  I, 
1910;  Doris  Jeannette,  born  April  24,  1894,  and 
is  now  the  wife  of  Sergeant  Richard  H.  Wheeler, 
of  Newton,  Massachusetts,  Coast  Artillery,  at 
Fort  Revere;  and  Richard  Learned,  born  Decem- 
ber 20,  1896,  in  Lowell,  Massachusetts,  now  a 
church  singer,  and  in  business  in  Hartford,  Con- 
necticut. Mrs.  Wheeler  is  possessed  of  a  voice 
of  unusual  power  and  sweetness,  and  inherits  her 
father's  and  mother's  musical  gifts.  She  has 
often  sung  at  his  services.  Mrs.  Wheeler,  in 
addition  to  her  other  duties,  is  now  a  teacher  of 
singing  in  Boston  and  Newton. 

It  is  often  a  matter  of  great  difficulty  to  ex- 
press in  material  terms  the  true  value  of  a  life, 
of  a  career,  or  to  give  an  adequate  idea  of  the 
real  position  that  a  man  has  won  for  himself  in 
the  regard  of  his  fellows.  In  the  case,  for  in- 
stance, of  Dr.  Bartlett,  whose  name  heads  this 
brief  appreciation,  who  has  succeeded  highly  in 
his  profession,  the  true  significance  of  a  man 
is  not  so  much  to  be  found  in  this  fact  as  in  the 
influence  which,  as  a  personality,  he  has  exerted 
upon  those  with  whom  he  comes  in  contact. 
The  acquirement  of  wealth  and  position  does 
indicate  that  a  certain  power  exists,  that  certain 
abilities  must  be  present,  so  that  to  enumerate 
these  things  does  serve  as  an  illustration  of  the 
talents  that  are  in  him,  but  it  is  only  one  illus- 
tration, the  most  tangible,  of  these  things,  and 
the  others  may  be  far  more  important  in  spite 
of  the  fact  that  they  are  vastly  more  difficult 
to  state.  Thus,  although  an  illustration,  it  is  of 
little  value  as  a  real. gauge  or  measure  of  these 
powers,  for  while  the  proposition  is  true  that  the 
presence  of  those  perquisites  which  the  world 
showers  upon  genius  of  a  certain  order  proves 
the  genius  of  which  it  is  the  reward,  the  converse 
is  not  true  at  all,  since  at  the  very  lowest  esti- 
mate half  the  genius  goes  quite  unrewarded.  It 
is  thus  with  Dr.  Bartlett;  while  the  success 
achieved  by  him  in  the  ministry  marks  him  as  a 
man  of  unusual  capability,  yet  only  those  who  are 
acquainted  with  him  personally  can  be  aware  how 
greatly  his  services  to  the  community  exceed 
anything  that  can  be  expressed  in  terms  of  his 
professional  success. 


NAHUM  MORRILL— JOHN  ADAMS  MOR- 
RILL — In  the  legal  profession  of  Androscoggin 
county,  Maine,  the  name  of  Merrill  has  occupied 
a  prominent  place  for  more  than  sixty  years.  The 
family  is  descended  from  Abraham  Morrill,  who 
came  from  England  in  1632,  and  settled  in  Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts.  The  "History  of  the 


112 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Ancient  and  Honorable  Artillery  Company  of 
Massachusetts,"  published  in  1896,  Vol.  I,  page 
51,  has,  under  the  head  of  new  members,  admitted. 
in  1638-39,  the  names  of  Abraham  Morrill  and 
Isaac  Morrill;  on  page  51  the  editor  says: 

Abraham  Morrill,  of  Cambridge,  Massachusetts, 
came,  perhaps,  in  the  Lion,  with  his  brother 
Isaac.  In  1635  he  resided  on  the  westerly  side 
of  Brighton  street,  near  the  spot  occupied  by  the 
old  Porter  Tavern.  He  moved  in  1641  to  Salis- 
bury, where  in  1650  only  four  were  taxed  more 
than  he.  In  1642  sixty  acres  of  land  were  granted 
to  him  and  Henry  Say  wood  to  build  a  cornmill; 
no  other  mill  was  to  be  built  so  long  as  this 
ground  all  the  corn  the  people  needed.  .  .  . 
The  family  of  the  ancient  trainer  through  every 
generation  has  been  noted  for  enterprise,  whether 
in  iron,  fish,  cloth,  coasting  vessels,  farming  or 
trade.  In  the  business  history  of  Salisbury  and 
Amesbury  they  have  made  a  most  notable  record. 

In  Harvard  College,  class  of  1737,  were  Isaac 
and  Moses  Morrill.  They  were  cousins,  great- 
grandsons  of  Abraham  Morrill,  of  Salisbury. 
Both  became  ministers  of  the  Orthodox  New 
England  faith.  Rev.  Moses  Morrill  was  ordained 
to  the  ministry  at  Biddeford,  in  1742,  becoming 
pastor  of  the  First  Church  of  Christ  in  Bidde- 
ford; he  remained  with  that  church  until  his 
death,  February  9,  1778,  a  service  of  more  than 
thirty-five  years. 

His  second  son,  John  Morrill,  settled  in  Lim- 
erick, Maine,  and  in  that  town  Nahum  Morrill 
was  born,  October  3,  1819.  He  was  educated  in 
Limerick  Academy,  Kimball  Union  Academy,  and 
was  one  year  at  Dartmouth  College.  He  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  of  Piscataquis  county,  Maine, 
March  4,  1842,  and  soon  after  began  the  practice 
of  law  in  the  town  of  Wells,  where  he  remained 
about  two  years.  He  then  removed  to  Durham, 
in  Androscoggin  county,  which  at  that  time  was 
a  more  important  place  than  either  Lewiston  or 
Auburn.  August  26,  1846,  he  moved  to  the  little 
village  of  Lewiston  Falls,  on  the  west  side  of 
the  Androscoggin  river,  now  known  as  Auburn. 
From  that  time  until  his  death,  March  3,  1917, 
he  resided  continuously  in  Auburn,  or  in  Dan- 
ville, which  ultimately  became  a  part  of  Auburn. 
Two  sons  survive  him,  John  Adams  Morrill  and 
Donald  Littlefield  Morrill,  the  latter  a  prominent 
lawyer  in  Chicago. 

At  memorial  services  held  in  his  memory  at 
the  April  term,  1917,  of  the  Supreme  Judicial 
Court  for  Androscoggin  county,  Mr.  Justice 
King  presiding,  George  C.  Wing,  president  of 
the  Androscoggin  Bar  Association,  in  announc- 
ing his  death  to  the  court,  paid  the  following 
tribute: 


Judge  Morrill  very  early  took  a  prominent 
place  in  business,  in  society  and  in  the  legal  pro- 
fession. In  1854  he  was  appointed  by  Governor 
William  G.  Crosby  as  the  first  judge  of  probate 
for  Androscoggin  county,  and  the  early  records 
of  the  Probate  Court  bear  testimony  to  his  care- 
ful attention  to  details  and  his  purposes  to  have 
the  office  conducted  along  the  best  lines  then 
used  in  probate  courts.  When  judges  of  pro- 
bate were  made  elective,  Judge  Morrill  declined 
to  be  a  candidate  and  turned  his  whole  attention 
tc  the  practice  of  his  profession.  In  1864  he  was 
appointed  provost  marshal  of  the  Second  District 
of  Maine,  and  held  that  office  until  the  close  of 
the  Civil  War,  receiving  an  honorable  discharge, 
October  31,  1865.  Provost  Marshal  General  Frye 
wrote  him  a  personal  letter,  which  I  hope  is  still 
in  existence,  expressing  his  gratification  at  the 
manner  in  which  the  office  had  been  conducted 
and  the  absolute  accuracy  of  all  accounts  con- 
nected therewith.  He  was  a  member  of  the  bar 
of  the  United  States  District  and  Circuit  courts, 
and  during  his  long  practice  heard  many  cases 
that  were  submitted  to  him  by  agreement  of  par- 
ties as  auditor  or  referee,  both  in  suits  at  law 
and  in  equity.  He  was  for  many  years  president 
of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  Edward  Little 
Institute,  and  was  the  unanimous  choice  of  the 
Androscoggin  bar  as  its  president  and  continued 
to  hold  that  position  for  many  years,  his  suc- 
cessor only  being  named  after  he  had  positively 
declined  the  further  use  of  his  name. 

Judge  Morrill  was  married,  April  30,  1850,  to 
Anna  Isabella  Littlefield,  of  Wells,  a  woman  of 
great  refinement,  education  and  culture.  The 
history  of  Judge  Morrill  is  the  history  of  Auburn. 
When  he  came  here  what  is  now  the  shire  town 
of  a  county,  incorporated  long  after  he  settled 
here,  with  its  county  and  public  buildings,  its 
homes,  busy  manufactories  and  industries,  all 
have  grown  out  of  the  very  little  hamlet  then 
existing,  and  during  all  the  long  years  of  his 
eventful  life  he  was  identified  with  the  best  in- 
terests of  Auburn,  not  only  in  a  business  way 
but  in  every  moral,  educational  and  religious  en- 
deavor. He  was  generous  of  his  time,  his  knowl- 
edge and  experience.  Judge  Nahum  Morrill  was 
a  Christian  gentleman,  a  constant  attendant  and 
generous  contributor  to  the  High  Street  Congre- 
gational Church,  prominent  in  Odd  Fellowship 
and,  in  a  word,  was  identified  with  every  interest 
in  Auburn. 

He  was  a  painstaking  lawyer.  He  practised 
his  profession  in  an  honorable  manner,  on  an 
elevated  plane,  gaining  and  retaining  the  confi- 
dence of  the  bar  and  of  the  court.  He  was  unas- 
suming in  his  ways.  He  did  not  live  for  show 
or  to  denote  importance  by  his  way  of  life.  He 
was  always  a  broad-minded  and  hopeful  man 
who  understood  the  trials,  appreciated  the  temp- 
tations, sympathized  with  the  sorrowing  and  re- 
joiced with  the  pleasures  of  those  with  whom  he 
came  in  contact.  He  guarded  with  great  care 
the  interests  of  his  clients  and  was  always  indus- 
trious, persistent  and  persevering. 

The  bar  of  this  county  owes  to  Judge  Morrill 
more  than  to  any  one  man  the  high  quality  and 
standing  of  its  practitioners.  His  deportment  in 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


113 


court  was  ideal.  His  papers  were  always  care- 
fully and  neatly  drawn,  and  the  precedents  which 
were  handed  down  through  him,  and  through 
men  who  were  engaged  with  him  in  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  have  created  a  standard  of  ex- 
ct  Hence  that  is  not  excelled  in  any  county  in 
Maine. 

John  Adams  Morrill,  son  of  Nahum  and  Anna 
Isabella  (Littlefield)  Morrill,  was  born  in  Auburn, 
June  3,  1855.  On  his  mother's  side  he  is  de- 
scended from  the  Littlefield,  Wheelwright  and 
Storer  families,  names  of  prominence  in  the  early 
Colonial  history  of  Wells,  York  county,  Maine. 
He  prepared  for  college  at  Edward  Little  High 
School,  and  graduated  from  Bowdoin  College 
with  the  class  of  1876,  receiving  the  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Art,  and  in  1879  the  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts.  After  one  year  spent  in  teach- 
ing, he  studied  law  and  was  admitted  to  practice 
in  the  courts  of  Maine,  February  12,  1880,  and  in 
the  United  States  Circuit  and  Districts  courts, 
April  23,  1886.  From  the  time  of  his  admission 
to  the  bar,  Mr.  Morrill  has  devoted  himself  con- 
tinuously to  the  practice  of  his  profession.  In 
1900  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  State 
Board  of  Examiners  of  Applicants  for  Admission 
to  the  Bar,  then  just  established,  and  held  that 
position  for  eight  years,  declining  a  second  re- 
appointment.  By  resolve  of  March  21,  1901,  he 
was  appointed  by  the  Legislature  of  Maine  sole 
commissioner  to  revise  and  consolidate  the  public 
laws  of  the  State,  and  prepared  the  fifth  revision 
of  the  public  laws  of  Maine,  known  as  the  "Re- 
vised Statutes  of  1903."  By  resolve  of  April  4, 
1913,  he  was  again  appointed  by  the  Legislature 
to  the  same  duty  and  prepared  the  sixth  revision 
of  the  public  laws  of  Maine,  known  as  the  "Re- 
vised Statutes  of  1916."  At  the  State  election 
of  1912,  Mr.  Morrill  was  elected  judge  of  pro- 
bate for  Androscoggin  county,  for  the  term  of 
four  years,  beginning  January  I,  1913,  and  was 
re-elected  in  1916.  On  March  5,  1918,  he  was 
commissioned  a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial 
Court  of  Maine.  For  many  years  he  has  been 
a  member  of  the  Maine  State  Bar  Association 
and  was  elected  president  of  that  organization  in 
1917.  He  is  a  member  of  the  American  Bar  Asso- 
ciation, and  of  the  Maine  Historical  Society. 
Since  1888  he  has  been  a  trustee,  and  since  Janu- 
ary, 1908,  president  of  the  Auburn  Savings  Bank. 
Upon  the  establishment  of  the  Auburn  Public 
Library,  he  was  chosen  a  trustee,  and  for  some 
years  served  as  its  treasurer.  Since  1888  Mr. 
Morrill  has  been  a  member  of  the  board  of  over- 
seers of  Bowdoin  College,  and  in  1912  the  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Laws  was  conferred  upon  him  by 
that  institution. 


November  I,  1888,  Mr.  Morrill  married  Isabella 
Olive  Littlefield,  daughter  of  Walter  and  Olive 
(Gooch)  Littlefield,  of  Melrose,  Massachusetts. 
They  have  two  daughters:  Dorothy  Isabella,  and 
Olive  Anna. 


HENRY  ALLEN  KELLEY,  D.M.D.,  is  one 
of  the  best  known  and  most  popular  dentists, 
not  only  in  the  city  of  Portland,  Maine,  where 
he  has  elected  to  live  and  carry  on  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  but  also  throughout  that  State, 
and  indeed  the  country  generally.  Dr.  Kelley  is 
a  member  of  a  very  old  New  England  family, 
his  early  ancestors  having  been  among  the  pio- 
neer settlers  on  Cape  Cod  and  Nantucket  Island. 
He  is  descended  on  both  sides  of  the  house  from 
families  that  were  Quakers  or  Friends  in  their 
religious  beliefs.  The  "rigor"  of  this  faith  was 
never  relaxed,  and  it  was  this  that  drove  his 
father  and  mother  out  of  the  faith  of  the  Friends 
and  made  of  them  Unitarians. 

Born  May  1 1,  1866,  Henry  Allen  Kelley  is  a 
son  of  James  Stanford  and  Susan  Allen  (Chace) 
Kelley.  His  grandfather  Kelley  was  a  watch 
and  clock  maker  and  silversmith,  of  Sandwich, 
Massachusetts.  Thus  they  trace  this  fine  manual 
labor  far  back  in  the  family.  His  father  was 
successfully  engaged  in  business  as  a  jeweler  and 
watchmaker  at  New  Bedford,  Massachusetts,  and 
it  was  in  this  place  that  Dr.  Kelley's  birth  oc- 
curred. The  elementary  portion  of  his  education 
was  secured  at  the  local  public  schools  and  the 
Swain  Free  Academy.  He  was  graduated  from 
the  New  Bedford  High  School  in  the  year  1884, 
and  then  took  special  courses  to  prepare  him  for 
college,  at  the  Academy  above  mentioned.  His 
first  dental  training  was  received  in  the  office 
of  Dr.  E.  V.  McLeod,  of  New  Bedford,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  it  was  from  this  worthy  preceptor 
that  Dr.  Kelley  first  had  brought  home  to  him 
the  fact  that,  his  ancestors  having  included  many 
expert  chronometer  and  watchmakers,  gold  and 
silversmiths  and  engravers,  it  was  easy  to  under- 
stand that  it  was  from  these  that  he  had  inherited 
his  remarkable  manual  skill  and  ability  to  handle 
so  effectively  the  instruments  used  in  the  delicate 
operations  of  dental  surgery.  Dr.  McLeod,  who 
was  the  first  secretary  of  the  Massachusetts  State 
Board  of  Registration  in  Dentistry,  became  a  great 
friend  of  his  young  pupil,  who  returned  in  full 
measure  his  affection  and  has  always  acknowl- 
edged a  large  debt  to  the  elder  man  and  accounted 
him  a  potent  influence  in  his  life.  After  this 
experience  Dr.  Kelley  studied  for  a  few  months 
in  the  office  of  Dr.  A.  B.  Fuller,  of  New  Haven, 
Connecticut,  and  still  later  in  the  office  of  Dr. 


MM. -1—8 


114 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Charles  E.  Easterbrook,  of  Boston,  a  recent  grad- 
uate of  Harvard  Dental  School.  It  was  through 
the  influence  of  the  office  of  Dr.  McLeod  that 
Dr.  Kelley's  attention  was  directed  to  the  Har- 
vard Dental  School,  and  accordingly  he  matricu- 
lated there,  and  after  taking  the  usual  course 
was  graduated  with  the  class  of  1888,  when  he 
was  twenty-two  years  of  age.  His  work  was  of 
so  excellent  a  quality  that  he  attracted  to  him- 
self the  favorable  attention  of  his  professors  and 
instructors,  and  in  particular  Dr.  Thomas  Fille- 
brown,  professor  of  operative  dentistry  and  oral 
surgery  at  the  Harvard  Dental  School.  This 
gentleman,  who  was  an  authority  on  his  subjects, 
took  so  great  a  fancy  to  the  young  man  and  felt 
so  confident  of  his  ability  that  the  latter  received 
an  offer  at  the  time  of  his  graduation  to  become 
Dr.  Fillebrown's  assistant  in  his  office  at  Port- 
land, Maine.  This  was  an  offer  which,  as  may 
be  imagined,  he  was  not  slow  to  accept,  and  he 
'at  once  removed  to  the  Maine  city,  where  he  has 
continued  consistently  ever  since.  After  one 
year  spent  in  Dr.  Fillebrown's  employ,  that  emi- 
nent dentist  received  him  into  partnership  with 
him,  an  association  which  continued  uninterrupt- 
edly for  ten  years,  or  until  the  retirement  of  the 
senior  partner.  This  retirement  was  occasioned 
by  Dr.  Fillebrown's  leaving  Portland  to  practise 
in  the  city  of  Boston,  so  that  his  excellent  prac- 
tice in  Portland  passed  entirely  into  the  hands 
of  Dr.  Kelley.  Dr.  Kelley,  however,  had  already 
won  a  very  enviable  reputation  in  the  city,  so 
that  he  readily  took  the  place  that  Dr.  Fillebrown 
left  vacant,  and  has  ever  since  that  time  occupied 
a  distinctly  unique  position  in  the  city.  Dr.  Kel- 
ley, with  characteristic  modesty,  speaking  of  this 
period,  has  said: 

So  my  problem  was  how  to  keep  a  practice, 
not  how  to  make  one.  There  is  one  thing  I  am 
sure  I  did  keep,  and  that  is  the  office,  for  I 
stayed  in  the  one  office  for  twenty  years,  only 
moving  to  get  farther  up  out  of  the  increasing 
business  life  of  the  city.  I  have  never  specialized 
except  that  for  some  years  now  I  have  refused  to 
extract  teeth  or  to  make  artificial  dentures.  I 
think  I  was  the  first  man  in  Maine  to  adopt  the 
prophylactic  treatment  and  to  manage  my 
patients  so  they  had  regular  monthly  treatments. 
I  am,  to  quite  an  extent,  looked  upon  as  a  special- 
ist in  this  work  and  in  the  treatment  of  pyorrhea. 
I  came  to  Portland  about  as  much  of  a  stranger 
as  one  could  come,  Dr.  Fillebrown  and  one  other 
being  my  only  acquaintances.  How  I  became 
acquainted  I  can  hardly  say;  certainly  not  by  the 
usual  endeavors,  i.  e.,  churches,  clubs,  lodges,  etc. 
I  lived  my  life  without  that,  except  that  I  realized 
that  I  had  a  clean  slate  and  that  if  I  made  and 
cultivated  any  undesirable  friends,  it  was  my  own 
fault.  This  was  the  advantage  of  being  a 


stranger.      Also,   of   course,    I    immediately   took 
my  place  as  a   professional   man. 

Whatever  else  may  be  said  about  the  success 
of  Dr.  Kelley  and  what  it  has  been  due  to,  cer- 
tainly it  will  have  to  be  admitted  that  hard 
work  has  played  a  very  important  part  therein. 
He  has  worked  earnestly  and  perseveringly  at 
everything  he  has  set  his  hand  to,  not  only  in 
those  matters  which  were  connected  solely  with 
his  professional  interests,  but  in  many  in  which 
the  altruistic  element  has  been  prominent.  For 
indeed  Dr.  Kelley  has  always  taken  a  keen  in- 
terest in  the  welfare  of  his  professional  colleagues 
and  of  the  community  at  large.  He  has  been 
particularly  active  in  connection  with  the  various 
dental  societies  with  which  he  has  been  affiliated. 
He  has  been  a  member  of  the  Maine  Dental  So- 
ciety since  1889  and  has  held  the  following  offices 
therein:  Chairman  of  executive  committee,  1890 
to  1891;  vice-president,  1892  to  1893;  librarian, 
1890  to  1891;  president,  1894;  a"d  sccreiru-y,  from 
1898  to  1910.  Indeed  it  may  be  said  will;  a  cer- 
tain degree  of  truth  that  the  building  up  of  a 
really  first-class  dental  society  in  Maine  has  been 
a  hobby  with  Dr.  Kelley  for  many  years,  and 
that  he  has  given  an  amazing  amount  of  time 
and  energy  to  carrying  it  out,  when  we  consider 
how  busy  he  has  been  with  his  private  practice. 
There  are  not  many  men  who  are  willing  to  sac- 
rifice personal  interests  to  an  object  such  as  this, 
but  Dr.  Kelley  must  be  classed  among  them. 
Other  capacities  in  which  he  has  done  invaluable 
service  for  the  cause  of  his  profession  have  been 
as  chairman  of  the  Northeastern  Dental  Asso- 
ciation executive  committee,  in  1907  and  1908; 
second  vice-president  of  that  organization  1908 
to  1909;  first  vice-president  1909  to  1910,  and 
president  1910  to  1911.  He  is  at  the  present 
time  chairman  of  a  standing  committee  of  this 
association  on  Army  and  Navy  Legislation.  It 
was  Dr.  Kelley  who,  in  honor  of  his  old  partner. 
Dr.  Fillebrown,  organized  the  Fillebrown  Dental 
Club.  He  was  the  first  president  of  this  club  and 
up  to  the  present  time  its  only  president.  Many 
years  ago  Dr.  Kelley  became  affiliated  with  the 
Delta  Sigma  Delta  fraternity,  a  very  prominent 
dental  fraternity.  Dr.  Kelley  is  also  an  associate 
member  of  the  First  District  Dental  Society  of 
New  York.  Among  the  organizations  outside  of 
professional  associations  with  which  Dr.  Kelley 
is  affiliated  should  be  mentioned  the  Portland 
Athletic  Club,  of  which  he  is  a  charter  member 
and  which  he  served  as  a  member  of  its  govern- 
ing board  and  on  various  committees  for  many 
vears;  the  Stroudwater  Canoe  Club,  of  which  also 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


115 


he  is  a  charter  member  and  was  its  president  for 
a  considerable  period;  the  Portland  Country  Club; 
the  Harvard  Club  of  Maine;  the  Portland  So- 
ciety of  Arts;  the  Portland  Choral  Art  Society; 
the  Economic  Club  of  Portland,  and  the  Port- 
land Yacht  Club.  He  was  a  member  of  many 
dental  congresses  and  conventions,  among  which 
should  be  mentioned  the  Chicago  Columbian 
Dental  Congress,  where  he  was  a  member  of  his 
State  committee  on  organization;  the  Fourth  In- 
ternational Dental  Congress  at  St.  Louis,  in  1904; 
the  Jamestown  Dental  Convention,  where  he  was 
chairman  of  his  State  committee;  and  the  Port- 
land, Oregon,  Dental  Congress,  in  which  he  occu- 
pied a  like  position.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
National  Dental  Association  and  took  an  active 
part  in  the  reorganization  of  the  same.  He  was 
elected  a  vice-president  of  the  National  Dental 
Association  in  1917.  One  of  the  works  accom- 
plished by  Dr.  Kelley  which  is  best  known  to 
his  fellow-citizens  is  the  establishment  of  a  dental 
infirmary  in  Portland,  in  1895.  Three  members 
were  appointed  in  oral  surgery  and  dentistry,  in 
the  out-patient  department  of  the  Eye  and  Ear 
Infirmary,  the  dentists  who  filled  these  positions 
all  being  prominent  practitioners  in  the  city,  who 
were  obliged  to  give  up  much  of  the  time  before 
devoted  by  them  to  their  private  practice  in 
order  to  attend  these  clinics.  It  will  be  appro- 
priate at  this  point  to  include  some  remarks  of 
Dr.  Kelley,  drawn  from  the  same  article  we  have 
already  quoted,  which  throw  a  clear  light  upon 
his  ideas  not  only  of  those  qualifications  which 
go  to  make  up  the  successful  dentist,  but  of 
those  which  are  essential  to  the  best  type  of 
manhood.  Significantly  enough,  much  that  he 
says  is  taken  from  personal  experience  from  his 
own  life: 

For  a  young  dentist  to  build  and  maintain  an 
ethical  practice  and  win  the  esteem  of  his  com- 
munity, he  must  do  what  he  must  do.  First,  he 
must  fit  himself  thoroughly  to  practise  his  pro- 
fession, that  is,  he  must  know  what  to  do  and 
how  to  do  it.  He  must  have  had  good  educa- 
tional advantages  and  have  taken  advantage  of 
them.  It  would  seem  to  me  that  even  before 
or  after  his  college  course  he  should  have  some 
training  in  a  dental  office  before  starting  out  for 
himself.  I  cannot  say  how — except  at  a  much 
greater  cost,  the  experience  in  the  management 
of  an  office  and  of  patients,  which  he  must  have, 
can  otherwise  be  obtained.  Of  course,  it  is  under- 
stood he  must  have  a  good  preliminary  education 
before  he  begins  his  professional  training.  This 
is  not  only  necessary  for  his  professional  train- 
ing, but  also  to  fit  him  to  take  the  position  in  the 
community  he  is  trying  to  obtain. 

Then  he  must  love  the  higher  things  of  life — 
good  society,  good  books,  pictures,  music,  God's 


out-of-doors,  etc.  Having  a  love  for  these  he 
will  seek  to  attract  others  of  like  nature.  This 
will  give  him  an  acquaintance  with  the  best  people 
of  his  city  and  a  chance  to  make  good  with  them. 
Then  we  are  told  "To  have  a  friend,  be  one." 
And  so  our  young  dentist  must  do  nice  little 
things  for  others  that  will  let  them  know  he  is 
their  friend.  He  must  get  out  of  selfishness.  Oh. 
it  hardly  seems  necessary  to  preach  all  this  over 
and  over  again.  It  seems  that  every  sensible 
young  man  must  know  all  this.  I  would  only 
say  he  must  have  courage  to  know  that  these 
things  do  bring  success;  and  when  he  is  tempted 
by  the  seeming  success  of  one  who  departs  from 
these  precepts,  he  must  remain  steadfast  to  these 
known  principles,  knowing  that  they  will  bring 
success.  He  must  cultivate  the  acquaintance  of 
the  best  men  of  his  profession,  as  opportunity 
presents;  he  must  read  professionally  long  and 
deeply;  join  the  dental  societies  and  work  in 
them;  get  to  be  a  part  of  the  life  of  his  com- 
munity, both  professionally  and  otherwise,  and, 
above  all,  he  must  be  a  good  citizen.  I  think 
in  these  days  there  is  great  need  of  that  teach- 
ing. To  be  a  good  citizen,  what  finer  thing  is 
there  in  all  the  world? 

My  idea  of  dental  ethics  is  summed  up  in  the 
following  story.  There  was  a  Roman  that  wanted 
to  learn  the  law,  so  he  went  to  a  Jewish  Rabbi, 
a  young  man,  and  told  him  he  wanted  him  to 
teach  him  the  law,  and  to  do  it  in  one  lesson. 
Now,  this  Rabbi  being  a  young  man,  was  much 
interested  in,  and  confused  by,  the  complications, 
ramifications,  etc.,  of  the  law,  and  to  think  that 
anybody  should  think  he  could  be  taught  all  the 
law  in  one  lesson,  was  preposterous.  So  he  drove 
the  young  Roman  from  his  door  in  anger.  But 
the  Roman  went  to  another  Jewish  Rabbi,  an 
eld  man,  and  made  him  the  same  request,  and 
the  old  Rabbi  told  him  to  come  in.  Now  this  old 
Rabbi  had  lived  most  of  his  life  and  things  were 
settling  down  from  their  complexities  to  sim- 
plicities. So  that  which  seemed  so  impossible  to 
the  young  Rabbi,  was  very  possible  to  the  old 
Rabbi,  and  he  taught  the  young  Roman  the  law, 
not  only  in  one  lesson,  but  in  a  very  few  words, 
thus:  My  son,  the  law  is  this,  do  unto  others  as 
you  would  that  others  should  do  unto  you.  This 
is  the  law,  and  all  others  are  but  tributary  to  this 
one  great  law. 

I  am  not  an  old  man,  but  things  are  reducing 
to  the  simpler  forms  with  me  and  if  I  were  asked 
to  preach  a  sermon  on  dental  ethics,  it  would 
be  something  like  this:  Be  a  gentleman.  But 
the  old  Rabbi  was  satisfied  with  his  description 
of  the  law,  and  I  am  satisfied  with  my  descrip- 
tion of  dentaj  ethics;  because  to  us  words  have 
a  deep  meaning,  and  there  is  a  whole  lifetime 
bound  up  in  our  description,  and  we  mean  by 
our  few  words  all  that  the  young  Rabbi  would 
have  taken  days,  and  perhaps  weeks,  to  have 
imparted  to  the  young  Roman.  Alas!  perhaps  it 
took  the  young  Roman  about  as  short  a  time  to 
forget  his  teaching  as  to  acquire  it,  and  per- 
haps, had  he  studied  and  toiled  with  the  young 
Rabbi,  the  lessons  would  have  meant  more  to 
him.  I  think  it  is  not  necessary  that  long  ser- 
mons should  be  preached  upon  the  subject  of 
dental  ethics,  but  for  those  that  understand  the 


116 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


English  language  and  for  those  for  whom  words 
have  deep  meaning,  my  definition,  Be  at  gentle- 
man is  all  that  is  necessary. 

The  only  thing  I  have  not  carried  is  hobbies 
or  fads  outside  of  dentistry.  I  am  not  a  faddist 
and  have  no  non-dental  hobby.  As  you  will  see 
by  my  clubs,  I  like  out-of-door  life.  For  many 
years  entirely,  and  lately  to  a  great  extent,  my 
vacations  have  been  passed  in  the  "Big  Woods" 
of  Maine,  in  search  of  big  game — deer  and  moose. 
This  is  great  sport.  To  go  through  the  rapids 
in  your  little  canoe,  with  a  good  guide  in  the 
stern,  will  make  your  heart  leap  for  joy,  or 
flight,  and  you  will  be  glad  you  are  alive,  when 
you  get  through  and  find  you  are  alive.  And 
then  to  put  your  rifle  over  your  shoulder  and 
tramp,  and  tramp,  and  tramp,  always  with  the 
hope  that  the  next  minute  is  to  disclose  the 
moose  with  the  head  you  have  been  so  long 
looking  for.  Why,  when  the  hunt  is  all  over  it 
doesn't  matter  a  bit  whether  you  have  any  game 
or  not;  you  have  the  good  feeling  which,  while 
they  will  not  move  mountains,  make  you  feel  as 
though  you  can  jump  over  them  and  hence  don't 
have  to  move  them.  I  am  also  fond  of  yacht- 
ing, city  canoeing,  as  distinguished  from  the  wild 
woods  variety,  and  all  the  sports  one  gets  at 
an  athjetic  club  and  a  country  club;  yes,  even  to 
scrapping,  when  two  other  fellows  are  in  the 
squared  circle,  and  I  am  looking  on.  I  am  also 
fond  of  music  and  art.  But  the  best  fun  I  am 
getting  now  is  bringing  up  a  boy  and  a  girl. 
These  two  kids  are  fun  enough  and  pay  enough 
for  any  man.  I  quarrel  a  great  deal  with  my 
practice  that  it  exacts  so  much  of  my  time,  that 
I  dp  not  have  more  leisure  to  play  with  my 
family. 

As  may  well  be  seen  from  the  preceding  quo- 
tation, Dr.  Kelley  can  wield  an  effective  pen,  and 
indeed  he  is  the  author  of  a  considerable  number 
of  very  instructive  articles,  most  of  which,  how- 
ever, are  of  a  technical  nature  and  apply  to  vari- 
ous problems  of  his  profession.  Among  them 
should  be  mentioned  the  following:  "A  Method 
of  Filling  Porcelain  Teeth  with  Gold,"  published 
in  International  Dental  Journal,  August,  1889; 
"Nitrite  of  Amyl,"  read  before  the  Harvard 
Odontological  Society,  December  23,  1891,  and 
published  in  International  Dental  Journal,  June, 
1892;  "Some  Dentistry  Physicians  Should  Know," 
read  before  the  Maine  Homoeopathic  Medical  So- 
ciety, June  20,  1893,  and  published  in  their  trans- 
actions for  1893;  "A  Study  of  the  Diseases  of  the 
Perridental  Membrane  Having  Their  Origin  at 
or  Near  the  Gingival  Margin,"  read  before  the 
Maine  Dental  Society,  1891,  and  published  in  the 
International  Dental  Journal,  February,  1893; 
"Earnestness,  Diligence  and  Truthfulness,"  the 
president's  address  before  the  Maine  Dental  So- 
ciety, 1894;  "A  Popular  Talk  on  the  Care  of  the 
Teeth,"  read  before  the  Maine  Academy  of  Medi- 
cine and  Science,  and  published  in  the  Maine 


Journal  o-f  Medicine  and  Science,  February,  1896; 
"What  Dentistry  Owes  the  People,"  read  before 
the  Maine  Dental  Society,  July  22,  1896,  and  pub- 
lished in  the   Portland  Advertiser,  July  23,   1896; 
"A  Year's  Work  Among  the  Poor,"  read  before 
the  Maine  Dental  Society,  July  20,  1897,  and  pub- 
lished   in    the    Maine    Journal    of    Medicine    and 
Science;  "The    Present    Status    of    Cataphoresis," 
read  before   Harvard   Alumni   Association,   June, 
1898;  "Dental  Work  Among  the  Poor:  How  Can 
It     Best     Be     Accomplished,"     read    before     the 
Northeastern   Dental   Association,  October,   1899, 
and    published    in    International    Dental    Journal, 
September,  1900;  "The  Control  of  Our  Patients," 
read  before  Harvard  Dental  Alumni  Association, 
June  24,  1901,  and  published  in  International  Den- 
tal Journal,  January,  1902;  "The  Dentist's  Appre- 
ciation of  Himself,"  read  before  the  Maine  Dental 
Society,  July   18,   1905;   "An   Appreciation   of  the 
Life    of    Dr.    Thomas    Fillebrown,"    read    before 
Maine  Dental  Society,  July  i,  1908,  and  also  read 
before  the  American  Academy  of  Dental  Science, 
Boston,    Massachusetts,    February    3,    1909,    and 
published   in   the   Journal  of  the  Allied  Societies, 
June,  1909;  "Prophylaxis  in  Dentistry,"  read  be- 
fore   Maine    Dental    Society,   June    25,    1909,   and 
published    in    Dental    Cosmos,    November,    1909; 
"Military    and    Naval    Corps,"    read    before    the 
Union  Meeting  of  the  Maryland  and  District  of 
Columbia  Dental  Societies,  at  Washington,  D.  C., 
October    29,    1909;    "Prophylaxis    and    Oral    Hy- 
giene," read  before  the  Dental  Association  of  the 
Province    of    Quebec    and    the    Montreal    Dental 
Club,    at    Montreal,    Canada,    October    24,    1910; 
"President's     Address — Harvard    Dental     Alumni 
Association,"  read  at  Boston,  June  27,  1910;  "The 
Movement  for  Clean  Mouths  and  Sound  Teeth," 
read  at  the  Tri-State  Meeting  of  the  Maine,  New 
Hampshire  and  Vermont  State   Dental  Societies, 
at  Fabyans,  New  Hampshire,  June  27,  1911,  and 
published    in    the    Dental    Brief,    January,    1912; 
"President's  Address — Northeastern  Dental  Asso- 
ciation,"   read    at    Portland,    Maine,    October    26, 
1911,   and   published   in   the   Transactions   of   the 
Association;  "Preventative  Dentistry,"  read  at  the 
Forty-ninth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Massachusetts 
Dental  Society,  at  Boston,  May  8,  1913,  and  pub- 
lished  in   the  Journal  of  the  Allied  Dental  Socie- 
ties, June,   1913;    "Prophylaxis   of  the   Oral   Cav- 
ity," a  lecture  delivered  before  the  Post-Graduate 
Class  of  the  Metropolitan  District  Dental  Society, 
Boston,  March  5,  1915;  "Hygiene  of  the  Mouth," 
a  talk  given  before  the   New  Hampshire  Dental 
Society  at  Weirs,  New  Hampshire,  June  19,  1913. 
When    it    became    evident    the    United    States 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


117 


would  sooner  or  later  become  compelled  to  enter 
the  European  War  the  dentists  of  this  country 
formed  the  Preparedness  League  of  American 
Dentists.  This  league  aimed  to  prepare  the  den- 
tal profession  for  duties  it  was  felt  would  soon 
be  placed  upon  them.  When  the  country  finally 
entered  the  war  this  league  was  recognized  by 
the  office  of  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  United 
States  Army  and  made  the  instrument  whereby 
the  drafted  men  were  rendered  dentally  fit  before 
they  were  inducted  into  the  Army  and  Navy.  Dr. 
Kelley  was  appointed  "Director  of  the  State  of 
Maine  of  the  Preparedness  League  of  American 
Dentists,"  and  it  was  under  his  direction  that  the 
State  was  organized  for  this  work  and  thousands 
of  free  dental  operations  performed  for  men 
about  to  enter  the  service  of  their  country.  Dur- 
ing the  last  months  of  the  war,  Dr.  Kelley  was 
appointed  preliminary  examiner  of  candidates 
from  Maine  for  the  Dental  Corps  of  the  United 
States  Army,  and  under  that  appointment  con- 
ducted examinations  of  that  nature.  On  March 
12,  1915,  Dr.  Kelley  received  the  following  letter: 

Dr.  Henry  A.   Kelley, 

Portland,  Maine. 

Dear  Doctor: — The  Committee  of  Organization 
of  the  Panama-Pacific  Dental  Congress  has  the 
honor  to  inform  you  that  you  have  been  elected 
an  Honorary  President  of  the  Congress,  and  ex- 
presses the  sincere  wish  that  you  may  be  present 
and  participate  in  its  various  activities  and  enter- 
tainments in  San  Francisco,  California,  August 
30th  to  September  gth,  1915. 

Most  respectfully  yours, 
PANAMA-PACIFIC  DENTAL  CONGRESS  COMMITTEE 

OF  ORGANIZATION. 

Frank  L.  Platt,  Chairman. 
Arthur  M.  Flood,  Secretary. 

Henry  Allen  Kelley  was  united  in  marriage, 
November  19,  1902,  with  Fanny  Roath  Robbins. 
Two  children  have  been  born  of  this  union, 
James  Stanford  and  Esther. 

The  place  held  by  Dr.  Kelley  in  the  community 
is  one  that  any  man  might  desire,  but  it  is  one 
that  he  deserves  in  every  particular,  one  that  he 
has  gained  by  no  chance  fortune,  but  by  hard  and 
industrious  work,  and  a  most  liberal  treatment  of 
his  fellow-men.  He  is  a  man  who  enjoys  a  great 
reputation  and  one  whose  clientele  is  so  large 
that  it  is  easy  for  him  to  discriminate  in  the  class 
of  his  patients,  but  it  is  his  principle  to  ask  no 
questions  as  to  the  standing  of  those  who  seek 
his  professional  aid  and  he  responds  as  readily 
to  the  call  of  the  indigent  as  to  that  of  the  most 
prosperous.  It  thus  happens  that  he  does  a 
great  deal  of  philanthropic  work  in  the  city  and 


is  greatly  beloved  by  the  poorer  classes  there. 
It  is  the  function  of  the  professional  man  to  bring; 
good  cheer,  almost  as  much  if  not  equally  with 
the  more  material  assistance  given  by  him.  Dr. 
Kelley  is  a  man  of  strong  character  and  unusual 
ability  and  energy,  and  this  is  combined  with  a 
sweetness  of  disposition  and  gentleness  of  nature 
which  make  his  companionship  a  charm  and 
pleasure.  He  is  a  man  who  believes  in  principles 
and  lives  up  to  them. 


NATHAN  GOLDSMITH  HOWARD  PULSI- 
FER — One  of  the  leaders  in  the  medical  pro- 
fession in  the  State  of  Maine  during  the  genera- 
tion just  past  was,  without  doubt,  Dr.  Nathan 
Goldsmith  Howard  Pulsifer,  whose  death  at  his 
home  at  Waterville  was  a  great  loss  to  the  com- 
munity, where  for  so  many  years  he  had  been  in 
active  practice  and  occupied  so  large  a  place  in 
the  admiration  and  affection  of  his  fellow-towns- 
men. Dr.  Pulsifer  was  a  member  of  an  old  and 
distinquished  family  which  was  founded  in  Amer- 
ica early  in  the  Colonial  period,  and  the  member* 
of  which  have  taken  active  part  in  the  affairs  of 
the  various  communities  where  they  have  dwelt 
ever  since.  There  has  been  some  discussion  of 
the  origin  of  the  name  of  Pulsifer,  some  claim- 
ing that  it  is  English,  as  well  as  its  rarer  variant 
Pulsford,  but  the  authorities  seem  to  be  fairly 
unanimous  in  calling  it  French.  It  has  been  sug- 
gested that  the  first  settler  may  have  been  from 
Guernsey  or  some  other  of  the  islands  in  the 
English  Channel  which  have  been  under  British 
sovereignty  for  many  centuries.  However  this 
may  be,  that  particular  branch  of  the  American 
family  with  which  we  are  here  concerned  is  of 
perfectly  definite  French  origin,  the  founder  hav- 
ing been  John  Pulsifer,  a  French  Huguenot,  and 
a  native  of  France,  who  sought  religious  liberty 
in  self-banishment.  The  name  is  spelled  vari- 
ously in  the  old  records,  where  it  appears  as  Pul- 
sever,  Pulcifer  and  several  other  forms,  as  well 
as  in  the  present  accepted  spelling,  but  in  this 
it  but  shared  the  fate  of  practically  all  the  names 
of  non-English  origin  in  the  colonies  at  that 
time. 

(I)  John  Pulsifer  was  born  in  France,  prob- 
ably in  the  decade  of  1650-1660,  and  from  child- 
hood found  himself  subject  to  the  persecutions 
which  his  unfortunate  co-religionists  suffered 
after  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes. 
Like  so  many  of  the  people,  he  fled  his  native 
land  and  went  to  England,  where  he  found  refuge 
for  a  time.  Later,  however,  he  came  to  America 
and  settled  at  Gloucester,  Massachusetts,  in  1680. 


118 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


According  to  the  local  tradition,  his  first  home 
was  situated  on  the  very  spot  still  occupied  by 
a  descendant,  along  the  old  road  leading  to  Cof- 
fin't  Beach.  The  only  other  settler  of  the  name 
of  whom  any  record  has  been  found  was  Bene- 
dict Pulsifer,  of  Ipswich,  who  was  probably  a 
near  relative  of  John  Pulsifer,  and  by  some  be- 
lieved to  have  been  his  father.  There  has  been 
nothing  definitely  established  as  to  the  relation- 
ship, however,  so  that  the  latter  must  be  ac- 
cepted as  the  immigrant  ancestor  in  lack  of  proof 
to  the  contrary.  John  Pulsifer  married,  Decem- 
ber 31,  1684,  at  Gloucester,  Joanna  Kent,  and  they 
were  the  parents  of  the  following  children:  John, 
born  November  17,  1685,  and  died  August  27, 
1707;  Joanna,  born  October  7,  1688;  Mary,  born 
April  8,  1691;  Thomas,  born  February  10,  1693; 
Ebenezer,  born  July  20,  1695;  Mary,  born  April 
27,  1697;  David,  who  is  mentioned  at  length 
below;  Jonathan,  born  July  30,  1704,  and  mar- 
ried, December  ll,  1729,  Susanna  Hadley,  by 
whom  he  had  three  children. 

(II)  David   Pulsifer,   son  of  John  and  Joanna 
(Kent)    Pulsifer,   was   born   January   9,    1701,   at 
Gloucester,   Massachusetts,  and  there  passed  his 
entire   life,  and   followed  the   sea  as  an   occupa- 
tion.    He   married   Mary  ,  and  they  were 

the    parents    of    the    following    children:     David, 
who  is  mentioned  below;  and  three  daughters. 

(III)  David    (2)    Pulsifer,    son    of    David    (i) 

and  Mary  ( )  Pulsifer,  was  born  September 

29,  I73i,  at  Gloucester,  and  made  that  place  his 
home  until  the  time  of  his  marriage.     He  served 
in  the  Continental  Army  during  the   Revolution, 
first  as  a  private  in  Captain  Charles  Smith's  com- 
pany  and   later   as    matross   in   Captain   William 
Ellery's    company    of    the    First    Artillery.      He 
later  went   to   Poland,   Maine,  and  there   settled, 
becoming  the  founder  of  the  Maine  family  of  the 
name.     He   married   a   cousin,    Hannah    Pulsifer, 
of   Brentwood,   New   Hampshire,   and   they  were 
the   parents   of   a   number   of   children,   including 
Jonathan,  who   is   mentioned  below. 

(IV)  Jonathan  Pulsifer,  son  of  David   (2)  and 
Hannah   (Pulsifer)  Pulsifer,  was  born  about  1770 
at    Gloucester,    but    removed    to    Poland,    Maine, 
with  his  parents,  and  there  made  his  home.    His 
<leath  occurred  in  the  old  Pulsifer  home  at  that 
place.     He  married,  August  30,  1789,  Polly  Rust, 
"born   September   i,    1769,   and   died   in    1862,   and 
they  were  the  parents  of  two  children,  who  at- 
tained maturity,  as  follows:    Moses,  who  is  men- 
tioned below,  and  Benjamin. 

(V)  Moses   Rust   Pulsifer,  M.D.,   son   of  Jona- 
than and   Polly    (Rust)    Pulsifer,   was  born   Sep- 


tember 10,  1799,  at  Poland,  Maine,  and  died 
January  27,  1877.  As  a  lad  he  attended  the  local 
district  schools,  and  after  completing  his  gen- 
eral studies  took  up  the  subject  of  medicine.  He 
followed  his  profession  in  the  towns  of  Eden, 
Sullivan  and  Ellsworth,  in  Hancock  county.  He 
was  married,  in  1819,  to  Mary  Strout  Dunn,  born 
May  30,  1801,  and  died  March  n,  1850,  daughter 
of  Hon.  Josiah  and  Sally  (Barnes)  Dunn.  Josiah 
Dunn  was  born  September  8,  1779,  and  died  Feb- 
ruary 3,  1843,  and  Sally  (Barnes)  Dunn  was  born 
January  n,  1783,  and  died  December  29,  1858. 
The  latter  was  a  daughter  of  a  celebrated  clergy- 
man of  the  day,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Barnes,  who 
represented  his  district  in  the  General  Court  of 
Massachusetts,  and  to  whom  a  monument  was 
erected  by  the  Universalists  at  Norway,  Maine, 
after  his  death.  Dr.  Moses  Rust  Pulsifer  and 
his  wife  were  the  parents  of  the  following  chil- 
dren: i.  Josiah  Dunn,  born  in  1822,  and  was  the 
first  stenographer  employed  in  the  courts  of  the 
State  for  reporting,  an  office  that  he  held  a  num- 
ber of  years;  was  a  student,  and  learned  in  the 
law,  and  compiled  a  "Digest  of  Maine"  during 
the  time  of  his  employment  in  the  courts.  2. 
Nathan  Goldsmith  Howard,  with  whom  we  are 
here  especially  concerned.  3.  Reuben,  born  in 
1826,  and  followed  the  occupation  of  farming. 
4.  Caroline,  who  became  the  wife  of  B.  F. 
Crocker,  of  Hyannis,  Massachusetts.  5.  Augustus 
Moses,  born  June  15,  1834.  He  was  a  prominent 
attorney  and  public  man  at  Auburn,  Maine,  and 
married  Harriet  Chase,  daughter  of  Hon.  George 
W.  Chase,  of  that  city,  by  whom  he  had  seven 
children.  6.  Horatio,  who  became  a  physician.  7. 
Thomas  Benton,  who  became  a  physician  and 
practised  at  Yarmouth,  Massachusetts.  8.  Ella 
Dunn,  who  became  the  wife  of  Joseph  Bassett, 
of  Yarmouth,  Massachusetts. 

(VI)  Dr.  Nathan  Goldsmith  Howard  Pulsifer, 
second  child  of  Dr.  Moses  Rust  and  Mary 
Strout  (Dunn)  Pulsifer,  was  born  January  24, 
1824,  at  Eden,  Mount  Desert,  Hancock  county, 
Maine,  and  died  at  Waterville,  Maine,  December 
3,  1893.  His  elementary  education  was  obtained 
at  the  public  schools  of  Eden  and  Minot,  Maine, 
and  was  there  prepared  for  college.  From  early 
youth  he  had  determined  to  follow  in  his  father's 
footsteps  in  the  choice  of  a  profession,  and  with 
this  end  in  view  entered  the  Dartmouth  Medical 
School.  Here  he  distinguished  himself  as  a  bril- 
liant and  indefatigable  student,  and  pursued  his 
studies  to  such  good  purpose  that  he  was  gradu- 
ated with  the  class  of  1847.  The  young  man 
had  already  gained  familiarity  with  medical  sub- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


119 


jects  in  the  offices  of  his  father  and  Dr.  N.  C.. 
Harris,  and  considerable  practical  experience  in 
assisting  them  with  their  patients,  so  that  he 
was  especially  well  equipped  to  begin  practice 
on  his  own  account.  This  he  began  to  do  imme- 
diately upon  receiving  his  degree  as  Doctor  of 
Medicine,  settling  at  Fox  Island,  Maine.  He 
shared  the  fever  for  gold  hunting  which  swept 
the  country  upon  the  discovery  of  the  precious 
metal  in  California  in  1849,  and  secured  a  posi- 
tion as  physician  on  board  the  barkentine  Bel- 
grade, which  made  the  journey  around  the  Horn 
to  California  in  six  months.  He  remained  in  the 
Far  West  for  about  two  years  and  then  returned 
to  the  East,  in  1851.  He  practised  for  a  short 
time  at  Ellsworth  and  then  determined  to  take 
a  post-graduate  course,  with  which  purpose  in 
view  he  attended  several  courses  of  lectures  at 
the  medical  schools  of  New  York  City  and  Phila- 
delphia, and  worked  in  various  hospitals  in  the 
two  cities.  He  continued  thus  employed  for 
about  one  year  and  then,  in  1852,  returned  to 
Maine  and  began  practice  at  Waterville.  Here 
he  remained  actively  at  work  until  the  close  of 
his  life,  and  gained  for  himself  in  the  meantime 
the  esteem  and  veneration  of  the  whole  com- 
munity, including  his  professional  colleagues.  His 
reputation  as  a  capable  and  conscientious  physi- 
cian spread  far  beyond  the  confines  of  his  home 
town,  and  he  was  familiarly  known  throughout 
that  section  of  country.  In  addition  to  his  pro- 
fessional activities,  Dr.  Pulsifer  was  associated 
with  many  other  departments  of  the  community's 
affairs,  and  in  all  was  recognized  as  a  leader.  He 
was  the  vice-president  and  a  director  of  the 
People's  National  Bank  of  Waterville  for  many 
years,  and  its  president  for  the  ten  years  pre- 
ceding his  death.  He  was  a  Republican  in  poli- 
tics and,  although  his  professional  duties  did  not 
admit  of  his  taking  so  large  a  part  in  local  poli- 
tics as  his  talents  and  qualities  of  leadership  fitted 
him  for,  he,  nevertheless,  exercised  a  beneficial 
influence  upon  affairs  as  a  private  citizen,  to 
whom  all  looked  with  respect.  He  was  keenly 
interested  in  the  development  of  real  estate 
values  in  and  about  Waterville,  and  during  the 
last  twenty  years  of  his  life  invested  largely  and 
with  judgment  in  these  properties.  In  his  relig- 
ious belief  Dr.  Pulsifer  was  a  Unitarian. 

Dr.  Pulsifer  was  united  in  marriage,  October 
24,  1855,  with  Ann  Cornelia  Moor,  a  native  of 
Waterville,  where  she  was  born,  February  16, 
1835,  a  daughter  of  William  and  Cornelia  Ann 
(Dunbar)  Moor,  old  and  highly-respected  resi- 
dents of  this  place.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Pulsifer  were 


the  parents  of  the  following  children:  I.  Nora, 
born  June  24,  1856,  and  became  the  wife  of  Frank 
Lorenzo  Thayer,  son  of  Lorenzo  Eugene  and 
Sarah  (Chase)  Thayer,  to  whom  she  has  borne 
three  children:  Nathan  Pulsifer,  born  December 
20,  1878;  Lorenzo  Eugene,  born  March  8,  1883; 
Frank  L.,  Jr.,  born  December  5,  1895.  2.  Cor- 
nelia Ann,  born  August  8,  1860,  and  became  the 
wife  of  Herbert  L.  Kelley,  son  of  Henry  and 
Mary  (Crie)  Kelley,  to  whom  she  has  borne  one 
child,  Cornelia  Pulsifer,  born  February  17,  1897. 
3.  William  Moor,  born  August  18,  1863,  a  graduate 
of  the  Colby  University  and  the  Harvard  Medical 
School;  he  also  took  a  post-graduate  course  at 
the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  at  Philadelphia, 
studied  in  Germany  for  a  year,  and  was  engaged 
in  the  active  practice  of  medicine  at  Skowhegan, 
Maine,  at  the  time  of  his  death,  November  13, 
1915;  married,  October  2,  1896,  Helen  G.  Libby, 
daughter  of  Isaac  C.  and  Helen  Libby,  who  has 
borne  him  one  child,  Libby  Pulsifer,  born  March 
27,  1899.  4.  Ralph  H.,  born  August  19,  1865,  at 
Waterville,  Maine;  graduated  from  the  Coburn 
Classical  Institute  and  Colby  University;  he 
studied  for  his  profession  at  the  Boston  Univer- 
sity Medical  School  and  the  Hahnemann  Medical 
College,  at  Philadelphia,  graduating  from  both 
institutions;  he  is  now  in  active  practice  at 
Waterville;  married,  February  23,  1893,  Grace 
Goodrich  Yeaton,  of  Belgrade,  and  they  are  the 
parents  of  one  child,  Page  Moor  Pulsifer,  born 
August  20,  1896. 

The  late  Dr.  Pulsifer  was  of  the  type  of  men 
that  make  the  best  citizens.  With  a  high  sense 
of  civic  duties  and  obligations,  he  identified  him- 
self with  many  important  movements  undertaken 
for  the  welfare  of  the  community,  and  did  much 
to  assist  in  its  development.  As  a  man  he  was 
in  all  respects  admirable,  and  won  the  confidence 
of  his  associates  in  all  walks  and  relations  of  life. 
In  all  capacities  he  measured  up  to  the  highest 
standards,  and  his  name  may  well  be  held  in 
respect  by  his  fellows.  The  life  of  a  physician 
is  no  cynosure  and  the  very  choice  of  it  is  a 
proof  of  the  sincerity  and  earnestness  of  the 
chooser,  either  as  a  student  with  an  overwhelm- 
ing love  of  his  subject,  or  as  an  altruist  whose 
first  thought  is  the  good  of  others.  Probably 
something  of  both  elements  entered  into  the 
attitude  of  Dr.  Pulsifer,  and  this  is  borne  out  by 
the  double  fact  of  his  unusual  learning  in  his 
science,  both  theory  and  practice,  and  of  his 
having  won  in  so  marked  a  degree  the  respect 
and  affection  of  his  patients  and  the  community- 
at-large. 


120 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


DANIEL  JOHN  McGILLICUDDY— Himself 

a  native  of  the  "Pine  Tree  State"  and  an  Ameri- 
can in  character,  manner  and  ideal,  Daniel  John 
McGillicuddy,  one  of  the  leading  attorneys  of 
Lewiston,  Maine,  and  a  citizen  of  the  greatest 
public  spirit,  is  by  blood  an  Irishman  and  exhibits 
in  his  own  personality  and  character  many  of  the 
most  typical  virtues  and  abilities  of  a  long  line 
of  Irish  ancestors.  The  McGillicuddy  family  had 
its  origin  in  County  Kerry,  Ireland,  which  is  one 
of  the  most  picturesque  and  charming  districts  in 
all  that  picturesque  country,  being  situated  upon 
the  wild  and  romantic  southwest  coast,  where 
some  of  the  boldest  and  most  magnificent  scenery 
of  Ireland  occurs,  while  inland  this  grandeur  is 
softened  and  subdued  until  it  finds  its  most  typi- 
cal expression  in  the  famous  and  lovely  lake  of 
Killarney. 

In  this  beautiful  country  John  McGillicuddy, 
father  of  Daniel  John  McGillicuddy,  was  born  in 
the  year  1824.  Like  so  many  of  his  fellow  Irish- 
men at  that  time,  he  came  to  the  United  States, 
together  with  his  brother  and  sisters,  and  settled 
at  Lewiston,  Maine,  where  he  resided  during  the 
remainder  of  his  life  and  where  his  death  oc- 
curred, August  19,  1910.  He  married  Ellen 
Byrnes,  who  died  in  Lewiston  in  1884.  Mr.  Mc- 
Gillicuddy was  a  farmer  and  followed  that  occu- 
pation during  most  of  his  life,  both  before  and 
after  coming  to  the  United  States.  He  and  his 
wife  were  the  parents  of  four  children,  of  whom 
one  died  in  infancy  and  three  survive  today.  They 
are  as  follows:  Daniel  John;  Mary,  who  became 
the  wife  of  George  A.  Wiseman,  of  Lewiston, 
Maine;  John,  a  retired  merchant  of  Lewiston. 

Daniel  John  McGillicuddy  was  born  August  27, 
1859,  at  Lewiston,  Maine,  and  has  made  his  native 
city  his  home  up  to  the  present  time.  It  was 
there  that  he  received  his  early  education,  attend- 
ing for  this  purpose  the  grammar  schools,  from 
which  he  was  graduated  in  1874,  and  later  the 
high  school,  where  he  was  graduated  in  1877,  and 
was  prepared  for  college.  He  then  matriculated 
at  Bowdoin  College,  where  he  took  the  usual 
academic  or  practical  course,  and  where  after 
establishing  an  excellent  record  for  scholarship 
he  was  graduated  with  the  class  of  1881.  He 
then  became  a  student  at  law  at  Lewiston,  and 
in  1883  was  admitted  to  practice  at  the  bar  of 
Androscoggin  county.  He  at  once  opened  an 
office  at  Lewiston,  Maine,  and  continued  the 
practice  of  his  profession  by  himself  until  1891, 
when  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Frank  A. 
Morey,  under  the  name  of  McGillicuddy  & 
Morey,  which  now  occupies  a  prominent  place 


among  the  legal  firms  of  the  city.  McGillicuddy 
&  Morey  is  one  of  the  best  known  firms  not  only 
in  Lewiston  but  in  the  neighboring  city  of  Au- 
burn and  in  the  whole  surrounding  region,  and 
much  of  the  most  important  litigation  thereof 
has  been  through  its  offices.  This  office  has  also 
proved  the  training  grounds  of  many  brilliant 
lawyers,  not  a  few  of  the  successful  attorneys  of 
Auburn  and  Lewiston  having  had  their  initial 
training  there.  In  addition  to  his  legal  activities 
Mr.  McGillicuddy  has  taken  a  very  active  part 
in  several  important  aspects  of  the  city's  life, 
and  has  held  a  number  of  important  public  offices, 
in  which  he  has  acquitted  himself  not  only  to 
his  own  great  credit  but  to  the  advantage  of 
the  community-at-large.  In  1881  he  became  a 
member  of  the  School  Board  of  Lewiston,  and 
rapidly  attained  a  popularity  which  insured  his 
promotion  to  much  more  important  offices.  In 
1884  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  State  Legis- 
lature, in  which  body  he  served  most  effectively 
for  three  years,  and  in  1887  received  the  most 
honorable  post  in  the  gift  of  the  city,  when  he 
was  elected  to  the  office  of  Mayor.  His  adminis- 
tration of  the  city's  affairs  was  most  capable  and 
the  energy  with  which  he  pursued  every  under- 
taking which  looked  toward  the  general  welfare 
was  most  noteworthy.  So  much  did  he  possess 
the  general  confidence  and  admiration  of  the 
people  that  he  was  twice  returned  to  this  im- 
portant office,  being  re-elected  in  1890  and  again 
in  1902.  In  the  year  1910  he  became  the  candi- 
date for  United  States  Congress  and  was  elected 
both  in  that  year  and  in  1916.  He  is  now  serving 
his  community  in  this  high  office,  where  he  has 
won  for  himself  a  reputation  for  disinterested- 
ness and  capability  most  enviable. 

Mr.  McGillicuddy  is  a  man  of  all  around  tastes 
and  broad  sympathies,  who  finds  his  interests  in 
every  aspect  and  department  of  life.  Of  such  a 
man  it  is  not  correct  to  say  that  he  possesses 
any  hobby,  a  phrase  which  denotes  to  a  certain 
extent  so  great  a  concentration  upon  some  one 
subject  as  to  detract  from  a  normal  interest  in 
others.  It  is  the  last  accusation  that  could  be 
brought  against  Mr.  McGillicuddy,  who  finds 
pleasure  in  well  nigh  every  normal  pastime  and 
is  capable  of  appreciating  the  tastes  of  all  types 
and  characters  of  men.  During  the  day  of  the 
horse,  he  was  the  owner  of  a  large  number  of 
these  animals,  all  of  which  were  of  the  best 
example  of  their  respective  types,  and  indeed  was 
devoted  to  them  individually.  Mr.  McGillicuddy 
is  also  interested  in  the  financial  and  business 
development  of  the  community  of  which  he  is  a 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


121 


member,  and  among  others  is  connected  with  the 
First  National  Bank  in  the  capacity  of  stock- 
holder. He  is  a  member  of  the  local  lodges  of 
the  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks  and 
the  Knights  of  Columbus.  In  his  religious  be- 
lief Mr.  McGillicuddy  is  a  staunch  Catholic,  as 
the  members  of  his  family  have  been  for  many 
generations,  and  he  attends  St.  Joseph's  Church 
in  Lewiston. 

Daniel  John  McGillicuddy  was  united  in  mar- 
riage, July  5,  1898,  at  Lewiston,  with  Minnie  M. 
Sprague,  a  native  of  that  city  and  a  daughter  of 
Anselm  W.  and  Harriett  (Ridley)  Sprague,  old 
and  highly  respected  residents  here. 

An  additional  word  should  here  be  said  re- 
garding the  migration  of  the  McGillicuddy  family 
from  Ireland  to  the  United  States.  The  first  of 
the  name  to  reach  this  country  was  Patrick  Mc- 
Gillicuddy, an  uncle  of  Congressman  McGilli- 
cuddy, who  settled  first  in  Rhode  Island,  where 
he  was  afterwards  joined  by  his  brother,  John 
McGillicuddy,  the  father  of  Congressman  Mc- 
Gillicuddy. The  two  young  men,  after  remain- 
ing for  a  while  in  Rhode  Island  and  a  still  shorter 
period  in  Massachusetts,  came  in  the  year  1845 
to  Maine  and  settled  in  Lewiston. 

The  gaining  of  great  material  success  for  him- 
self and  a  position  of  power  and  control  in  the 
political  and  professional  world  of  Lewiston, 
Maine,  has  been  in  no  wise  incompatible  in  the 
case  of  D.  J.  McGillicuddy,  with  the  great  and 
invaluable  service  which  he  renders  to  the  com- 
munity of  which  he  is  so  distinguished  a  mem- 
ber. Pre-eminently  a  man  of  affairs,  he  has  made 
his  talents  subserve  the  double  end  of  his  own 
ambition  and  the  welfare  of  his  fellows.  Lewis- 
ton,  Maine,  is  the  scene  of  his  life-long  work  in 
connection  with  the  enterprises  so  closely  asso- 
ciated with  his  name,  and  he  is  highly  respected 
by  all  those  who  come  into  even  the  most  casual 
contact  with  him  and  by  the  community-at-large. 
Strong  common  sense  and  an  invincible  will,  the 
latter  tempered  by  unusual  tact  and  good  judg- 
ment, are  the  basis  of  his  character  and  inci- 
dentally of  his  success. 


JAMES  EVERETT  PHILOON,  a  member  of 
one  of  the  old  New  England  families,  descended 
on  the  paternal  side  of  the  house  from  ancesters 
who  came  over  on  the  Mayflower,  is  a  man  who 
is  most  closely  identified  with  the  life  of  the 
community  wherein  he  dwells.  The  name  was 
originally  spelled  Filoon  and  is  still  spelled  that 
way  in  Massachusetts,  but  in  Maine  Philoon  is 
the  spelling  adopted. 


James  Filoon,  the  original  settler,  came  from 
Cady,  County  Armagh,  Ireland,  and  was  of 
Scotch-Irish  descent,  and  a  member  of  the  Pres- 
byterian church.  He  was  a  farmer  by  occupa- 
tion, and  located  in  Abington,  Massachusetts, 
where  he  married,  but  about  1817  removed  to 
Livermore,  Maine,  and  there  resided  during  the 
remainder  of  his  life.  He  married  Christina  Bur- 
roll,  of  Abington. 

Everett  L.  Philoon  was  born  October  30,  1848, 
at  Livermore,  Maine,  and  has  been  for  many  years 
very  prominent  in  local  affairs,  and  in  1884  came 
to  Auburn,  where  he  first  engaged  in  the  grocery 
business,  meeting  with  a  gratifying  success  in 
this  line,  but  afterwards  invested  in  and  became 
associated  with  Ashe,  Noyes,  Small  &  Company. 
Mr.  Philoon  was  active  in  this  large  firm,  which 
was  engaged  in  the  business  of  manufacturing 
shoes,  until  the  time  that  he  retired  from  active 
life  on  account  of  ill-health.  Mr.  Philoon  has 
been  prominently  known  as  a  member  of  this 
firm  and  came  to  occupy  a  prominent  place  in 
the  manufacturing  and  mercantile  centers  of  the 
community.  But  it  was  rather  in  connection  with 
his  public  life  that  Mr.  Philoon  has  been  promi- 
nent and  he  has  held  many  offices  of  responsi- 
bility and  trust  in  the  community.  Among  others 
should  be  mentioned  that  of  City  Treasurer,  a 
position  to  which  he  was  elected  in  1899,  and 
then,  after  the  lapse  of  many  years,  again  in 
1914.  Mr.  Philoon  is  a  staunch  supporter  of  the 
Democratic  party  and  the  principles  and  policies 
which  it  stands  for,  and  it  was  as  the  nominee 
of  this  party  that  he  was  elected  to  the  various 
offices  which  he  has  held.  In  1905  Mr.  Philoon 
was  elected  to  represent  the  county  as  a  member 
of  the  State  Senate  and  served  on  this  body  dur- 
ing two  terms.  He  is  also  prominent  in  the 
Universalist  church,  was  a  president  of  the  Maine 
Universalist  Convention,  and  a  trustee  of  the 
Westbrook  Seminary  at  Portland.  Mr.  Philoon 
was  married  to  Mary  Arabella  Lara,  a  native  of 
Turner,  Maine,  and  to  them  four  children  were 
born,  one  of  whom  died  in  infancy.  The  three 
remaining  are  as  follows:  Daniel  Lara,  who  is 
now  engaged  in  the  drug  business  at  Newton 
Center,  Maine,  and  is  a  graduate  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Maine,  with  the  class  of  1901;  Wallace, 
and  James  Everett. 

Among  the  successful  business  men  of  the 
prosperous  city  of  Auburn,  Maine,  a  high  place 
is  due  Everett  L.  Philoon,  whose  career  from 
the  outset  was  successful  in  the  best  sense  of 
the  term,  in  that  it  had  contributed  to  the  wel- 
fare of  the  community  as  well  as  to  his  own,  and 


122 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


which  has  placed  him  in  the  regard  of  his  fellow 
citizens.  Mr.  Philoon  is  a  type  of  citizen,  com- 
bining in  his  character  and  personality  in  very 
happy  proportion  the  qualities  of  the  practical 
business  man  with  those  of  the  public-spirited, 
whose  thoughts  are  with  the  welfare  of  the  com- 
munity. It  has  been  by  his  own  efforts  that  he 
has  risen  to  the  position  which  he  held  and 
throughout  his  career  he  never  had  conducted 
his  affairs  so  that  they  were  anything  but  a  bene- 
fit to  all  his  associates  and  the  city-at-large.  He 
is  frank  and  outspoken,  a  man  whose  integrity 
has  never  been  called  in  question,  who  could  be 
and  is  trusted  to  keep  the  spirit  as  well  as  the 
letter  of  every  contract. 

Born  May  I,  1887,  James  Everett  Philoon,  son 
of  Everett  L.  and  Mary  Arabella  (Lara)  Philoon, 
has  made  Auburn  his  home.  It  was  there  that 
he  received  the  elementary  portion  of  his  educa- 
tion at  the  public  schools,  graduating  from  the 
grammar  grades  in  the  year  1904.  He  then  at- 
tended the  Hebron  Academy,  where  he  took  an 
active  part  in  debating,  from  which  he  graduated 
in  1909,  and  where  he  was  prepared  for  a  college 
course.  In  the  same  year  he  matriculated  at 
Bowdoin  College  and  graduated  from  that  insti- 
tution with  the  class  of  1913.  In  the  meantime, 
however,  Mr.  Philoon  decided  to  take  up  the  law 
as  a  profession,  and  with  this  end  in  view  entered 
the  Boston  University  Law  School,  from  which 
he  graduated  with  the  class  of  1916.  Mr.  Philoon 
then  at  once  opened  an  office  at  Auburn,  situated 
at  No.  81  Main  street,  which  has  been  his  head- 
quarters ever  since.  Besides  the  theoretical  train- 
ing gained  by  him  at  the  Boston  University  Law 
School,  Mr.  Philoon  also  studied  for  a  while  with 
the  firm  of  Newell  &  Woodwise,  eminent  attor- 
neys of  Lewiston,  and  there  gained  the  practical 
side  of  the  profession.  He  is  now  engaged  by 
himself.  In  politics  Mr.  Philoon  is  a  supporter 
of  the  Democratic  party,  but  this  support  is  in 
no  sense  partisan,  as  he  reserves  for  himself  the 
right  to  decide  in  every  question  of  public  issue 
on  the  merits  of  the  case  as  he  sees  it,  and 
never  allows  the  mere  interest  of  his  party  or 
his  party  colleagues  to  interfere  with  what  he 
regards  to  be  to  the  best  advantage  of  the  com- 
munity-at-large.  He  takes  a  particular  pleasure 
in  reading  and  especially  enjoys  historical  works 
of  all  kinds.  History  may  perhaps  be  called  his 
hobby,  if  any  one  subject  can  be  so  designated. 
Mr.  Philoon  is  a  member  of  a  number  of  fra- 
ternal circles  of  Auburn,  and  prominent  in  the 
Masonic  order.  He  is  affiliated  with  Tranquil 
Lodge,  No.  29,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Ma- 


sons. During  his  college  life  Mr.  Philoon  be- 
came a  member  of  the  Phi  Delta  Phi,  legal  fra- 
ternity, and  the  Alpha  Delta  Phi  fraternity  of 
Bowdoin  College,  and  held  the  position  of  consul 
of  the  former  organization  during  his  senior  year 
at  the  Boston  University  Law  School.  He  is 
also  a  member  of  the  Waseca  Club,  of  Auburn,  in 
which  he  held  the  office  of  treasurer,  and  takes 
part  actively  in  social  life  here.  In  his  religious 
belief  Mr.  Philoon  is  a  Universalist,  is  very  active 
in  the  work  of  his  church,  and  at  the  present  time 
is  superintendent  of  its  Sunday  school  and  also 
holds  the  office  of  trustee  of  the  parish. 

Wallace  Copeland  Philoon,  the  brother  of 
James  Everett  Philoon,  is  a  graduate  of  Bow- 
doin College,  with  the  class  of  1905.  He  after- 
wards attended  West  Point  Military  Academy, 
from  which  he  graduated  in  1909.  He  was  after- 
wards detailed  to  the  infantry  service  in  the  West, 
later  was  stationed  at  Honolulu,  and  has  recently 
received  his  commission  as  captain. 


WESTON  LEWIS— A  more  fitting  prelude  to 
a  review  of  the  life  of  Weston  Lewis,  now  gone 
to  "that  bourne  from  which  no  traveler  returns," 
cannot  be  conceived  than  the  following  tribute 
from  the  pen  of  his  lifetime  friend  and  business 
associate,  Josiah  S.  Maxcy: 

My  acquaintance  with  Weston  Lewis  began  in 
the  old  time  Lyceum  building,  when  I  entered 
school  in  the  fall  of  1866.  I  was  a  small,  under- 
sized boy,  scarcely  twelve  years  old,  and  as  then 
was  the  custom  I  was  being  hazed.  Weston,  who 
was  one  of  the  largest  boys,  said,  "He  is  small, 
don't  hurt  him,"  picked  me  up  and  tossed  me  out 
of  the  ring.  This  has  been  characteristic  of  him 
through  life, — to  help  the  weak. 

The  old  Lyceum  building  burned  in  the  fall  of 
1869,  and  the  high  school  was  demoralized  until 
the  spring  of  1872,  when  he  was  engaged  as  a 
teacher.  He  had  just  passed  his  twenty-first 
birthday  and  was  a  young  giant  in  strength  and 
stature.  As  in  after  life,  he  soon  asserted  him- 
self, and  it  took  only  a  short  time  to  throw  the 
unruly  boys  over  the  seats  and  restore  order. 

Our  real  acquaintance  started  when  he  entered 
the  Savings  Bank  in  1875,  and  we  soon  had  busi- 
ness interests  in  common.  For  over  a  third  of  a 
century,  when  both  were  in  Gardiner,  we  were 
with  each  other  daily,  and  we  traveled  together 
thousands  of  miles  on  business  trips.  We  en- 
gaged in  the  building  and  operation  of  water 
plants,  in  the  ice  business,  in  banking,  railroad- 
ing, timber  interests  and  mining.  In  our  exten- 
sive business  we  kept  no  regular  co-partnership 
books,  and  had  no  written  agreements,  yet  no 
question  as  to  settlements  ever  arose.  We  had 
perfect  mutual  confidence  and  never  failed  to 
agree  upon  any  conversation  that  had  occurred 
years  before. 

Large,    strong,    vigorous,     optimistic,    bold    in 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


123 


business  ventures,  yet  so  sensitive  to  censure 
that  I  have  known  of  his  refusal  to  run  for  office 
on  account  of  the  notoriety  and  criticism  of  a 
campaign.  Unknown  to  the  world,  he  has  helped 
many  a  young  man  to  an  education  and  has  made 
considerable  sacrifice  from  a  generous  impulse  to 
assist  others. 

Weston  Lewis  was  a  man  of  broad  ideas,  loyal 
to  his  friends,  and  generous  with  his  counsel 
and  gifts.  For  many  years  he  has  been  a  power 
in  our  city,  and  even  more  than  we  now  realize, 
we  shall  feel  his  loss. 

Just  across  the  Kennebec  river  from  Gardiner, 
in  Pittston  township,  Kennebec  county,  Maine, 
lies  the  village  of  Pittston,  the  birthplace  of 
Weston  Lewis  and  the  home  of  his  parents, 
Warren  R.  Lewis  (son  of  Stephen  W.  Lewis), 
born  in  Jefferson,  Maine,  a  farmer,  who  retired 
after  a  successful  career,  honored  and  esteemed 
by  all.  He  married  Laura  Jane  Carleton,  born 
at  Kings  Mills,  Maine,  who  gave  her  life  for  that 
of  her  son,  Weston,  at  his  birth,  December  26, 
1850.  There  his  youth  was  spent,  but  later, 
when  choosing  a  residence  and  base  of  activity, 
he  selected  Gardiner,  just  across  the  river  from 
his  birthplace.  There  the  adult  period  of  his 
years,  sixty-seven,  were  passed,  and  when  the 
end  came,  shortly  before  midnight,  September 
21,  1918,  at  his  home,  "The  Cove,"  the  com- 
munity mourned  the  loss  of  its  best  and  truest 
friend. 

Weston  Lewis  attended  the  public  schools  of 
his  native  town  and  of  Gardiner,  completing 
preparation  for  college  with  the  graduating  Gar- 
diner high  school  class  of  1868.  He  then  spent 
four  years  at  Bowdoin  College,  whence  he  was 
graduated  A.B.,  class  of  1872,  receiving  the  de- 
gree of  A.M.  from  his  alma  mater  later.  The 
next  three  years,  1872-75,  were  spent  as  principal 
of  Gardiner  High  School,  then  retired  as  an  edu- 
cator to  enter  business  life.  In  1875  he  was 
chosen  assistant  treasurer  of  the  Gardiner  Sav- 
ings Institution,  and  a  year  later  was  elected 
treasurer  of  the  same  institution,  serving  until 
1888,  when  he  was  chosen  by  the  board  of  direct- 
ors as  the  executive  head  of  the  institution.  In 
1885  Mr.  Lewis  began  his  close  association  with 
Josiah  S.  Maxcy,  an  association  which  only  death 
dissolved.  Their  first  large  associated  business 
was  in  the  erection  of  the  Gardiner  water  works, 
a  venture  which  at  that  time  was  one  of  some 
uncertainty  as  a  profitable  one.  But  both  men 
possessed  broad  vision  and  public  spirit  which 
nerved  them  to  the  task  which  eventually  brought 
them  abundant  return.  During  the  years  which 
followed,  Messrs.  Lewis  and  Maxcy  constructed 
water  works  systems  at  Waterville,  Fairfield, 


Dover,  Foxcroft,  Calais,  St.  Stephens,  Madison, 
Maine,  and  at  Milltown,  New  Brunswick,  buying 
controlling  interest  in  the  systems  at  Bath  and 
Brunswick,  Maine.  All  these  interests  were  con- 
solidated under  the  corporate  name,  The  Maine 
Water  Company.  The  Maine  Trust  and  Banking 
Company,  of  Gardiner,  Maine,  was  organized  in 
1889,  Weston  Lewis  being  chosen  its  first  presi- 
dent, and  until  his  death,  twenty-nine  years  later, 
no  other  man  held  that  office.  He  was  president 
of  the  Kennebec  Central  railroad  from  its  incep- 
tion, and  president  of  the  Sandy  River  railroad 
for  twenty  years,  until  its  purchase  by  the  Maine 
Central,  in  1911.  For  eight  years  he  was  director 
of  the  Maine  Central  railroad,  director  of  the 
Mutual  Union  Life  Insurance  Company  of  Port- 
land, Maine,  director  of  the  Bath  Iron  Works, 
Limited,  and  had  many  other  important  business 
connections,  part  of  these  being  with  corpora- 
tions and  business  enterprises  beyond  local  or 
State  limits. 

He  retained  a  lively  interest  in  his  alma  mater 
and  served  her  for  eight  years  as  a  trustee,  and 
was  Bowdoin's  loyal  friend  always.  He  was  presi- 
dent of  the  local  Board  of  Trade,  and  was  gener- 
ous with  the  financial  aid  so  necessary  in  all 
enterprises  to  make  well-intentioned  sympathy 
really  helpful.  He  was  a  Democrat  in  politics 
and  served  his  city  in  both  branches  of  Council, 
representing  Ward  No.  3  in  1885,  and  in  1886-88 
acting  as  alderman.  He  was  a  member  of  Gov- 
ernor Plaisted's  State  Council  in  1911-12,  and  one 
of  the  strong  men  of  that  administration.  When 
war  with  Germany  brought  forward  new  prob- 
lems he  at  once  willingly  shouldered  his  part  of 
the  burden,  and  on  Kennebec  County  Exemption 
Board,  No.  2,  served  loyally  until  ill  health  com- 
pelled him  to  desist.  This  was  true  in  all  war 
activities  and  drives,  as  he  was  a  hard  worker  in 
placing  Liberty  Loans  and  in  raising  Gardiner's 
quota  for  the  various  funds.  He  was  very  friendly 
and  approachable,  sympathetic  to  a  high  degree 
and  generous  in  his  response  to  every  cause. 
Gifts  of  thousands  were  not  unusual  to  him;  no 
worthy  charity  but  received  his  aid,  and  no  pro- 
gressive public  enterprise  he  did  not  forward. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  order,  Cumber- 
land Club  of  Portland,  Bramhall  League  of  Port- 
land, and  of  two  Boston  clubs.  In  religious 
preference  he  was  an  Episcopalian. 

Weston  Lewis  married,  at  Gardiner,  October 
18,  1876,  Eleanor  W.  Partridge,  who  survives  her 
husband,  and  is  a  resident  of  Portland,  Maine. 
She  is  a  daughter  of  the  late  Charles  H.  Part- 
ridge, who  was  born  in  Hallowell,  Maine,  a  mer- 


124 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


chant  of  Gardiner.  He  married  Bridget  Western, 
born  in  Madison,  Maine,  both  long  since  passed 
to  their  reward.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  were  the 
parents  of  two  sons,  Carleton,  who  died  October 
13,  1918,  and  Henry,  now  of  Portland,  Maine;  and 
one  daughter,  Eleanor,  residing  with  her  mother 
in  Portland. 

Such  in  brief  was  the  lifework  of  Weston 
Lewis,  whose  life  was  lived  in  the  public  view 
and  pronounced  good.  A  leader  in  the  business 
world,  his  was  a  potent  voice  in  the  councils  of 
the  Democratic  party  of  Maine,  a  vital  force  for 
progress  and  good  in  his  community.  Too  much 
stress  cannot  be  placed  upon  the  value  of  his 
life  to  his  fellow-men.  When  he  was  borne  to 
his  last  resting  place  he  was  followed  by  men  of 
high  distinction  as  his  honorary  bearers:  Ex- 
Governor  William  T.  Cobb;  Morris  McDonald, 
president  of  the  Maine  Central  railroad;  Kenneth 
Sills,  president  of  Bowdoin  College;  Hon.  E.  B. 
Winslow,  of  Portland;  Robert  H.  Gardiner; 
Henry  Richards;  Josiah  S.  Maxcy;  N.  C.  Bar- 
stow,  of  Gardiner;  C.  H.  Gilman,  of  Portland,  and 
Howard  Corning,  of  Bangor. 

Carleton  Lewis,  eldest  child  of  Weston  and 
Eleanor  W.  (Partridge)  Lewis,  was  born  in  Gar- 
diner, Maine,  October  6,  1878,  died  at  Warren, 
Oregon,  October  13,  1918.  He  prepared  for  col- 
lege in  private  schools,  but  did  not  enter,  choos- 
ing instead  a  business  career.  At  the  age  of 
eighteen,  under  the  able  training  of  his  father, 
he  had  developed  such  keen  business  instinct  and 
was  so  good  a  judge  of  standing  timber  that  he 
was  sent  out  by  Weston  Lewis  as  a  buyer  of 
timber  tracts  in  the  Rangeley  Lakes  section.  As 
he  reached  years  of  legal  responsibility  he  was 
admitted  to  several  of  his  father's  railroad  enter- 
prises and  became  very  familiar  with  banking 
operations.  He  remained  with  his  father  until 
1905,  then  went  to  Oregon,  where  in  the  thirteen 
years  of  life  yet  remaining  to  him  he  became  very 
prominent  as  a  banking  and  business  man.  He 
established  a  bank  at  Rainier,  a  town  of  Columbia 
county,  Oregon,  on  the  Columbia  river,  fifty  miles 
north  of  Portland;  another  at  White  Salmon, 
Klickitat  county,  Washington;  and  was  in  charge 
of  the  Columbia  river  agency  of  the  Dupont  Pow- 
der Company.  He  owned  a  large  farm  at  War- 
ren, Columbia  county,  Oregon,  and  there  in  1916 
he  erected  a  handsome  country  residence,  remov- 
ing thence  from  Portland,  which  had  been  his 
home  ever  since  locating  in  Oregon.  His  home 
in  Portland  was  in  that  part  of  the  city  known 
as  Portland  Heights,  opposite  Mt.  Hood.  He 
was  a  business  man  of  high  ability,  energetic, 


clear-visioned  and  fearless  in  following  where  his 
judgment  led. 

Mr.  Lewis  was  a  Democrat  in  politics,  and  loyal 
in  his  party  allegiance,  but  public  life  held  no  at- 
traction for  him,  and  he  persistently  refused  nom- 
ination for  political  office.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Oregon  Home  Guard,  ranking  as  major,  and 
prominent  in  the  Masonic  order,  holding  the 
thirty-second  degree  of  the  Ancient  Accepted 
Scottish  Rite,  and  was  affiliated  with  lodge,  chap- 
ter and  commandery  of  the  York  Rite;  also  was 
a  noble  of  the  Mystic  Shrine.  His  club  was  the 
Portland,  of  Portland,  and  his  religious  faith  that 
of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  church. 

Carleton  Lewis  married,  December  31,  1902, 
Elizabeth  S.  Clark,  daughter  of  Charles  W.  Clark, 
of  Markesan,  Green  Lake  county,  Wisconsin. 


FREDERICK  VIVIAN  MATTHEWS  is  a 
member  of  an  old  and  distinguished  family  of 
Maine,  which  for  four  generations  made  its  home 
in  Boothbay,  where  it  was  founded  by  John 
Matthews  about  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury. Tradition  is  that  he  was  a  son  of  Samuel 
R.  Matthews,  the  immigrant  ancestor,  who  cam* 
to  this  country  from  England,  some  time  prior 
to  1631.  This  ancestor  was  Francis  Matthews, 
who  was  of  Portsmouth,  New  Hampshire,  in  that 
year,  of  Oyster  River  in  1633,  of  Exeter  in  1639- 
46,  and  who  moved  t*  Dover,  New  Hampshire, 
in  1647,  where  for  four  generations  the  family 
remained  residents. 

John  Matthews,  of  Boothbay,  was  born  about 
1730,  or  possibly  as  late  as  1735,  and  is  recorded 
to  have  been  the  owner  of  a  farm  of  two  hun- 
dred acres  on  the  shore  of  Back  river,  opposite 
Barter's  island,  in  what  was  then  known  as 
Townsend,  but  is  now  Boothbay,  Maine,  having 
undoubtedly  come  to  Boothbay  with  the  colony 
known  as  the  "Dover  District,"  settled  about 
1757.  We  have  also  a  record  of  his  marriage 
at  Georgetown,  August  29,  1764,  when  he  was 
united  in  marriage  with  Janette  Barter,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Samuel  Barter,  of  Dover,  New  Hampshire, 
and  later  of  Townsend  or  Boothbay,  Maine,  and  a 
descendant  of  Henry  Barter,  who  came  from 
England  with  William  Pepperell,  in  1675,  and  set- 
tled at  Crockett's  Neck,  in  Kittery,  Maine.  From 
John  and  Janette  (Barter)  Matthews  the  line  de- 
scends through  Captain  John  Matthews,  who 
married,  April  15,  1804,  Rebecca  Southard,  of 
Boothbay,  born  March  17,  1786;  Alfred  Matthews, 
grandfather,  and  Captain  Elbridge  Matthews, 
father  of  the  Mr.  Matthews  of  this  sketch. 

Alfred  Matthews,  grandfather  of  Frederick  V. 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


125 


Matthews,  was  born  in  Boothbay,  Maine,  August 
3,  1806,  and  died  January  26,  1879.  He  was  a 
prominent  man  in  Boothbay,  was  a  carpenter  by 
trade,  was  the  owner  of  a  large  farm  in  Booth- 
bay,  and  occasionally  made  sea  voyages,  becom- 
ing very  well  acquainted  with  the  coast  of  New 
England.  He  was  twice  married,  his  first  wife, 
Charlotte  (Dunton)  Matthews,  born  September 
22,  1805,  daughter  of  Timothy  Dunton,  Jr.,  and 
Margaret  (Pinkham)  Dunton,  of  Boothbay,  being 
the  mother  of  all  his  children,  as  follows:  Ed- 
ward, born  November  16,  1830,  lost  at  sea  in 
1851;  Rebecca,  born  December  26,  1832,  became 
the  wife  of  Sewall  Wylie;  Georgianna,  born  Sep- 
tember I,  1837,  and  married  Llewellyn  Baker; 
Elbridgc,  of  further  mention;  and  Byron  C.,  born 
March  31,  1845,  now  (1917)  residing  in  Booth- 
bay. 

Captain  Elbridge  Matthews,  father  of  Frederick 
V.  Matthews,  was  born  at  Boothbay,  Maine,  Oc- 
tober 24,  1840,  died  January  29,  1917.  The  child- 
hood associations  with  his  grandfather,  Captain 
John  Matthews,  inspired  in  him  a  strong  love 
of  the  sea,  and  filled  his  mind  with  all  manner  of 
tales  and  legends  concerning  not  only  his  own 
adventures,  but  the  entire  great  body  of  tradition 
which  has  sprung  up  about  the  life  of  a  sailor. 
While  still  little  more  than  a  child,  he  shipped  as 
cabin  boy  on  board  a  brig,  to  gain  for  himself  a 
first-hand  knowledge  of  this  romantic  way  of 
life.  He  displayed  aptness,  and  worked  his  way 
up  so  rapidly  that  when  only  twenty-two  years 
of  age  he  was  placed  in  command  of  a  vessel. 
He  sailed  as  master  of  several  vessels  for  a  period 
of  twenty-four  years,  and  met  with  many  adven- 
tures and  thrilling  escapes,  including  fire  and  a 
collision  with  a  steamship,  but  he  never  lost  a 
vessel.  In  1886  he  retired  from  the  sea  and 
established  himself  in  the  grain  and  feed  busi- 
ness at  South  Portland,  Maine.  Eight  years  later 
his  place  was  destroyed  by  fire,  but  he  rebuilt  it 
and  continued  his  successful  career.  He  extended 
his  business,  opening  branch  establishments,  the 
first  in  Portland,  in  1892,  and  another  at  Wood- 
fords,  the  same  year,  in  1899  retiring  entirely 
from  business  life.  He  built  a  large  residence 
on  Pleasant  avenue,  Portland,  in  1898.  Being 
active  in  public  affairs,  he  served  two  years  as 
alderman,  icpresenting  his  ward  in  Deering.  Cap- 
tain Matthews  was  affiliated  with  Fraternity 
Lodge  and  Machigonne  Encampment,  Independ- 
ent Order  of  Odd  Fellows;  Lincoln  Lodge,  Free 
and  Accepted  Masons,  of  Wiscasset,  Maine;  and 
the  Improved  Order  of  Red  Men.  Captain  Mat- 
thews married  (first)  Lovesta  Hodgdon,  born 


November  19,  1839,  twelfth  child  of  Timothy 
and  Frances  (Tibbets)  Hodgdon,  of  Boothbay, 
and  they  were  the  parents  of  the  following  chil- 
dren: Frederick  Vivian,  of  further  mention; 
Chester,  born  November  8,  1866,  died  in  1915; 
Genevieve,  born  August  4,  1870;  Leslie  Mitchell, 
died  in  infancy;  Florence  Lovesta,  born  Febru- 
ary 27,  1883.  The  mother  of  these  children  died 
March  9,  1883.  Captain  Matthews  married  (sec- 
ond) October  20,  1884,  Florence  D.  Hodgdon, 
niece  of  his  first  wife,  and  a  daughter  of  Zina 
H.  and  Rhinda  (Reed)  Hodgdon,  of  Boothbay. 
They  are  the  parents  of  one  child,  Marion  Laura, 
born  July  n,  1886;  married  Lester  M.  Hart,  ot 
Portland,  Maine. 

Frederick  Vivian  Matthews  was  born  at  Booth- 
bay,  Maine,  September  2,  1865,  and  there  passed 
his  early  childhood.  In  1873  his  parents  came 
to  Deering,  now  a  part  of  Portland,  and  the  lad 
gained  his  education  in  the  public  schools  of  that 
city  and  at  Hebron  Academy,  graduating  from 
the  high  school  in  1883,  and  from  the  academy 
the  following  year.  He  then  went  to  South 
America,  but  at  the  expiration  of  a  year  returned. 
He  then  matriculated  at  Colby  University,  where 
he  remained  two  years,  and  then  entered  the  law 
office  of  Drummond  &  Drummond,  distinguished 
members  of  the  Maine  bar.  He  was  admitted  to 
the  Maine  bar  in  October,  1889,  and  at  once 
opened  an  office  for  the  practice  of  his  profession 
at  No.  306  Congress  street,  Portland,  his  present 
address,  and  in  the  meantime  has  built  up  a  lucra- 
tive practice.  For  several  years  he  held  the  office 
of  secretary  of  the  Republican  City  Committee, 
which  has  frequently  sent  him  as  a  delegate  to 
the  party  conventions  in  various  parts  of  the 
country.  From  1888  to  1891  he  held  the  office 
of  collector  of  Deering,  and  after  the  incorpora- 
tion of  that  town  as  a  city,  in  1892,  he  served  as 
a  member  of  the  Board  of  Registration.  Other 
offices  which  he  held  were  those  of  City  Solicitor 
and  a  number  of  minor  posts  in  the  city  govern- 
ment. He  was  one  of  the  most  active  advocates 
of  the  project  to  annex  Deering  to  the  city  of 
Portland,  and  served  as  chairman  of  the  annexa- 
tion committee  of  Deering,  in  which  capacity  he 
successfully  conducted  the  campaign  which  event- 
ually resulted  in  that  action  being  taken.  It  was 
he  who  presented  the  matter  to  the  Legislative 
Committee  during  the  session  of  that  body  in 
1809,  when  the  measure  was  finally  passed.  Mr. 
Matthews  is  a  member  of  the  American  Bar  Asso- 
ciation, serving  as  a  member  for  Maine  of  the 
General  Council  for  a  term.  He  is  also  a  mem- 
ber of  Deering  Lodge,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted 


126 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Masons;  Fraternity  Lodge  and  Una  Encamp- 
ment, of  Portland,  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows;  the  Portland  Club;  the  Maine  His- 
torical Society;  and  Maine  Genealogical  Society. 
For  many  years  he  has  been  associated  with  the 
State  Street  Congregational  Church,  of  Portland, 
and  is  a  member  of  the  State  Street  Parish  Club, 
and  the  Congregational  Club  of  Portland,  also 
serving  as  the  secretary  of  the  latter  for  seven 
years.  In  1914  Colby  University  conferred  upon 
him  the  honorary  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  for 
distingished  attainment  in  his  profession. 

Mr.  Matthews  married,  June  25,  1890,  Annie  B. 
Harmon,  daughter  of  Treuman  and  Harriett 
(Files)  Harmon,  and  a  member  of  an  old  and  dis- 
tinguished Maine  family.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harmon 
are  deceased.  Mrs.  Matthews,  through  her 
mother's  family,  is  descended  from  Colonel  Rog- 
ers and  his  son,  who  came  to  this  country  in  the 
Mayflower,  1620.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Matthews  are  the 
parents  of  a  daughter,  Vivien  Harmon,  born  Au- 
gust 14,  1895;  she  was  a  pupil  of  the  Waynflete 
School  at  Portland,  for  some  seven  years,  then 
attended  the  Ossining  School,  at  Ossining-on- 
the-Hudson,  New  York,  two  years,  from  which 
she  was  graduated  with  the  class  of  1914,  later 
attending  Wheaton  College,  at  Norton,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  now  (1917)  makes  her  home  with 
her  parents  at  Portland. 


JOSEPH  BLAKE  DRUMMOND,  M.D.— The 
name  Drummond  is  of  ancient  Scottish  origin 
and  the  family  which  bears  it  has  played  a  very 
distinguished  part  in  the  intellectual  development 
of  Scotland,  many  of  its  members  having  been 
prominent  in  the  various  departments  of  science, 
art,  literature  and  philosophy.  The  same  charac- 
teristics which  have  marked  so  conspicuously  the 
Drummonds  in  their  native  land  have  followed 
that  branch  of  the  family  which  migrated  to 
America,  and  are  still  in  their  possession  in  the 
New  World.  Among  the  famous  Drummonds  of 
the  past  should  be  mentioned  William  Drum- 
mond, of  Hawthornden  (1585-1641),  a  contempo- 
rary and  friend  of  Ben  Jonson,  and  himself  a 
poet  of  charm  and  power.  Another  Drummond 
who  has  won  a  world-wide  reputation  is  Henry 
Drummond,  theologian  and  scientist  and  the  au- 
thor of  many  important  philosophical  works. 

The  progenitor  of  the  family  in  America  was 
one  Alexander  Drummond,  who  came  to  this 
country  from  the  north  of  Ireland,  to  which 
either  he  or  his  parents  had  migrated  from  Scot- 
land, and  who  was  a  staunch  Scotch  Presbyterian 
in  religious  belief.  At  the  time  of  his  coming  to 


America,  in  1729,  he  was  a  man  well  advanced  in 
years  and  brought  with  him  a  family  of  grown- 
up children,  to  say  nothing  of  a  number  of  grand- 
children. The  purpose  of  his  migration  to  this 
country  was  his  desire  for  a  greater  religious 
freedom  than  could  be  found  in  the  Old  World 
at  that  time,  and  here  it  is  to  be  supposed  that 
he  discovered  what  he  sought.  From  him  the 
line  runs  through  Patrick,  John,  John  (2),  Clark, 
Josiah  Hayden,  to  Josiah  Hayden,  Jr.,  the  father 
of  the  Dr.  Drummond  of  this  sketch. 

The  first  Josiah  Hayden  Drummond  was  a  very 
capable  attorney  and  a  leader  of  the  bar  in  the 
State  of  Maine.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Water- 
ville  College,  and  played  so  prominent  a  part  in 
the  life  of  his  community  that  he  received  the 
honorary  degree  of  LL.D.  both  from  his  alma 
mater  and  Colby  University.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Maine  Legislature  for  three  terms  and 
served  as  president  of  that  body  for  two  of  them, 
and  he  was  also  State  Senator  and  Attorney  Gen- 
eral of  the  State.  He  was  a  very  prominent  Free 
Mason,  was  grand  master  of  the  local  lodge,  Free 
and  Accepted  Masons,  grand  high  priest  of  the 
Royal  Arch  Masons,  grand  master  of  the  Royal 
and  Select  Masters,  grand  commander  of  the 
Knights  Templar  of  the  State  of  Maine,  and  also 
held  the  offices  of  general  grand  high  priest  of 
General  Grand  Chapter,  United  States  of  America, 
general  grand  master  of  the  Grand  Council, 
United  States  of  America,  and  grand  commander 
of  Supreme  Council,  Thirty-third  North  Masonic 
Jurisdiction,  United  States  of  America,  for  twelve 
years,  and  was  chairman  of  committee  on  foreign 
correspondence  of  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine  for 
twenty-seven  years.  He  was  a  brother  of  Everett 
Richard  Drummond,  also  a  distinguished  attorney 
and  prominent  Free  Mason,  and  one  of  the  most 
influential  Methodists  of  the  State.  Josiah  Hay- 
den Drummond  married,  December  10,  1850,  El- 
zada  Rollins  Bean,  a  daughter  of  Benjamin  and 
Lucetta  (Foster)  Bean,  of  New  York. 

Josiah  Hadyen  Drummond,  Jr.,  son  of  Josiah 
Hayden  and  Elzada  Rollins  (Bean)  Drummond, 
was  born  at  Winslow,  Maine.  He  was  educated 
in  the  public  schools  of  his  native  region,  and 
following  in  his  father's  footsteps  took  up  the 
profession  of  law.  He  made  his  home  in  Port- 
land, Maine,  and  there  followed  the  practice  of 
his  profession  with  a  high  degree  of  success  dur- 
ing the  major  part  of  his  life,  and  was  recognized 
as  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  bar  in  Cumberland 
county.  He  married  Sallie  T.  Blake. 

Dr.  Joseph  Blake  Drummond  was  born  July  12, 
1884,  at  Portland,  Maine,  son  of  Josiah  Hayden, 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


127 


Jr.,  and  Sallie  T.  (Blake)  Drummond.  The  pre- 
liminary portion  of  his  education  was  received  in 
the  local  public  schools,  and  he  graduated  from 
the  high  school  there  in  1903  and  was  there  pre- 
pared for  college.  In  the  autumn  of  the  same 
year  he  matriculated  at  Bowdoin  College,  where 
he  established  a  very  high  record  for  character 
and  scholarship  and  was  graduated  with  the  class 
of  1907.  Not  only  did  he  attract  the  favorable 
regard  of  his  masters  and  professors,  but  he  was 
also  a  popular  figure  with  his  fellow  undergradu- 
ates and  was  a  member  of  the  college  fraternity 
of  Kappa  Epsilon.  Coming  from  a  family  in 
which  professional  life  was  the  tradition,  Mr. 
Drummond  himself  decided  on  such  a  career,  but 
instead  of  following  that  of  the  law,  with  which 
several  generations  of  his  ancestors  had  been 
associates,  he  took  up  medicine,  determining  to 
make  this  his  career  in  life.  With  this  end  in 
view,  he  entered  the  Bowdoin  Medical  School, 
immediately  upon  graduating  from  the  classical 
course  in  the  same  institution,  and  here  studied 
until  1910,  when  he  was  graduated  with  the  de- 
gree of  Doctor  of  Medicine.  Since  that  time  he 
has  been  in  active  practice  in  the  city  of  Port- 
land, where  he  has  met  with  a  most  marked  and 
well-merited  success,  and  now  enjoys  the  patron- 
age of  a  large  and  high-class  clientage.  Dr. 
Drummond  is  regarded  as  among  the  leaders  of 
the  medical  profession  in  the  city  and  by  the 
community-at-large.  He  is  highly  interested  in 
general  medical  affairs,  and  is  a  member  of  the 
Cumberland  County  Medical  Society,  the  Maine 
Medical  Association,  the  American  Medical  Asso- 
ciation and  the  Portland  Medical  Club.  Dr. 
Drummond  is  also  active  in  many  other  non- 
professional  organizations  and  is  a  member  of  the 
Portland  Club,  the  Rotary  Club  and  the  Cumber- 
land Club,  all  of  Portland.  In  his  religious  belief 
he  is  a  Congregationalist  and  is  a  member  of  the 
State  Street  Church  of  that  denomination. 

On  December  14,  1911,  Dr.  Drummond  married, 
at  Augusta,  Maine,  Katherine  Murray  Randall,  a 
daughter  of  Ira  Sturgis  and  Evangeline  (Mur- 
ray) Randall,  members  of  old  and  honorable 
Maine  families. 

Medicine  is  an  exacting  mistress  to  those  who 
follow  her,  but  though  exacting  she  brings  her 
rewards.  Of  her  votaries  she  demands  from  first 
to  last  that  they  make  themselves  students,  nor 
will  she  excuse  them  from  this  necessity,  how- 
soever far  they  may  progress  in  knowledge.  Of 
them,  too,  she  will  have  the  strictest  adherence 
to  her  standards,  the  closest  observation  of  the 
etiquette  she  has  approved,  so  that  one  should 


not  inconsiderately  pledge  himself  to  her  cause. 
If,  however,  after  learning  all  these  things,  he 
still  feels  a  devotion  to  her  strong  enough  for 
him  to  brave  them,  then  let  him  undertake  her 
adventure,  satisfied  that,  pursued  boldly  and  dili- 
gently, it  will  lead  him  eventually  to  some  fair 
port,  to  some  well-favored  place  in  the  world's 
esteem.  It  is  perhaps  this,  as  much  as  any  other 
matter,  that  makes  it  the  choice  of  so  many  of 
our  young  men  as  a  career  in  life,  a  throng 
so  great  that  all  complain  of  its  overcrowding, 
and  yet  a  throng  that  continues  to  increase.  It 
is  this,  this  not  unwarrantable  imagination  that  it 
eventually  leads  somewhere,  more  than  the  pure 
love  of  the  subject  itself,  that  makes  this  road  so 
well  traveled.  Yet  there  are  some  who  possess  a 
pure  love  of  medicine  for  its  own  sake,  even  in 
this  day  and  generation,  some  who  would  regard 
it  as  well  worth  their  best  efforts  even  though 
it  were  an  end  and  not  a  means,  a  road  that 
existed  for  its  own  sake  and  led  nowhither.  Such 
is  undoubtedly  true  in  the  case  of  Dr.  Joseph 
Blake  Drummond,  a  profound  student  of  medi- 
cine and  an  ardent  lover  of  its  traditions  and  its 
methods. 


HON.  EDWARD  BOWDOIN  NEALLEY— 
One  of  the  best-known  figures  in  the  life  of  Ban- 
gor,  Maine,  where  he  was  identified  with  almost 
every  department  of  the  city's  affairs  and  where 
his  death  occurred  September  20,  1905,  was  the 
Hon.  Edward  Bowdoin  Nealley,  who  was  highly 
respected  and  esteemed  by  the  entire  community 
which  he  served  so  long  and  in  so  many  differ- 
ent capacities.  Mr.  Nealley  was  born  July  22, 
1837,  at  Thomaston,  Maine,  a  son  of  the  Hon.  E. 
S.  J.  and  Lucy  (Prince)  Nealley,  the  former  for 
twenty  years  collector  of  customs  for  the  Port 
of  Bath,  and  a  prominent  man  in  State  politics. 

As  a  lad  he  attended  the  public  schools  of  Bath 
and  was  graduated  from  the  high  school  there 
with  the  class  of  1854.  He  also  attended  Yar- 
mouth Academy,  where  he  was  prepared  for  col- 
lege, and  then  entered  Bowdoin  College,  where 
he  took  the  usual  classical  course  and  was  gradu- 
ated in  1858  with  the  degree  of  A.B.  In  1861, 
upon  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  Mr.  Nealley 
offered  his  services  to  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment, having  spent  the  interim  in  the  study  of 
the  law  with  his  uncle,  Senator  Grimes,  in  Iowa. 
He  was  appointed  to  a  clerkship  in  the  Navy 
Department,  at  Washington,  and  after  a  time  was 
promoted  to  the  chief  clerkship  of  one  of  the 
bureaus  connected  therewith.  After  the  close  of 
hostilities,  Mr.  Nealley  returned  to  private  life 


128 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


and  became  first  United  States  District  Attorney 
for  the  territory  of  Montana,  being  appointed  to 
that  office  by  President  Lincoln.  While  in  Mon- 
tana Mr.  Nealley  wrote  a  number  of  very  interest- 
ing and  illuminating  articles  descriptive  of  that 
new  and  sparsely-settled  territory  which  appeared 
in  the  Atlantic  Monthly,  Lippincott's,  and  other 
magazines  of  the  same  description.  In  the  year 

1866  he  was  sent  East  by  Governor  Meagher  on 
territorial  business  and  decided  to  remain  in  this 
part  of  the  country.     He  first  came  to  Bangor  in 

1867  and  here  established  himself  in  the  ship  chan- 
dlery business,  dealing  also  in  cordage,  and  con- 
tinued in  this  line  up  to  the  time  of  his  death. 
In  this  enterprise  he  was  associated  with  several 
other    gentlemen    and    the    firm    name    was    first 
Smith,  Nealley  &  Company.    This  was  afterwards 
changed  to  Hincks  &  Nealley  and  later  became 
Nealley  &  Company.   Still  more  recently  the  busi- 
ness was  conducted  under  the  style  of  the  Snow 
&  Nealley  Company,  in  which  Mr.  Nealley  occu- 
pied the  office  of  treasurer.    This  concern  has  had 
a    long    and    successful    career   and    the    position 
which  it  occupies  today  in  the  public  estimation 
has   been    due   largely   to    the    devoted   attention 
which   Mr.   Nealley   gave   to   its   affairs.     Besides 
this  private   enterprise   Mr.  Nealley  was   exceed- 
ingly   active    in    many    large    business    ventures 
hereabouts,     and     was     president     of     the     Mer- 
chants'    Insurance    Company,    treasurer    of    the 
Hincks    Coal    Company    and    a    director    of    the 
European   &  North  American  Railway,  in  all  of 
which    capacities    he    did    much    to    promote    not 
only    the    interests   of   the    concerns   with   which 
he   was   immediately   identified,  but   the   material 
welfare  of  the  community-at-large.     He  was  also 
president   of   the   Bangor   Historical   Society  and 
a    prominent    member   of   the    Bangor    Board   of 
Trade,  and  performed  a  valuable   service  to  the 
community  in  this  capacity. 

Mr.  Nealley  did  not,  however,  confine  his  at- 
tention to  business  activities,  but  was  always 
prominently  associated  with  charitable  and  phil- 
anthropic institutions  here.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  Bangor  Public 
Library  and  of  the  board  of  overseers  of  Bow- 
doin  College,  and  was  a  well-known  figure  in 
educational  circles.  He  was  also  president  of 
the  Tarratine  Club  of  Bangor  for  several  years. 
Mr.  Nealley  was,  however,  perhaps  even  better 
known  in  connection  with  his  active  political  and 
public  career  than  as  a  business  man  and  was 
regarded  as  one  of  the  leading  members  of  the 
Republican  party  in  this  region  and  held  a  num- 
ber of  offices  both  in  the  city  and  State  govern- 


ment. In  7876  he  was  chosen  a  Representative 
of  the  Legislature  from  Bangor  and  enjoyed  the 
distinction  of  being  the  only  Republican  elected 
on  the  ticket  that  year.  While  serving  on  this 
body  he  made  an  enviable  reputation  for  him- 
self as  a  capable  legislator  and  on  his  re-elec- 
tion was  chosen  Speaker  of  the  House,  against 
such  formidable  opponents  as  ex-Governor 
Henry  B.  Cleves  and  the  Hon.  J.  Manchester 
Haynes,  of  Augusta.  In  1878  he  was  elected  to 
the  State  Senate  and  was  renominated  for  the 
few  following  terms,  but  was  one  of  those  who 
suffered  defeat  at  the  time  of  the  great  Green- 
back movement  in  Maine.  In  the  year  1885  he 
was  elected  the  thirty-first  mayor  of  Bangor 
against  Thomas  White,  the  Democratic  candi- 
date, and  was  reflected  the  following  year.  Dur- 
ing the  last  illness  of  Charles  A.  Boutelle,  Con- 
gressman, Mr.  Nealley  was  offered  the  nomina- 
tion as  successor  to  Mr.  Boutelle,  in  case  of  the 
latter's  death,  which  position  he  refused.  Among 
his  other  activities  Mr.  Nealley  was  president 
of  the  Bangor  &  Piscataquis  railroad  in  1887, 
and  in  that  capacity  was  instrumental  in  secur- 
ing the  lease  of  the  Katahdin  Iron  Works  Rail- 
way, and  later  in  promoting  the  transfer  of  the 
whole  system  to  the  Bangor  &  Aroostook  rail- 
road. In  association  with  Mr.  George  E. 
Hughes,  of  Bath,  Mr.  Nealley  was  a  founder  of 
McClelland  Island,  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
summer  resorts  on  the  Maine  coast.  Mr.  Neal- 
ley was  a  gifted  orator  and  frequently  in  demand 
on  occasions  when  patriotic  addresses  were  ap- 
propriate. It  was  he  that  delivered  the  address 
at  the  celebration  of  the  organization  of  the 
town  of  Thomaston  in  1877,  and  he  also  deliv- 
ered the  oration  at  the  Centennial  celebration 
in  Bangor  in  1881. 

At  the  time  of  his  death  the  following  tribute 
appeared  which  sums  up  the  characteristics  of 
the  man: 

A  man  of  large  mental  capacity,  a  deep  student 
with  marked  literary  tastes  and  broad  human 
sympathy,  he  was  universally  beloved  by  all  who 
knew  him.  In  his  home,  in  society,  in  politics, 
and  in  business  his  life  was  marked  by  kindliness 
and  courtesy,  traits  which  won  and  kept  for  him 
life-long  friends.  His  entire  honesty,  business  in- 
tegrity and  high  ability  were  some  of  his  chief 
characteristics.  He  had  that  sort  of  personal 
magnetism  which  held  his  audiences,  and  his  in- 
born courtesy  and  manliness  won  him  admiration 
and  supporters  everywhere. 

The  Hon.  Edward  Bowdoin  Nealley  was  united 
in  marriage,  June  n,  1867,  with  Mary  A.  Drum- 
mond,  daughter  of  the  Hon.  Jacob  Drummond, 
a  former  mayor  of  Bangor.  Mrs.  Nealley  died 


(L 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


129 


in  1877.  He  is  survived  by  an  only  daughter, 
Mary  Drummond  Nealley,  two  brothers,  William 
P.  Nealley,  of  Bangor,  and  Henry  Alison  Neal- 
ley, of  Boston,  and  one  sister,  Mrs.  John  Greg- 
son,  of  Bath. 


MINOT  JUDSON  SAVAGE,  D.D.— This  cele- 
brated member  of  the  literate  of  the  country 
was  descended  from  English  ancestry.  The 
emigrant  ancestor  of  the  Savage  family  was 
Thomas  Savage,  born  in  1603,  a  son  of  William 
Savage,  a  blacksmith  of  Taunton,  Somersetshire, 
England.  The  family  lived  in  that  county  as 
early  as  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  History 
states  that  the  original  emigrant  sailed  from  the 
parish  of  St.  Albans  in  the  Planter,  April  2,  1635, 
and  landed  at  Boston,  Massachusetts.  He  was 
by  trade  a  tailor,  being  'apprenticed  to  the 
Merchant  Tailors,  London,  England,  January  9, 
1621.  He  was  admitted  to  the  church,  January 
3,  1636,  and  became  a  freeman,  May  25,  1636. 
He  married  (first)  Faith  Hutchinson,  baptized 
August  14,  1617,  daughter  of  William  and  the 
famous  Ann  Hutchinson,  of  Boston.  Savage 
shared  in  the  religious  views  of  Mrs.  Hutchin- 
son and  John  Wheelwright  and  as  a  punishment 
was  disowned  by  the  authorities.  He  was  one 
of  the  original  purchasers  with  Governor  Cod- 
dington  and  others  of  Rhode  Island,  where  he 
settled  in  1638.  He  was  one  of  the  signers  of 
the  constitution  of  that  colony,  but  preferring 
Boston  with  its  persecutions  to  the  wilds  of 
Rhode  Island,  he  sold  his  real  estate  holdings 
in  August,  1639,  and  again  became  a  resident  of 
the  Massachusetts  Colony.  He  became  a  promi- 
nent and  wealthy  merchant,  and  was  captain  of 
a  Boston  military  company  in  1651.  He  was  a 
deputy  to  the  General  Court  in  1654  from  Bos- 
ton, and  later  from  Hingham  and  Andover;  was 
Speaker  of  the  House  in  1659-60-71,  and  assistant 
in  1680.  His  first  wife's  death  occurred  Feb- 
ruary 20,  1652,  and  he  married  (second),  Sep- 
tember 15,  1652,  Mary,  daughter  of  Rev.  Zacha- 
riah  Symmes,  of  Charlestown,  Massachusetts. 
Captain  Savage  became  interested  in  lands  at 
Saco,  Maine,  and  purchased  a  large  tract  from 
the  Indians.  He  also  bought,  January  28,  1659, 
of  Roger  Spencer,  an  interest  in  a  saw  mill 
located  near  the  great  falls  of  Saco  river.  Ten 
years  later  he  increased  his  holdings  in  the  saw 
mill  and  made  purchases  of  land  three  miles  in 
extent  along  both  sides  of  the  river.  From  that 
time  to  the  present  day  the  Savage  family  have 
been  prominently  identified  with  the  history  of 
Maine. 

ME.— 1—9 


Minot  Judson  Savage  was  a  descendant  of 
James  Savage,  who  came  from  London  to  Bos- 
ton about  1715.  He  was  a  son  of  Joseph  and 
Ann  S.  (Stinson)  Savage,  and  was  born  at  Nor- 
ridgewock,  Maine,  June  10,  1841.  His  father 
was  a  farmer  in  moderate  circumstances,  and  a 
soldier  in  the  War  of  1812.  At  the  age  of  thir- 
teen years  he  united  with  the  Congregational 
church  and  since  said:  "There  was  no  time  in 
my  boyhood  when  I  did  not  intend  to  become  a 
minister."  At  this  period  it  was  not  deemed 
essential  for  a  clergyman  to  have  a  collegiate 
education.  Being  ambitious  in  that  direction,  he 
fitted  for  Bowdoin  College,  but  ill-health  inter- 
fered materially  with  his  studies,  and  for  this 
reason  he  was  obliged  to  forego  a  college  educa- 
tion. Later  he  took  a  theological  course  at  the 
Bangor  Theological  Seminary.  He  accepted,  in 
1864,  a  commission  from  the  American  Home 
Missionary  Society,  and  for  three  years  did  hard 
missionary  work  at  San  Mateo  and  Grass  Valley, 
California.  Returning  East  in  1867,  he  settled 
at  Framingham,  Massachusetts.  In  1864  he  mar- 
ried Ella  Augusta  Dodge,  daughter  of  Rev.  John 
Dodge,  a  Congregational  minister,  and  grand- 
daughter of  Hon.  Godfrey  Dodge,  a  Judge  of  the 
State  Supreme  Court.  She  was  a  native  of  Wald- 
boro,  Maine.  After  a  residence  of  two  years  at 
Framingham,  Massachusetts,  Mr.  Savage  again 
went  West  and  labored  for  the  next  three  years 
at  Hannibal,  Missouri.  He  was  constantly  read- 
ing and  studying  science,  and  found  his  views 
broadening  and  himself  drifting  away  from  the 
established  Congregational  creed.  He  made  ef- 
forts to  adjust  his  religious  thought  to  the 
newly-discovered  theories  of  evolution,  but  be- 
came known  at  Hannibal  as  a  heretic,  while  he 
himself  fully  recognized  that  his  views  were  no 
longer  orthodox. 

About  this  time  he  received  calls  from  the 
Congregational  churches  in  Indianapolis,  Indiana, 
and  Springfield,  Illinois,  also  from  the  Third 
Unitarian  Church  of  Chicago.  Feeling  that  with 
his  convictions  it  was  wrong  to  stay  in  the  Con- 
gregational body,  he  determined  to  break  away 
from  it,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  he  was  bound 
to  it  by  every  natural  tie  and  by  memory.  He 
accordingly  accepted  the  call  to  the  Chicago 
church,  in  the  hope  that  he  would  find  in  Uni- 
tarianism  at  least  a  free  pulpit.  In  May,  1874, 
he  went  to  Boston  to  speak  at  the  May  meet- 
ing, and  his  sermons  attracted  so  much  atten- 
tion that  he  was  soon  afterwards  called  to  the 
Church  of  the  Unity  in  that  city.  He  assumed 
the  pastorate  in  September,  1874,  which  he  held 


130 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


with  uninterrupted  increase  of  usefulness  and 
popularity  until  1896,  when  he  received  a  call 
from  the  Church  of  the  Messiah  of  New  York 
City.  He  had  pastoral  charge  of  this  church  for 
the  next  ten  years,  when  he  retired  from  the 
ministry.  He  received  the  degree  of  D.D.  from 
Harvard  College  in  1896.  Dr.  Savage  was  well 
known  in  the  lecture  field  of  the  country,  hav- 
ing delivered  a  number  of  addresses  at  the  Bos- 
ton Lyceum  and  more  or  less  for  several  years 
in  the  different  cities  in  the  West. 

His  sermons  were  published  every  week  for 
over  thirty  years.  On  this  account  the  publica- 
tion had  regular  subscribers  in  every  civilized 
country.  The  sermons  were  read  in  India, 
Hawaiian  Islands,  even  in  the  colony  of  Tas- 
mania; in  fact,  in  the  most  isolated  parts  of  the1 
world. 

It  is  by  his  valuable  contributions  to  literature 
that  Dr.  Savage  is  best  known.  His  first  book, 
"Christianity,  the  Science  of  Manhood,"  appeared 
in  1873;  this  was  followed  three  years  later  by 
"The  Religion  of  Evolution,"  and  in  the  same 
year  "Light  on  the  Cloud"  was  published.  These 
early  books  were  followed  by  "Bluffton,"  a 
story  of  today,  1878;  "Life  Questions,"  1879; 
"The  Morals  of  Evolution,"  1880;  "Beliefs  About 
Man,"  1882;  "Beliefs  About  the  Bible,"  1883; 
"Man,  Woman  and  Child,"  1884;  "The  Religious 
Life,"  1885;  "Social  Problems,"  1886;  "These  De- 
generate Days,"  1887;  "My  Creed,"  1887;  "Relig- 
ious Reconstructions,"  1888;  "Signs  of  the 
Times,"  1889;  "Helps  for  Daily  Living,"  1891; 
"The  Irrepressible  Conflict  Between  Two  World 
Theories,"  1891;  "The  Evolution  of  Christianity," 
1892;  "Is  This  a  Good  World?"  1893;  "Jesus  and 
Modern  Life,"  1893;  "A  Man,"  1895;  "Religion 
for  Today,"  1897;  "Our  Unitarian  Gospel,"  1898; 
"Hymns,"  1898;.  "The  Minister's  Hand  Book," 
"Phychics,  Facts  and  Theories,"  "Life  Beyond 
Death,"  1901;  "The  Passing  and  the  Permanent 
in  Religion,"  1901;  "Living  by  the  Day,"  1900; 
"Men  and  Women,"  1902;  "Can  Telepathy  Ex- 
plain?" 1902;  "Out  of  Nazareth,"  1903;  "Pillars 
of  the  Temple,"  1904;  "America  to  England  and 
Other  Poems,"  1905;  "Life's  Dark  Problems," 
1005.  He  also  edited  a  Unitarian  Catechism,  and 
with  Howard  M.  Dow,  "Sacred  Songs  for  Public 
Worship." 

Dr.  Savage  was,  so  far  as  known,  the  first 
minister  either  in  England  or  America  to  sys- 
tematically employ  the  theories  of  evolution  in 
the  pulpit.  Two  of  his  books  embodying  some 
of  the  results  of  his  labors  in  this  line,  the 
"Morals  of  Evolution"  and  the  "Religion  of  Evo- 


lution," have  been  reissued  in  England,  and  the 
latter  was  translated  into  German  by  Dr. 
Schramm  of  the  Cathedral  at  Bremen.  In  the 
pulpit  Dr.  Savage  had  a  peculiarly  attractive 
style  that  at  once  claimed  the  attention  of  his 
audience,  and  though  in  many  matters  he  found 
himself  quite  at  variance  with  ministers,  not 
only  of  orthodox  faith,  but  also  of  his  own  de- 
nomination, his  opinions  were  respected  by  per- 
sons of  every  class. 

At  the  funeral  of  his  friend,  Felix  Morris,  the 
distinguished  actor,  he  expressed  himself  as  fol- 
lows: "If  all  actors  were  like  him  the  supposed 
gulf  between  the  stage  and  the  church  would  be 
so  narrow  that  the  feeblest  foot  could  step 
across.  There  has  never  been  a  time  since  I 
knew  him  that  I  would  not  have  welcomed  him 
to  speak  in  my  place.  He  was  not  only  an 
actor  but  also  a  noble,  true  gentleman." 

Dr.  Savage  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic 
fraternity  and  was  elected  to  the  thirty-third 
degree  of  that  order.  For  several  years  he 
made  Cleveland  his  residential  city,  but  his  home 
in  1917  was  at  the  Lotus  Club,  New  York  City. 

By  the  marriage  of  Rev.  Minot  Judson  and 
Ella  Augusta  (Dodge)  Savage  there  were  two 
daughters  and  two  sons:  Gertrude,  born  at 
Grass  Valley,  California,  August  15,  1866,  mar- 
ried Robert  S.  Collyer;  Phillip  H.,  born  at  North 
Brookfield,  Massachusetts,  February  n,  1868, 
died  at  the  age  of  thirty-one,  June  4,  1899,  at 
Boston,  Massachusetts,  an  author  of  great  promi- 
nence; Helen,  born  at  Hannibal,  Missouri,  mar- 
ried Rev.  Minot  Simmons,  Unitarian  minister  in 
Cleveland;  Maxwell,  born  in  Boston,  June  13, 
1876,  married  Marguerite  Downing;  he  is  a  Uni- 
tarian minister  at  Lynn,  Massachusetts.  Mrs. 
Savage  died  September  9,  1916.  Dr.  Savage  died 
at  Boston,  Massachusetts,  May  22,  1918. 


RALPH   EUGENE    ROWE,   who   has    for   a 

number  of  years  been  most  closely  associated 
with  the  educational  life  of  the  city  of  Portland, 
Maine,  comes  of  good  old  Maine  stock,  and  is  a 
son  of  William  A.  and  Catherine  (McCabe) 
Rowe,  the  former  a  native  of  the  "Pine  Tree 
State,"  the  latter  of  New  Orleans,  Louisiana. 
Mr.  Rowe,  Sr.,  was  born  at  Holden,  Maine,  and 
was  for  many  years  successfully  engaged  in  the 
business  of  manufacturing  spools.  He  now  lives 
in  retirement  at  East  Eddington,  Maine.  He 
served  during  the  Civil  War  in  the  Seventeenth 
Regiment  of  Maine  Volunteer  Infantry,  and  is 
now  a  prominent  member  of  the  local  post  of 
the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic.  To  Mr.  and 


WOODBURY   K.   DANA 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


131 


Mrs.  Rowe  five  children  were  born,  as  follows: 
Ella  M.,  who  died  at  the  age  of  thirty-two 
years;  Margaret  M.,  who  resides  with  her 
parents  at  East  Eddington;  two  children  who 
died  in  infancy,  and  Ralph  Eugene,  of  whom 
further. 

Born  September  4,  1872,  at  Holden,  Maine, 
Ralph  Eugene  Rowe,  youngest  son  of  William 
A.  and  Catherine  (McCabe)  Rowe,  passed  the 
years  of  his  childhood  and  early  youth  in  his 
native  town.  When  ten  years  of  age,  after 
having  gained  the  elementary  portion  of  his  edu- 
cation at  the  local  public  schools,  his  parents 
removed  to  East  Eddington,  where  he  continued 
his  studies.  He  then  attended  for  a  time  the 
Westbrook  Seminary.  Mr.  Rowe  had  felt  for  a 
long  time  a  desire  to  follow  teaching  as  a  pro- 
fession and  his  abilities  were  such  as  to  qualify 
him  admirably  for  this  career.  Accordingly,  upon 
completing  his  studies  at  the  last  named  institu- 
tion, he  secured  a  position  with  the  Hebron 
Academy  as  instructor  in  penmanship.  He  had 
already  had  some  experience  in  this  line,  having 
taught  while  still  a  student  at  the  Westbrook 
Seminary.  Later  he  taught  at  the  high  school 
at  Freeport  and  still  later  at  the  high  school  at 
Mechanics  Falls,  in  all  of  which  institutions  he 
continued  to  teach  his  subject  of  penmanship. 
In  addition  to  this,  however,  he  also  took  up 
drawing  and  had  several  very  successful  classes 
in  this  department.  Indeed,  it  may  be  said  that 
Mr.  Rowe's  strongest  taste  is  for  art  and  it  is 
in  this  line  that  his  highest  talents  express 
themselves.  From  Mechanics  Falls  he  went  to 
Gray's  Business  College,  and  in  1892  was  called 
to  take  charge  of  the  classes  in  drawing  and  pen- 
manship in  the  Portland  Public  Schools.  Here 
he  has  remained  for  the  past  quarter  of  a  century 
until  he  is  one  of  the  best-known  figures  con- 
nected with  these  institutions.  Mr.  Rowe  has 
been  very  active  in  many  of  the  educational 
movements  of  the  region,  and  has  been  presi- 
dent of  the  Schoolmasters'  Club  of  the  State 
of  Maine,  of  the  New  England  Penmanship  Asso- 
ciation and  the  Portland  Teachers'  Association, 
the  latter  for  a  period  of  four  years.  In  addi- 
tion to  his  activities  as  teacher,  Mr.  Rowe  has 
been  connected  with  some  very  large  business 
enterprises,  and  has  conducted  the  Peaks  Island 
House,  a  very  popular  summer  resort,  situated 
on  Peaks  Island,  Maine,  for  about  fourteen  years. 
This  hotel  enjoys  an  enviable  reputation  and  is 
very  largely  patronized  by  the  best  class  of 
those  seeking  rest  and  recreation  at  our  water- 
ing places.  Mr.  Rowe  is  affiliated  with  the  Ma- 


sonic order,  and  is  a  member  of  Ancient  Land- 
mark Lodge,  No.  17,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  and  for  two  years  was  secretary  of  that 
body.  In  his  religious  belief  Mr.  Rowe  is  a 
Universalist,  and  attends  the  church  of  that  de- 
nomination at  Portland. 

It  is  a  well-recognized  fact  among  educators 
that  the  mere  possession  of  knowledge  in  any 
particular  line  is  not  a  sufficient  qualification 
for  a  teacher  in  that  line,  no  matter  how  pro- 
found that  knowledge  may  be.  The  talent  of 
imparting  knowledge  is  one  which  is  as  nearly 
independent  of  the  possession  of  it  as,  in  the 
nature  of  the  case,  it  can  be,  and  it  is  even  true 
that  often  those  who  possess  a  less  complete 
technical  training  can  impart  a  better  general 
knowledge  of  the  subject  to  the  novice.  In  the 
case  of  Mr.  Rowe,  however,  the  two  qualifica- 
tions are  most  happily  blended,  and  in  addition 
to  a  very  remarkable  ability  of  his  own,  in  the 
lines  which  he  professes,  he  possesses  a  quite 
remarkable  faculty  of  imparting  his'  skill  to 
others.  It  is,  of  course,  impossible  to  deal  with 
the  value  of  such  service  in  quite  the  definite 
manner  with  which  we  may  the  services  of  those 
who  work  in  a  more  concrete  medium  than  the 
artistic  matter  with  which  Mr.  Rowe  works.  It 
is  more  easy  to  estimate  the  value  of  those  gifts 
for  which  a  community  is  indebted  to  the  busi- 
ness man  or  even  the  philanthropist  and  which 
take  such  familiar  tangible  forms  as  a  factory, 
a  library  or  a  church.  But  the  most  subtle 
standards  of  measurement  prove  inadequate  when 
dealing  with  aesthetic  forces  or  with  such  things 
as  the  service  rendered  by  a  teacher  to  his  pupils. 
We  can  only  say  with  confidence  that  the  service 
is  a  great  one,  how  great  even  those  of  us  who 
most  strongly  feel  the  artistic  impulse  today  are 
not  qualified  to  say. 


WOODBURY   KIDDER   DANA— There  is  a 

certain  truth  in  that  dictum  of  the  great  apostle 
of  aristocracy,  Thomas  Carlyle,  to  the  effect  that 
majorities  are  always  in  the  wrong.  It  is  cer- 
tainly true  that  in  every  age  there  are  a  few 
men  in  advance  of  their  time,  who  perceive  more 
truly  than  their  fellows  the  issues  and  problems 
of  the  day  and  their  solutions.  This  is,  per- 
haps, more  particularly  the  case  in  the  realm 
of  industrial  affairs  today  than  in  any  other  de- 
partment ot  activity,  and  we  have  seen  repeatedly 
in  this  and  the  generation  just  past  how  men 
of  clearer  vision  than  the  average  have  insisted 
in  carrying  out  purposes  and  plans,  appearing 
foolish  to  their  fellows,  only  to  be  entirely  justi- 


132 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


fied  in  the  event  by  some  enormous  material 
success  redounding  to  their  own  and  the  com- 
munity's benefit.  Inventions,  enterprises  in  the 
industrial  world,  which  we  all  recognize  now  as 
among  the  most  important  factors  in  the  develop- 
ment of  civilization  in  the  modern  world,  have 
with  scarcely  an  exception  met  with  violent  op- 
position or  ridicule  when  first  proposed  and  our 
chief  benefits  have  been  forced,  as  it  were,  upon 
us  almost  against  our  will  by  others  more  wise 
than  we.  Nowhere  can  we  find  a  greater  num- 
ber of  such  leaders  or  examples  of  more  indi- 
vidual distinction  than  among  the  group  of  men 
whose  names  are  identified  with  the  industrial 
development  of  New  England  during  the  past 
century.  Such  a  man  is  Woodbury  Kidder  Dana, 
inventor,  industrial  leader,  soldier,  a  man  whose 
record  in  every  department  of  activity  in  which 
he  has  taken  part  is  a  credit,  not  to  himself 
only,  but  to  the  entire  community  of  which  he 
is  a  member. 

Mr.  Dana  comes  of  a  most  distinguished  fam- 
ily in  New  England,  the  members  of  which  have 
resided  in  this  country  since  early  Colonial  days 
and  have  now  spread  to  practically  every  part 
of  the  United  States,  and  have  had  careers  of 
distinction  in  wellnigh  every  calling  of  import- 
ance, public  and  private.  There  is  some  little 
discussion  concerning  the  origin  of  the  family, 
although  it  is  perfectly  well  established  that 
the  immigrant  ancestor  came  here  directly  from 
England.  It  is  the  tradition,  however,  that  one 
generation  before  it  had  first  appeared  in  that 
country  from  France,  from  which  country  it  had 
fled  on  account  of  religious  persecution.  It  seems 
to  be  the  balance  of  opinion  among  historians 
and  genealogists  who  have  dwelt  with  the  sub- 
ject that  the  French  origin  has  been  pretty  well 
established,  although  there  is  an  alternate  theory 
with  some  evidence  to  back  it  that  the  Danas 
first  had  their  home  in  Italy.  To  quote  Mr. 
Frank  H.  Swan,  the  talented  biographer  of  Mr. 
Dana,  and  his  son-in-law,  "The  origin  of  the 
family,  whether  Italian  or  French,  is  still  open 
to  investigation."  However  this  may  be,  it  is 
definitely  known  that  in  the  year  1640  one  Rich- 
ard Dana  came  from  England  and  settled  at 
Cambridge  in  the  old  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony. 
So  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  no  other  person 
of  the  name  has  come  to  the  country  since,  so 
that  all  the  Danas  of  the  United  States  appear 
to  be  his  descendants.  He  was  probably  a  native 
of  France,  as  the  date  given  for  his  father's 
migration  to  England  is  1629,  but  eleven  years 
before  the  removal  to  this  country. 


(I)  Richard    Dana    made    his    home    at    Cam- 
bridge for  about  fifty  years  and  prospered  there, 
becoming    the    owner    of    considerable    property 
at  what  is  now  Brighton,  and  holding  a  number 
of   public   offices.     He   was   elected   constable   in 
1661,  and  in  1665  surveyor  of  highways  and  tith- 
ingman,   and   he   also    served   as   grand   juror   at 
different  times.     In  1648  he  married  Ann  Bullard, 
of  the   same   parish,  and  they  were   the   parents 
of  eleven  children,  all  born  at   Cambridge.     His 
death  occurred  April  2,  1690. 

(II)  Jacob   Dana,   fourth   son   of   Richard   and 
Ann  (Bullard)  Dana,  was  born  December  2,  1654, 
at  Cambridge,  and  there  made  his  home   during 
life.     He  inherited  a  considerable  portion  of  his 
father's  estate,  including  the  dwelling  house  and 
half  the   barn,   and   appears   to   have   been   pros- 
perous and  well-to-do.     He  married  and  was  the 
father    of    eight    children,    of    whom    Samuel    is 
mentioned    below. 

(III)  Samuel   Dana,  son   of  Jacob   Dana,   was 
born   September  7,   1694,  at   Cambridge.     At  the 
age   of  twenty-one   he   inherited   his   father's   es- 
tate, on  the  condition  of  paying  certain  sums  of 
money  to  the  other  children,  which  included,  be- 
sides  twenty-seven  acres   of  land  at   Cambridge, 
properties  at   Pomfret,  Connecticut.     He  elected 
to  make  his  home  at  the  former  place,  however, 
and  there  his  children  were  born.     Samuel  Dana 
was    three    times    married    and    outlived    all    his 
wives.     The   first   of  these  was   Abigail   Gay,   to 
whom   he  was   married  April   10,   1716,  and  who 
died   June    I,    1718.      By   her   he    had   one    child, 
Nathaniel,    who    is    mentioned    at    length    below. 
His    second    wife    was    Susanna    Star,   whom    he 
married  January  6,   1719,  who  bore  him  six  chil- 
dren.    She  died  April  10,  1731,  and  on  December 
30,   of   the   same   year,  he   married   (third)    Mary 
Sumner,    by    whom    he    had    six    children.      Her 
death  occurred  April  28,  1770. 

(IV)  Nathaniel  Dana,  son  of  Samuel  and  Abi- 
gail  (Gay)   Dana,  was  born  February  I,  1717,  at 
Cambridge,    where    he    continued    to    dwell.      He 
married  Abigail  Dean,  by  whom  he  had  thirteen 
children,  including  Ephraim,  who  is  mentioned  at 
length  below.     Nathaniel  Dana  died  when  forty- 
eight  years  of  age,  a  victim  of  smallpox. 

(V)  Ephraim   Dana,  fourth  child  of  Nathaniel 
and  Abigail   (Dean)   Dana,  was  born   September 
26,    1744,    at    Cambridge.      He    continued    to    live 
there    until   about    twenty-one    years   of   age   and 
then    went    to    Natick,    Massachusetts,      He    was 
still   a   young   man   at   the    time    of   the    Revolu- 
tion, and  was  one  of  the  farmers  who  took  part 
in  the  historic  fight  at   Lexington,  and  was  pos- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


133 


sibly  present  at  Bunker  Hill.  He  served  in  the 
war  which  followed  and  reached  the  rank  of 
lieutenant.  Ephralm  Dana  was  a  blacksmith  by 
trade,  and  held  a  position  of  some  influence  in 
the  town  of  Natick.  He  was  elected  to  several 
public  offices,  including  that  of  selectman,  March 
6,  1782,  and  re-elected,  March  3,  1783,  and  March 
i,  1784.  He  married,  September  24,  1772,  Re- 
becca Leland,  of  Sherborn,  and  they  were  the 
parents  of  three  children:  Dexter,  born  Novem- 
ber 30,  1773;  David,  born  October  8,  1775;  and 
Ephraim,  Jr.,  born  July  9,  1777,  and  who  died 
four  months  later.  His  wife  died  also  in  1777, 
and  on  April  20,  1780,  he  married  Tabitha  Jones, 
daughter  of  Colonel  John  Jones,  of  Dedham. 
There  were  five  children  by  this  union,  as  fol- 
lows: Rebecca,  born  February  10,  1781;  Ephraim 
and  Tabitha,  twins,  born  February  5,  1783;  Na- 
thaniel, born  May  2,  1787,  and  Luther,  who  is 
mentioned  at  length  below.  Lieutenant  Ephraim 
Dana  died  at  his  home  at  Natick,  November  19, 
1792. 

(VI)  Luther  Dana,  youngest  son  of  Lieutenant 
Ephraim  and  Tabitha  (Jones)  Dana,  was  born 
April  20,  1792,  at  Natick,  Massachusetts.  In 
1801,  when  he  was  but  nine  years  of  age,  his 
mother  married  Jacob  Homer,  a  retired  merchant 
of  Boston,  and  not  long  after,  probably  through 
the  influence  of  Mr.  Homer,  the  lad  secured  a 
position  in  a  Boston  store  and  worked  there  for 
a  number  of  years.  His  elder  brothers,  Dexter, 
David  and  Nathaniel  Dana,  had  removed  some 
time  before  to  Portland,  Maine,  and  here  Na- 
thaniel Dana  had  opened  a  grocery  and  supply 
store  on  Middle  street.  He  was  joined  about 
1808  by  Luther  Dana,  some  sixteen  years  of 
age  at  the  time,  who  joined  him  in  the  enter- 
prise, and  assisted  in  the  development  of  what 
was  afterwards  a  prosperous  concern.  When 
Commercial  street  was  first  laid  out,  Luther 
Dana  built  a  store  there,  which  had  to  be  moved 
back  to  admit  of  the  widening  of  the  street  to 
admit  the  Grand  Trunk  Railway  tracks  being 
laid  there.  The  business  continued  to  grow,  and 
not  long  after  removing  to  Commercial  street 
a  ship  chandlery  business  was  added  to  the  orig- 
inal trade  in  response  to  the  growing  demand  of 
the  ships  which  in  ever-increasing  numbers 
sought  this  prosperous  port.  The  firm  of  L.  & 
W.  S.  Dana,  as  it  was  called,  dealt  in  the  fol- 
lowing manner.  A  fishing  vessel  would  be  sup- 
plied by  them  with  the  necessary  supplies  to  fit 
it  for  an  expedition  for  the  "Banks,"  and  the 
families  of  every  member  of  the  crew  would  be 
allowed  credit  for  the  home  supplies  to  last  until 


the  return.  When  this  event  occurred  the  firm 
would  purchase  the  whole  catch  of  fish  on  the 
basis  of  clearing  up  the  indebtedness  and  then 
dispose  of  it  in  the  general  market.  The  trade 
proved  to  be  a  profitable  one  and  it  was  not 
long  before  the  two  Danas  were  regarded  as 
among  the  successful  and  prosperous  merchants 
of  the  city.  Luther  Dana  was  one  of  those  who 
joined  the  newly-organized  Portland  Rifle  Corps 
in  1811,  and  was  with  that  body  when  it  was 
ordered  to  guard  Portland  harbor  in  the  war 
with  Great  Britain  the  following  year.  He  did 
not  see  active  service,  but  was  later  commis- 
sioned an  "Ensign  of  a  Company  of  Riflemen 
in  the  Third  Regiment  in  the  Second  Brigade 
and  Fifth  Division  of  Militia,"  by  William  King, 
first  Governor  of  the  State  of  Maine.  He  after- 
wards attained  the  rank  of  captain.  The  busi- 
ness career  of  Mr.  Dana  was  not  without  its 
crises,  although  eminently  successful  as  a  rule. 
One  of  these  was  the  result  of  the  forging  of 
the  firm's  name  by  an  employee  who  sought  to 
enter  into  land  speculation  for  a  quick  rise  in 
value  during  the  speculative  craze  of  1836.  Mr. 
Dana  refused  to  dishonor  these  notes  or  expose 
the  man  who  had  so  sorely  abused  his  confi- 
dence, and  every  asset  of  the  company,  as  well 
as  his  own  private  fortune,  went  to  satisfy  the 
creditors.  Nothing  daunted,  he  began  once  more 
at  the  beginning  and  again  built  up  a  prosperous 
business.  Disaster  came  a  second  time  with  the 
financial  panic  of  1857,  in  which  many  of  the 
most  substantial  houses  in  the  country  went 
down,  but  Mr.  Dana,  then  a  man  of  sixty-five, 
and  to  a  great  extent  retired  from  active  busi- 
ness, once  more  took  up  the  burden  of  retriev- 
ing his  own  and  his  associate's  fortunes,  and 
continued  thus  successfully  employed  to  the  end 
of  his  life.  His  reputation  for  integrity  was 
second  to  none  and  his  generosity,  as  evidenced 
by  these  episodes  and  a  hundred  others,  was 
not  a  jot  behind  his  honesty.  His  activities  were 
not  confined  to  his  business,  however,  nor  to 
private  interests  of  any  kind,  and  he  took  a 
leading  part  in  local  public  affairs,  assisting  vig- 
orously in  every  movement  that  he  felt  was  for 
the  common  weal.  He  was  a  Republican  in  his 
politics,  but,  although  he  did  a  conspicuous  ser- 
vice for  his  party,  he  refused  all  public  office 
or  political  preferment  of  any  kind.  He  was  a 
Congregationalist  and  a  strong  churchman,  be- 
ing one  of  the  founders  of  the  old  High  Street 
Church  and  one  of  its  most  liberal  supporters. 
His  home  was  one  of  culture  and  his  children 
grew  up  in  an  environment  calculated  to  develop 


134 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


their  spiritual  and  mental  faculties  to  the  utmost. 

Luther  Dana  was  married,  October  14,  1828,  to 
Louisa  Kidder,  a  daughter  of  Major  John  Kid- 
der,  of  Hallowell,  Maine,  and  who  had  lived  in 
the  household  of  Nathaniel  Dana  since  the  age 
of  seven.  She  was  born  January  5,  1807,  and 
although  sixteen  years  her  husband's  junior,  their 
married  life  was  one  of  unusual  harmony  and 
devotion.  They  were  the  parents  of  nine  chil- 
dren, as  follows:  Nathaniel  Homer,  born  Octo- 
ber 3,  1829,  died  April  27,  1861;  Louisa  Octavia, 
born  November  n,  1831,  died  October  7,  1858; 
John  A.  Smith,  born  October  10,  1833,  died  May 
I5»  19'!3>  Mary  Lucretia,  born  November  16,  1835; 
died  May  25,  1915;  Luther  William,  born  January 
28,  1838;  Woodbury,  with  whose  career  we  are 
especially  concerned;  Frank  Jones,  born  Feb- 
ruary ii,  1844;  Samuel  Howard,  born  February 
ii,  1847;  and  Henry  Osgood,  born  August  17, 
1849,  and  died  August  10,  1859. 

(VII)  Woodbury  Kidder  Dana,  sixth  child  of 
Luther  and  Louisa  (Kidder)  Dana,  was  born 
June  7,  1840,  at  his  father's  home  on  the  corner 
of  State  and  Spring  streets,  Portland,  Maine.  As 
a  child  he  was  not  strong  and  was  troubled  with 
defective  sight  and  hearing.  The  latter  was  par- 
ticularly marked  and  caused  him,  during  his  first 
years  as  a  student,  to  be  regarded  as  mentally 
backward  by  his  teachers.  The  correct  state  of 
the  case  was  disclosed  by  Wheelock  Craig,  mas- 
ter of  the  Portland  Academy,  and  one  of  the 
most  capable  educators  of  his  day,  to  whom 
Woodbury's  mother  had  taken  him  for  examina- 
tion. He  went  on  to  say  that  Mrs.  Dana  might 
be  proud  of  her  son  if  he  ever  learned  to  read 
with  his  handicap.  The  lad  was  old  enough  to 
comprehend  and  determined  then  and  there  to 
give  his  mother  this  cause  for  pride.  Accord- 
ingly, he  set  to  work  with  typical  courage  to 
develop  himself.  In  many  respects  this  was  no 
difficult  task,  for  instead  of  being  backward  men- 
tally, his  faculties  were  unusually  quick,  and  it  is 
stated  that  even  in  childhood  he  excelled  in  all 
games  of  skill  and  combination,  such  as  checkers 
and  chess.  He  attended  as  a  boy  several  schools 
at  Portland,  and  the  Lewiston  Falls  Academy  at 
Auburn,  Maine.  He  was  nineteen  years  of  age 
when  he  graduated  from  the  last-named  institu- 
tion and  began  to  consider  the  question  of  his 
career.  It  would  have  been  natural  for  him  to 
enter  his  father's  large  establishment  at  this 
time,  but  another  plan  was  suggested  to  him  by 
his  elder  brother,  John  A.  S.  Dana,  which  first 
turned  his  attention  to  the  idea  of  becoming  a 
manufacturer.  John  A.  S.  Dana,  who  was  his 


father's  partner,  was  in  a  position  to  realize  what 
a  great  demand  there  was  for  the  various  cotton 
products  in  use  in  mercantile  pursuits,  and  sug- 
gested that  the  younger  man  should  engage  in 
the  manufacture  of  them,  especially  cod  lines  and 
bunch  yarn.  The  idea  appealed  to  Mr.  Dana  and 
he  shortly  after  leased  a  small  mill  at  Gray, 
Maine,  and  engaged  in  the  new  trade.  Here, 
however,  he  met  with  failure,  being,  as  he  later 
acknowledged,  too  inexperienced  and  with  too 
little  resources  to  handle  so  large  a  venture  by 
himself.  He  was  at  first  bitterly  disappointed, 
but  with  customary  buoyancy  and  perseverance, 
and  with  an  unusual  degree  of  wisdom  on  the 
part  of  one  so  young,  he  decided  to  learn  his 
chosen  business  as  an  employee  of  another,  and 
at  once  and  very  cheerfully  secured  a  position  in 
a  humble  capacity  in  an  old  brick  mill  in  the 
neighborhood  where  duck  and  denim  were  made. 
He  did  not  remain  there  a  great  while,  however, 
but  went  to  Lewiston  and  found  employment 
in  the  Lincoln  Mill,  where  he  worked  for  twelve 
hours  a  day  at  the  wage  of  one  dollar  and  a 
quarter  for  the  period.  But  he  never  regretted 
his  labors,  for  his  mind  was  fixed  with  unalter- 
able determination  on  his  ambition  to  become 
the  owner  of  a  mill  of  his  own,  and  with  this 
end  in  view  he  toiled  on,  making  his  way  up 
step  by  step  towards  the  goal  he  had  set  him- 
self. He  took  a  deep  interest  in  the  welfare  of 
his  fellow-workers  and,  as  there  were  many  who 
had  but  scanty  educational  advantages,  he  set 
about  teaching  them  during  the  evening  after 
work.  This  he  did  gratuitously  and  actually 
hired  a  room  and  fitted  it  up  at  his  own  expense 
in  which  to  hold  his  classes.  Thus  he  spent 
two  and  one-half  years  of  his  youth,  a  period 
that  was  suddenly  terminated  by  his  joining  the 
army  for  service  in  the  Civil  War.  It  was  on 
August  12,  1863,  that  he  enlisted  in  Company  K, 
Twenty-ninth  Regiment,  Maine  Volunteer  In- 
fantry, under  Colonel  Beal.  He  was  detailed  to 
the  quartermaster's  department,  but  it  was  seven 
months  before  the  regiment  marched  from  Camp 
Keyes  in  Maine  to  entrain  for  the  front.  His 
first  battle  was  that  at  Sabin  Cross  Roads,  where 
his  regiment  just  saved  the  day  from  becoming 
a  complete  rout  of  the  Union  troops.  He  con- 
tinued to  serve  until  the  close  of  the  war,  and 
was  one  of  those  who  took  part  in  the  grand 
review  of  the  troops  in  Washington  by  Presi- 
dent Johnson. 

Upon  his  return  from  the  war  Mr.  Dana  re- 
turned to  the  Lewiston  Mills  and  there  con- 
tinued the  work  that  had  been  interrupted  for  a 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


135 


time  by  his  enlistment.  Not  long  afterwards, 
however,  he  formed  the  acquaintance  of  Thomas 
McEwen,  and  in  1866  formed  a  partnership  with 
him  under  the  style  of  Dana  &  McEwen  for  the 
manufacture  of  cotton  wraps  at  Saccarappa  Falls 
at  Wcstbrook.  It  is  interesting  to  know  that 
the  partnership  articles  were  drawn  up  by 
Thomas  Brackett  Reed,  then  a  young  practicing 
attorney  of  Portland.  Mr.  McEwen  sold  out 
his  interest  to  Mr.  Dana  a  few  years  later,  and 
from  that  time  on  the  latter  conducted  it  alone. 
It  prospered  greatly  and  in  1873  had  outgrown 
its  original  quarters  so  that  Mr.  Dana  was 
obliged  to  move  it  to  a  larger  mill  located  just 
above  the  Foster  &  Brown  Machine  Shop,  on 
Main  street.  Six  years  later  another  move  was 
necessitated  by  the  same  cause  and  the  island  at 
Saccarappa  Falls  was  chosen  as  a  site  for  the 
new  mill.  But  the  period  of  rapid  development 
had  begun  and  addition  after  addition  was  added 
to  the  number  of  twelve  before  this  mill  was 
also  abandoned.  During  this  time  Mr.  Frank 
J.  Dana  had  become  associated  with  his  brother, 
under  the  style  of  W.  K.  Dana  &  Company,  but 
this  partnership  was  dissolved  after  a  short  time, 
and  in  1892  Mr.  Dana  organized  a  corporation 
under  the  name  of  the  Dana  Warp  Mills,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $130,000.  The  next  year  the 
plant  was  destroyed  by  fire,  but  the  following 
day  Mr.  Dana  had  builders  present  and  began 
the  erection  of  a  larger  and  more  perfectly- 
equipped  plant  to  carry  on  the  work.  In  1000 
the  brick  Gingham  Mill  was  purchased  and  into 
this  handsome  building  was  put,  during  the  fol- 
lowing three  years,  the  most  modern  equipment 
obtainable,  while  in  1908  the  size  of  the  plant 
was  doubled  and  the  equipment  still  further  in- 
creased to  52,000  spinning  spindles  and  10,000 
twister  spindles,  with  a  product  of  80,000  pounds 
a  week.  The  product  of  the  mill  was  sold  for  a 
number  of  years  through  the  well-known  firm  of 
Deering,  Milliken  &  Company,  of  Portland,  but 
since  1912  it  has  been  sold  by  the  Dana  Com- 
pany direct,  without  resort  to  a  commission  mer- 
chant. There  has  been  in  the  whole  of  Mr. 
Dana's  management  of  his  great  concern  a  spirit 
of  progressiveness  which  has  kept  it,  not  abreast, 
but  ahead  of  the  times.  He  is  himself  an  in- 
ventive genius  and  has  done  much  personally  to 
improve  the  purely  technical  side  of  the  work 
and  equipment  and  the  total  result  has  been  to 
win  for  the  Dana  warps  a  nation-wide  reputa- 
tion as  the  standard  of  their  class  and  a  market 
scarcely  equalled  in  the  country.  The  fiftieth 
anniversary  of  the  founding  of  the  great  business 


was  celebrated  with  a  most  striking  tribute  to 
Mr.  Dana  on  June  7,  1916.  In  it  the  employees 
of  the  mill,  and  the  citizens  of  Westbrook  joined 
and  vied  with  one  another  who  could  pay  the 
greatest  honor  and  express  the  deepest  affection 
for  the  man  who  had  done  so  much  for  all.  There 
were  parades,  speeches  and  picnics  in  and  about 
the  grounds  of  the  great  mill,  and  the  entire 
celebration  was  concluded  by  the  presentation  to 
Mr.  Dana  of  a  handsome  loving  cup  with  the 
following  inscription: 

Presented  to 
Woodbury  K.  Dana 

by  his 
Friends  and  the  Citizens  of  Westbrook 

on   the 
Fiftieth  Anniversary 

of  the 
Founding  of  his  Business  in  this  City 

and  his 

Sixty-sixth  Birthday 
June   7,    1916 

Mr.  Dana's  inventive  genius  has  already  been 
mentioned  in  its  application  to  the  development 
of  his  plant,  but  he  has  turned  it  in  another 
direction  that  may  have  even  more  momentous 
and  widespread  effects  upon  the  community  as 
a  whole.  He  has  for  many  years  been  interested 
in  the  problem  of  the  mechanical  harvesting  of 
cotton  and  has  bent  his  great  powers  to  devis- 
ing a  harvester  which  will  meet  the  requirements 
of  the  modern  industrial  situation  as  have  some 
of  the  other  great  agricultural  devices  put  upon 
the  market  of  recent  years.  He  has  already  met 
with  substantial  success  in  this  self-imposed  task 
and  has  produced  a  mechanism  which  will  do  the 
work  of  several  men,  but  he  is  still  dissatisfied 
and  is  even  yet  experimenting  further.  The  im- 
portance of  such  a  machine  is  scarcely  to  be 
overestimated,  and  its  effect  upon  every  branch 
of  industry  that  rests  in  any  way  upon  the  cot- 
ton trade  will  be  extreme. 

A  man  30  busy  with  great  interests  as  is  Mr* 
Dana  might  well  be  expected  to  confine  his  at- 
tention to  the  single  task  of  managing  them  with 
efficiency,  but  such  an  expectation  in  his  case 
would  be  incorrect.  His  mind  is  of  that  open 
character  which  naturally  concerns  itself  with 
every  aspect  of  life,  and  which  would  feel 
cramped  if  prevented  from  participating  in  what- 
ever activity  presented  itself.  Thus  it  was  that 
he  has  always  been  active  in  politics,  especially 
as  they  concerned  local  public  affairs.  Like  his 
father,  he  is  a  staunch  Republican,  and  like  him, 
he  is  quite  lacking  in  ambition  in  this  line.  He 
served  for  a  number  of  years  as  a  member  of 


136 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


the  local  Republican  committee  and  has  done 
much  to  advance  the  party's  interests  here.  In 
his  religious  belief  he  is  a  Congregationalist,  and 
for  many  j'ears  has  been  a  member  of  the  West- 
brook  church  of  that  denomination.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  and 
was  elected  department  commander  of  the  De- 
partment of  Maine,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. 
Woodbury  Kidder  Dana  was  united  in  mar- 
riage, August  2,  1869,  with  Mary  Little  Hale 
Pickard,  daughter  of  Samuel  and  Hannah  (Lit- 
tle) Pickard,  and  a  descendant  on  both  sides  of 
the  house  from  old  and  distinguished  New  Eng- 
land families.  They  are  the  parents  of  the  fol- 
lowing children:  I.  Louisa  Woodbury,  born  April 
27,  1870.  2.  Hannah  Little,  born  August  I,  1872; 
married,  October  30,  1901,  Frank  Herbert  Swan, 
of  Providence,  Rhode  Island,  the  talented  author 
of  a  delightful  biography  of  Woodbury  Kidder 
Dana,  including  accounts  of  the  Dana  family  and 
allied  houses  on  both  the  paternal  and  maternal 
sides.  3.  Philip,  born  August  3,  1874;  married, 
November  21,  1908,  Florence  Hinkley,  daughter 
of  Rufus  Henry  and  Frances  Elizabeth  (Prin- 
dle)  Hinkley,  and  now  resides  at  Westbrook.  4. 
Ethel  May,  born  July  25,  1876.  5.  Helen  Pickard, 
born  October  19,  1878;  married,  June  16,  1909, 
Horace  Chamberlain  Porter,  of  Pittsburgh,  Penn- 
sylvania. 6.  Luther,  born  November  21,  1880; 
married,  October  10,  1005,  Mary  Wood  Decrow, 
daughter  of  William  E.  and  Lottie  A.  (Emery) 
Decrow,  and  now  resides  at  Westbrook.  7.  Mary 
Hale,  born  January  13,  1882;  married,  June  7, 
1906,  Edward  Farrington  Abbott,  of  Auburn, 
Maine. 


WALLACE  HUMPHREY  WHITE— There 
are  few  names  better  known  in  legal  circles  in 
that  part  of  Maine  which  centers  about  the  city 
of  Lewiston  than  that  of  Wallace  Humphrey 
White,  who  for  more  than  forty  years  has  been 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  in  Lewiston,  and 
has  been  identified  with  many  important  business 
interests  there.  He  is  the  son  of  John  and  Mary 
A.  (Humphrey)  White,  who  for  many  years  re- 
sided in  the  town  of  Livermore,  in  Androscoggin 
county.  John  White  was  born  at  Auburn,  Maine, 
September  28,  1816,  and  died  at  Livermore,  in 
1890.  He  was  a  farmer  and  was  also  engaged 
in  lumbering  operations.  His  wife,  Mary  A. 
Humphrey,  was  born  in  the  town  of  Jay,  Frank- 
lin county,  Maine,  October  4,  1816,  and  died  at 
Lewiston,  in  1897. 

Wallace  Humphrey  White,  their  only  child, 
was  born  September  4,  1848,  at  Livermore.  He 


was  educated  in  the  common  schools  of  Liver- 
more,  and  attended  Kents  Hill  Seminary  and 
Lewiston  Falls  Academy.  Before  leaving  home 
he  taught  district  schools  in  Livermore  and 
Canton,  and  was  but  sixteen  years  of  age  when 
he  taught  his  first  school.  Later  he  went  to 
New  Jersey  and  engaged  in  teaching  there  for 
several  years.  In  1869  he  came  to  Lewiston  and 
entered  the  law  office  of  Frye  &  Cotton  as  a 
law  student,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
Androscoggin  county  in  1871,  and  remained  as  a 
law  clerk  in  the  office  of  Frye  &  Cotton  until 
1874,  when  he  was  admitted  to  the  firm,  which 
then  became  Frye,  Cotton  &  White.  About  this 
time  Seth  M.  Carter  came  to  the  office  of  Frye, 
Cotton  &  White  as  a  law  student.  Mr.  Frye's 
name  remained  connected  with  the  firm,  but  he 
ceased  to  be  active  in  practice,  and  the  business 
of  the  firm  was  carried  on  by  Cotton,  White  & 
Carter.  In  1889  Mr.  Cotton  went  to  Washing- 
ton as  Assistant  Attorney  General  and  the  old 
firm  of  Frye,  Cotton  &  White  was  dissolved  and 
Mr.  White  and  Mr.  Carter  continued  the  busi- 
ness under  the  firm  name  of  White  &  Carter. 
This  firm  has  always  occupied  a  leading  posi- 
tion among  the  attorneys  of  Maine,  and  has  been 
engaged  in  a  large  amount  of  important  litiga- 
tion. 

In  addition  to  his  legal  practice,  which  has 
been  wide  and  varied,  Mr.  White  has  interested 
himself  in  banking  and  other  business  enter- 
prises, and  at  the  present  time  is  vice-president 
of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Lewiston,  and  has 
been  for  many  years  president  of  the  Lewiston 
Gas  Light  Company.  He  is  also  a  director  and 
the  treasurer  of  the  Union  Electric  Power  Com- 
pany, and  of  the  Union  Water  Power  Company, 
and  is  treasurer  of  the  Androscoggin  Reservoir 
Company.  The  last  two  companies  own  and 
control  the  great  storage  reservoirs  at  the  head- 
waters of  the  Androscoggin  river.  In  the  organ- 
ization of  these  companies,  the  acquisition  of  the 
land  and  flowage  rights  and  the  construction  of 
the  great  dams  controlling  these  storage  reser- 
voirs, Mr.  White  had  a  prominent  part.  It  is  due 
to  Mr.  White  and  his  associates  that  these  enter- 
prises have  made  the  Androscoggin  river  one  of 
the  best  controlled  and  regulated  rivers  for 
power  purposes  of  any  river  of  its  size  in  the 
United  States.  Mr.  White  served  for  two  terms 
as  county  attorney  of  Androscoggin  county,  and 
has  also  held  various  city  offices.  He  was  elected 
to  the  State  Legislature  in  1882,  and  though  a 
new  member  he  served  on  the  judiciary  commit- 
tee at  that  session.  He  declined  to  be  a  candi- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


137 


date  for  re-election,  but  in  1898  was  elected  to 
the  State  Senate  and  served  for  two  terms,  and 
during  the  second  term  he  was  chairman  of  the 
judiciary  committee.  He  was  twice  offered  an 
appointment  as  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Judicial 
Court  of  Maine,  but  in  each  instance  declined 
the  appointment.  He  was  given  the  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts  at  Bowdoin  College  in  1904.  In 
his  religious  belief  he  is  a  Congregationalist. 

Mr.  White  was  married,  in  1874,  at  Lewiston, 
Maine,  to  Helen  Elizabeth  Frye,  the  daughter  of 
Hon.  William  P.  and  Caroline  (Spear)  Frye.  To 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  White  seven  children  have  been 
born,  as  follows:  William  Frye,  a  practicing  at- 
torney in  Boston.  2.  Wallace  Humphrey,  Jr., 
who  became  a  member  of  the  firm  of  White  & 
Carter,  and  is  now  a  member  of  Congress  from 
the  Second  Maine  Congressional  District.  3. 
John  Humphrey,  who  resides  in  Auburn  and  is 
in  the  employ  of  the  Union  Water  Power  Com- 
pany. 4.  Emme  Frye,  who  married  Dr.  Horace 
P.  Stevens,  of  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  5. 
Thomas  Carter,  of  Lewiston,  of  the  firm  of  Ben- 
son &  White,  engaged  in  the  fire  insurance  busi- 
ness. 6.  Donald  Cameron,  treasurer  of  the  J.  B. 
Ham  Company,  engaged  in  the  wholesale  grain 
business  at  Lewiston.  7.  Harold  Sewall,  living 
on  a  farm  in  Auburn.  This  farm  is  the  one 
taken  up  by  his  great-grandfather,  Darius 
White,  about  1800,  and  has  been  owned  by  some 
member  of  the  White  family  ever  since.  Mr. 
White  is  a  descendant  of  William  White,  who 
came  to  New  England  from  England,  and  who 
died  in  Boston,  in  1673. 


FRANK    ANDREW    MOREY,    one    of    the 

most  prominent  and  highly  respected  figures  in 
the  city  of  Lewiston,  Maine,  and  the  surrounding 
region,  a  man  who  has  held  many  of  the  most 
important  offices  in  the  gift  of  the  people  in  that 
locality  and  who  has  filled  them  all  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  win  for  him  a  most  enviable  repu- 
tation for  honor,  sincerity  and  disinterestedness, 
is  a  member  of  an  old  Colonial  New  England 
family,  his  ancestors  having  settled  first  in  Rhode 
Island,  from  which  they  eventually  went  to  New 
York  State,  where  for  many  generations  they 
have  resided.  Mr.  Morey  himself  is  a  native 
of  that  State,  having  been  born  March  II,  1863, 
at  Keeseville,  Essex  county.  He  is  a  son  of 
Andrew  Jackson  Morey,  who  for  many  years 
lived  at  Westford,  Vermont,  and  was  born  there 
March  25,  1833,  and  there  also  he  died  at  the 
age  of  seventy-five  years. 

The  early  education  of  Mr.  Morey  was  received 


at  the  schools  of  his  native  town  and  he  gradu- 
ated from  the  Keeseville  Academy  with  the  class 
of  1881,  where  he  was  prepared  for  college.  In 
the  fall  of  that  year  he  matriculated  at  Bates 
College,  Lewiston,  where  he  took  the  academic 
course,  graduating  therefrom  in  1885  with  the 
degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  He  established  an 
unusually  fine  record  for  character  and  scholar- 
ship during  his  college  course,  and  took  the 
highest  honors  in  modern  languages.  His  stand- 
ing was  the  more  remarkable  in  view  of  the  fact 
that  he  worked  his  way  through  in  a  large  part, 
from  the  beginning  of  his  course  in  the  Keese- 
ville Academy  to  the  end  of  his  senior  class  at 
Bates  College.  His  day  at  Bates  College  was 
his  first  introduction  to  Lewiston,  Maine,  where 
the  major  part  of  his  life  has  been  spent  to  the 
present,  and  with  which  his  career,  both  profes- 
sional and  business,  has  been  identified.  But  Mr. 
Morey's  ambition  did  not  at  first  turn  either  to 
the  law  nor  to  politics,  he  rather  desired  to  fit 
himself  for  a  pedagogical  career,  and  shortly 
after  his  graduation  from  the  college  he  received 
an  excellent  offer  in  a  school.  In  spite  of  the 
fact  that  a  good  salary  accompanied  this  offer, 
Mr.  Morey  decided,  particularly  through  the  in- 
fluence of  several  of  his  friends,  to  turn  his  atten- 
tion to  the  law.  With  this  idea  in  view,  he 
entered  the  law  office  of  Mr.  Hewitt,  of  Keese- 
ville, a  leading  member  of  the  Essex  bar,  and 
there  pursued  his  studies  to  such  good  effect 
that  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  his  State  in 
the  year  1887.  He  returned  to  Keeseville  and 
there  formed  a  partnership  with  his  former  pre- 
ceptor, Mr.  Hewitt,  under  the  firm  name  of 
Hewitt  &  Morey,  and  in  this  association  began 
the  practice  of  his  profession  in  his  native  town. 
For  three  years  he  continued  there,  in  the  mean- 
time gaining  a  very  considerable  reputation  as  a 
capable  and  learned  attorney.  After  this  period, 
he  came  to  Lewiston,  in  the  year  1891,  and  there 
began  practice  by  himself.  At  the  expiration  of 
six  months,  he  became  the  partner  of  the  Hon. 
D.  J.  McGillicuddy,  under  the  firm  name  of  Mc- 
Gillicuddy  &  Morey,  a  relationship  which  still 
continues.  The  firm  of  McGillicuddy  &  Morey 
rapidly  rose  in  prominence  until  it  became  recog- 
nized as  one  of  the  leading  concerns  in  the  legal 
profession,  not  only  in  Lewiston,  but  in  the  en- 
tire State. 

The  personal  record  of  Mr.  Morey  was  from 
the  outset  an  unusual  one,  so  that  even  as  a 
young  man  he  made  for  himself  a  position  of 
prominence  among  his  colleagues,  a  position 
which  he  has  always  maintained,  though  his  legal 


138 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


practice  has  often  been  interrupted  by  his  hold- 
ing of  various  official  posts.  He  is  perhaps  even 
better  known  to  the  general  public  in  this  con- 
nection than  as  an  attorney,  and  has  probably 
done  an  even  greater  service  to  the  community- 
at-large  in  this  department  of  his  activity.  He 
served  for  two  years  as  City  Solicitor  of  Lewis- 
ton,  and  was  then  elected  a  member  of  the  Lower 
House  of  the  State  Legislature.  During  his 
membership  in  this  body,  he  served  as  a  member 
of  the  committee  on  legal  affairs,  ways  and 
means,  the  judiciary,  appropriations  and  financial 
affairs,  and  was  the  author  and  promoter  of  sev- 
eral important  State  laws,  among  which  should 
be  mentioned  the  only  law  in  the  statute  book 
which  relates  to  usury  and  usurious  transactions 
in  Maine.  Another  of  these  laws  is  that  which 
was  passed  materially  reducing  the  cost  of  col- 
lecting taxes,  while  still  others  were  those 
known  as  the  Morey  amendments  to  the  Austra- 
lian ballot  laws,  one  of  which  provided  that  all 
questions  which  are  submitted  to  the  people  to 
be  acted  upon  must  be  by  separate  ballot,  and 
not  upon  the  ballot  on  which  the  name  of  the 
candidate  appears;  another  was  the  providing  of 
booths  with  swinging  doors  for  the  voters.  An- 
other achievement  of  his  at  this  time  was  the 
securing  for  Lewiston  of  the  charter  for  the  city 
water  works,  which  Mr.  Morey  practically  res- 
cued from  defeat,  it  having  twice  met  with  ad- 
verse votes  in  the  House.  It  was  his  efforts 
that  finally  revived  it  for  a  third  time  and  se- 
cured for  it  its  passage.  He  served  for  three 
terms  in  the  Legislature  and  was  then  elected 
County  Attorney  for  Androscoggin  county,  to 
which  he  was  returned  for  a  second  term  in 
1908.  In  the  year  1907  he  was  elected  mayo- 
of  Lewiston,  and  held  that  office  for  six  consecu- 
tive terms,  a  period  which  has  not  been  equalled 
by  that  of  any  other  mayor  of  Lewiston.  He 
was  later  returned  once  more  to  the  House  of 
Representatives  and  served  as  Speaker  of  that 
body  in  1911,  while  in  1913  he  was  sent  to  the 
State  Senate  to  represent  Androscoggin  county. 
Mr.  Morey  has  always  been  a  staunch  supporter 
of  the  principles  and  policies  represented  by  the 
Democratic  party  and  has  been  and  still  is  one 
of  the  most  potent  influences  in  both  county  and 
State  politics  on  the  Democratic  side.  Mr. 
Morey  is  not  affiliated  with  any  fraternities  or 
clubs,  though  he  thoroughly  enjoys  normal  so- 
cial intercourse,  and  is  particularly  loved  and  ad- 
mired as  a  companion  by  a  large  circle  of  asso- 
ciates. He  attends  the  Free  Will  Baptist  Church 
of  Lewiston,  and  is  active  in  advancing  its  in- 
terests in  the  community. 


Frank  A.  Morey  was  united  in  marriage,  June 
24,  1889,  at  Lewiston,  with  Maude  M.  Douglass, 
a  native  of  Lewiston,  and  a  daughter  of  Oscar  G. 
and  Phoeb:  W.  (Cook)  Douglass,  old  and  highly 
respected  residents  of  this  city,  who  are  both 
now  deceased.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morey  one 
child  has  been  born,  a  daughter,  Ruth  Mildred, 
who  became  the  wife  of  Herbert  Rice  Coffin,  of 
Lewiston,  who  is  associated  with  the  Woolworth 
store  there,  in  the  capacity  of  manager. 

Frank  A.  Morey  is  a  man  whose  culture  and 
broad  democratic  outlook  has  been  based  on  an 
intimate  experience  and  familiarity  with  life,  and 
he  has  always  had  a  strong  taste  for  seeing  and 
knowing  the  world,  a  taste  which  has  found  ex- 
pression in  one  direction,  by  his  fondness  for 
travel.  He  has  been  fortunate  enough  to  be 
able  to  gratify  this  fondness  and  has  traveled  to 
a  considerable  degree  both  in  his  own  country 
and  abroad.  Among  his  experiences,  those  which 
have  been  of  keenest  interest  to  him  were  con- 
nected with  his  visits  to  the  legislative  bodies  of 
some  of  the  F,uropean  countries,  notably  the 
British  House  of  Parliament  and  the  French 
Chamber  of  Deputies.  A  man  who  readily  and 
spontaneously  imbibed  knowledge  from  this  kind 
of  experience,  he  is  also  one  who  radiates  again 
knowledge  so  gained,  so  that  he  makes  a  most 
delightful  companion.  As  a  sort  of  compliment 
to  this  taste,  he  is  also  extremely  fond  of  his 
home  life  and  enjoys  nothing  more  completely 
than  the  informal  intercourse  of  his  own  house- 
hold and  the  intimate  personal  friends  who  may 
gather  in  his  house.  In  regard  to  the  great  suc- 
cess which  he  has  enjoyed  in  his  professional 
and  official  life,  it  may  be  remarked  that  there 
is  of  course  no  royal  road  to  success.  There  is 
no  road,  even,  of  which  it  may  be  said  that  it  is 
superior  to  all  others,  yet  we  can  scarcely  doubt 
that  there  are,  as  it  were,  certain  shortcuts,  cer- 
tain stretches  of  well-traveled  way  that  lead 
rather  more  directly  and  by  easier  stages  to  some 
specific  goals  than  do  others,  and  that  it  well 
pays  those  who  would  travel  thither  to  take  note 
of  their  existence.  Let  us  take  for  example  that 
so  widely  desired  success  in  public  life  for  which 
so  many  strive  and  so  few  attain  effectively;  here, 
putting  aside  a  certain  undue  influence  said  to 
be  too  frequently  exerted  today  in  this  country, 
there  are  few  ways  of  such  direct  approach  as 
through  the  time-honored  profession  of  law. 
There  is  certainly  nothing  astonishing  in  this 
fact — and  it  surely  is  a  fact — because  the  train- 
ing, the  associations,  matters  with  which  their 
daily  work  brings  them  in  contact,  are  of  a  kind 
that  peculiarly  well  fit  the  lawyers  for  the  tasks 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


139 


of  public  office,  many  of  which  are  merely  a  con- 
tinuation or  slight  modification  of  their  more 
private  labors.  To  step  from  the  bar  to  public 
office  is  to  step  from  private  to  public  life,  yet 
it  involves  no  such  startling  break  in  what  a 
man  must  do,  still  less  in  what  he  must  think, 
and  although  there  are  but  few  offices  in  which 
the  transition  is  as  direct  as  this,  yet  there  are 
but  few  to  which  the  step  is  not  comparatively 
easy.  Of  course  it  is  not,  as  has  already  been 
remarked,  a  royal  road,  for  the  law  is  an  exact- 
ing mistress  and  requires  of  her  votaries  not 
merely  hard  and  concentrated  study  in  prepara- 
tion for  her  practice,  but  a  sort  of  double  task 
as  student  and  business  man  as  the  condition  of 
successful  practice  throughout  the  period  in 
which  they  follow  her.  Nevertheless,  what  has 
been  stated  is  unquestionably  true,  as  anyone 
who  chooses  to  examine  the  lives  of  our  public 
men  in  the  past  can  easily  discover  in  the  pre- 
ponderance of  lawyers  over  men  of  other  call- 
ings who  are  chosen  for  this  kind  of  advance- 
ment. 


NORMAN  LESLIE  BASSETT  was  born  in 
Winslow,  Kennebec  county,  Maine,  June  23,  1869, 
the  oldest  of  three  sons  and  two  daughters  of 
Josiah  Williams  and  Ella  S.  (Cornish)  Bassett. 

William  Bassett,  the  immigrant,  came  over  to 
Plymouth  in  1621,  in  the  ship  Fortune,  and  ulti- 
mately settled  in  West  Bridgewater,  Massachu- 
setts, being  one  of  the  original  proprietors  of 
the  town  of  Bridgewater.  The  seventh  in  de- 
scent from  him  was  Williams  Bassett,  who 
moved  from  Bridgewater  to  Winslow  about  1830. 
He  was  the  father  of  Josiah  Williams  Bassett, 
and  was  named  for  the  family  of  his  mother, 
Abiah  Williams,  whose  grandmother  was  Han- 
nah Standish.  Hannah's  grandmother  was  Jane 
Aldcn,  daughter  of  John  and  Priscilla  (Mullins) 
Alden,  and  her  grandfather  was  Alexander  Stand- 
ish, son  of  Captain  Miles  Standish.  The  mother 
of  Williams  Bassett  was  Sybil  Howard,  who  was 
seventh  in  descent  from  Mary  Chilton  Winslow. 
Ella  S.  (Cornish)  Bassett  was  the  daughter  of 
Colby  Coombs  and  Pauline  B.  (Simpson)  Cor- 
nish. Mr.  Cornish  was  born  in  Bowdoin,  and 
came  to  Winslow  in  1839. 

Norman  L.  Bassett  attended  school  in  District 
No.  2,  in  Winslow,  until  twelve  years  old,  and 
then  went  to  Waterville  Classical  Institute  (now 
Coburn  Classical  Institute).  He  first  entered 
the  department  of  Mrs.  James  H.  Hanson,  and 
later  the  college  preparatory  course  of  three 


years  under  Dr.  Hanson.  He  graduated  July  1, 
1887,  entered  Colby  University  (now  Colby  Col- 
lege) in  the  fall,  and  graduated  July  I,  1891.  His 
scholastic  record  was  excellent.  In  1879  he 
received  the  prize  for  highest  rank  during  the 
year  in  the  district  school;  in  1886  the  first  de- 
clamation prize  at  the  exhibition  of  the  middle 
class  at  the  institute;  the  second  entrance  prize 
to  Colby  in  1887;  a  second  and  especially 
awarded  prize  for  scholarship  during  his  fresh- 
man year;  first  prize  at  the  sophomore  declama- 
tion; junior  Latin  part;  junior  class  day  orator; 
first  prize,  junior  exhibition  of  original  articles; 
first  prize,  senior  composition;  prize  for  highest 
rank  during  senior  year;  Alden  prize  for  highest 
rank  during  the  four  years.  On  his  graduation 
he  was  elected  instructor  in  Greek  and  Latin 
at  Colby  and  entered  upon  the  work  in  the  fall. 
He-  resigned  at  the  end  of  three  years  to  take 
up  the  study  of  law.  For  one  year  he  studied 
in  the  office  of  his  uncle,  Leslie  C.  Cornish,  at 
Augusta.  Maine,  and  in  the  fall  of  1895  entered 
Harvard  Law  School,  from  which  he  was  grad- 
uated cum  laude,  June  29,  1898.  His  class  elected 
him  the  class  marshal  for  the  graduating  exer- 
cises, a  much  prized  honor. 

He  returned  to  the  office  of  Mr.  Cornish,  in 
Augusta,  the  following  October,  and  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  Kennebec  bar,  October  18,  1898, 
He  became  a  resident  of  Augusta  in  1900,  having 
up  to  that  time  maintained  his  residence  in 
Winslow.  He  was  associated  with  Mr.  Cornish 
until  October,  1901,  when  the  partnership  of 
Cornish  &  Bassett  was  formed,  and  continued 
until  March  31,  1907,  when  Mr.  Cornish  was 
appointed  a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial 
Court.  Since  then  Mr.  Bassett  has  practiced 
alone  in  the  offices  in  the  Vickery  building,  for- 
merly occupied  by  the  firm. 

Mr.  Bassett  has  a  varied  and  extensive  practice. 
He  is  counsel  for  numerous  corporations,  and 
trustee  of  several  large  estates.  In  June,  1908, 
he  became  a  trustee  of  the  Augusta  Savings 
Bank,  and  in  January,  1914,  a  trustee  and  mem- 
ber of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  State 
Trust  Company  of  Augusta.  In  October,  1916, 
he  was  elected  a  director  of  the  Boston  and 
Maine  Railroad.  April  5,  1905,  he  was  appointed 
by  Governor  Cobb  the  legal  member  of  the 
Maine  Enforcement  Commission,  and  served 
until  April  8,  1907,  when  he  resigned.  He  is  and 
has  always  been  a  Republican;  was  a  member  of 
the  Augusta  Common  Council  in  1911,  and  of  the 
Board  of  Aldermen  in  1912-13-14.  In  April,  1907, 
Mr.  Bassett  was  elected  secretarv  and  treasurer 


140 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


of  the  Maine  State  Bar  Association,  suceeding 
Judge  Cornish,  and  has  served  since.  In  the 
same  year  he  became  a  member  of  the  American 
Bar  Association,  and  since  1910  has  been  one  of 
its  local  council  for  Maine.  He  has  taken  a  deep 
interest  in  civic  institutions  of  all  kinds.  He 
has  been,  since  its  incorporation  in  1901,  a  trus- 
tee of  Coburn  Classical  Institute;  January,  1902, 
he  was  elected  secretary  and  director  of  the 
Augusta  General  Hospital,  serving  for  fifteen 
years  as  secretary,  until  January,  1917,  when  he 
resigned  as  secretary  and  was  elected  a  director; 
in  June,  1916,  he  became  a  trustee  of  Colby  Col- 
lege. He  was  for  a  number  of  years  chairman 
of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Howard  Be- 
nevolent Union,  of  Augusta,  which  he  organized 
into  a  corporation  in  1918  and  became  its  presi- 
dent. In  January,  1906,  he  was  elected  clerk 
of  All  Souls'  Church  (Unitarian),  of  Augusta, 
and  has  served  since.  He  took  an  active  part  in 
establishing  the  Augusta  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  is  now 
a  trustee  and  treasurer  of  its  endowment  funds. 
In  November,  1917,  he  was  appointed  by  Gover- 
nor Millikcn  a  member  of  the  State  Central  Legal 
Advisory  Committee  in  the  administration  of  the 
Selective  Service  Law. 

June  24,  1903,  Mr.  Bassett  married  Lula  J.  Hoi- 
den,  of  Bcnnington,  Vermont,  daughter  of  John 
S.  and  Jennie  E.  Holden.  He  resides  on  Green 
street,  in  Augusta. 


JOHN  MERRICK,  an  influential  citizen  of 
Hallowell,  Maine,  where  the  later  years  of  his 
life  were  spent,  was  a  member  of  an  old  and 
distinguished  family  that  had  its  origin  in  Wales, 
but  had  resided  in  England  for  a  number  of 
generations.  The  name,  which  is  of  Welsh  deri- 
vation, was  in  ancient  days  spelled  Meuric,  and 
Meric,  and  in  common  with  most  surnames  of 
that  early  period,  we  find  it  under  a  number  of 
forms  in  different  times  and  regions.  The  family 
was  living  in  Surrey  at  the  time  of  the  birth  of 
John  Merrick,  which  occurred,  however,  in  the 
city  of  London,  August  27,  1766.  As  a  lad,  Mr. 
Merrick  attended  for  eight  years  the  grammar 
school  connected  with  the  Established  Church 
at  Kidderminster  and  then,  about  1788,  began 
the  study  of  divinity  at  Daventry,  where  there 
was  a  dissenting  academy  for  theological  train- 
ing. At  the  time  of  Mr.  Merrick's  entrance 
there,  the  celebrated  Thomas  Belsham  was  at 
the  head  of  the  school,  and  he  exercised  a  very 
potent  influence  upon  his  youthful  student  who 
became  his  ardent  disciple.  It  was  a  time  of 


great  changes  in  theological  thought,  and  Bel- 
sham  finally  left  the  Calvinist  faith  for  Unitarian- 
ism.  At  the  time  he  made  this  change  he  took 
with  him  a  number  of  the  students  at  Daventry, 
and  among  these  was  Mr.  Merrick.  Mr.  Belsham 
resigned  at  once  his  place  in  the  academy,  and 
took  charge  of  Hackney  College,  a  Unitarian 
Seminary,  where  he  taught  for  a  number  of  years. 
Mr.  Merrick,  though  not  a  student  at  the  latter 
institution,  continued  for  some  time  longer  un- 
der Mr.  Belsham's  personal  influence.  After 
completing  his  divinity  studies,  he  preached  as 
a  licentiate  for  two  years  at  Stamford,  but  was 
never  ordained.  From  1794  to  1797  he  held  a 
position  as  tutor  in  the  family  of  Benjamin 
Vaughan,  LL.D.,  at  first  in  England,  but  after 
1795.  in  America  (in  Hallowell,  Maine),  whither 
he  accompanied  them.  In  1797  Mr.  Merrick  re- 
turned to  England  for  a  time,  but  in  the  month 
of  May,  in  the  year  following,  shortly  after  his 
marriage,  he  came  once  more  with  his  wife  to 
America.  They  settled  at  once  in  Hallowell, 
Maine,  where  John  Merrick  died,  October  22, 
1861,  at  the  venerable  age  of  ninety-five  years. 

John  Merrick  married  in  London  in  the  month 
of  April,  1798,  Rebecca  Vaughan,  daughter  of 
Samuel  Vaughan,  Esq.,  and  a  sister  of  the  Dr. 
Benjamin  Vaughan,  with  whom  he  had  come  to 
America,  and  whose  children  he  taught.  Among 
the  children  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Merrick  was  Thom- 
as Belsham  Merrick,  whose  sketch  follows. 


THOMAS  BELSHAM  MERRICK— Among 
the  successful  business  men  of  New  York,  in 
which  city  for  many  years  he  was  an  importer 
of  drugs,  was  Thomas  Belsham  Merrick,  a  na- 
tive of  Hallowell,  Maine,  and  a  member  of  a 
family  of  English  origin  which  had  come  to  this 
country  and  settled  in  Maine  during  the  life  of 
his  father,  John  Merrick,  the  subject  of  extended 
mention  in  the  preceding  sketch.  Mr.  Merrick 
was  a  son  of  John  and  Rebecca  Vaughan  Mer- 
rick, both  natives  of  England,  and  was  himself 
born  in  Hallowell,  April  24,  1813.  As  a  lad  he 
attended  the  Hallowell  Academy,  where  he  re- 
ceived the  preliminary  portion  of  his  education 
and  was  prepared  for  college.  Upon  graduating 
from  that  institution  he  entered  Bowdoin  Col- 
lege, where  he  remained  only  one  year.  But 
Mr.  Merrick  was  one  of  those  men  whose  educa- 
tion is  completed  only  with  the  close  of  life  He 
was  a  natural  scholar  and  made  of  himself,  in 
the  subjects  that  he  took  up,  a  man  of  wide  cul- 
ture and  scholarship.  His  strong  interest  in 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


141 


study  began,  however,  after  leaving  college,  with 
his  wish  to  understand  the  various  branches  of 
the  business  in  which  he  then  entered. 

Mr.  Merrick  became  keenly  interested  in  sci- 
entific subjects,  and  gradually  collected  a  library 
of  valuable  text  books  on  astronomy,  chemistry, 
and  physics.  Later  he  made  a  particular 
study  of  astronomy,  in  which  he  was  intensely 
interested  and  was  the  possessor  of  a  fine  and, 
for  those  days,  very  large  telescope  with  which 
he  did  a  considerable  amount  of  original  research 
work.  He  also  made  weather  observations  for 
the  government  weather  bureau,  which  were  of 
value  on  account  of  the  accuracy  and  complete- 
ness with  which  they  were  taken.  But  it  was 
not  merely  scientific  subjects  in  which  Mr.  Mer- 
rick was  interested.  He  was  a  great  lover  of 
art  and  especially  of  music,  for  which  he  pos- 
sessed a  marked  taste.  He  was  an  accomplished 
organist  and  for  two  years  played  that  instru- 
ment in  Grace  Episcopal  Church  in  Philadelphia. 
At  the  age  of  forty  he  took  up  the  violoncello 
and  learned  to  play  that  difficult  instrument 
very  acceptably.  He  engaged  the  later  famous 
orchestral  conductor,  Theodore  Thomas,  soon 
after  his  arrival  in  this  country,  to  teach  his 
two  sons,  and  he  did  much  to  further  the  de- 
velopment of  musical  taste  in  the  communities 
where  he  made  his  home.  While  living  in  Ger- 
mantown  he  organized  a  series  of  annual  Cham- 
ber concerts,  which  were  given  in  his  own  home. 

Mr.  Merrick's  business  career  began  with  a 
clerkship  in  the  drug  store  of  Simon  Page,  in 
Hallowell,  where  he  learned  the  details  of  that 
business  and  where  he  remained  several  years. 
Eventually  he  engaged  in  the  business  of  import- 
ing drugs  for  the  American  trade  from  Europe 
and  elsewhere  and  worked  up  a  large  business 
correspondence  which  extended  to  various  parts 
of  the  world.  For  a  time  he  conducted  this 
business  in  Philadelphia  to  which  city  he  had 
removed  from  Hallowell,  Maine,  and  then,  about 
1848,  he  went  to  New  York  City,  where  he  re- 
mained in  the  same  line  and  met  with  a  notable 
success.  He  continued  actively  engaged  in  this 
business  until  1879,  when  he  retired  and  removed 
with  his  family  to  Germantown,  Pennsylvania, 
where  the  remainder  of  his  life  was  passed,  and 
where  his  death  occurred,  June  2,  1902. 

While  always  keenly  interested  in  public  ques- 
tions, and  a  supporter  of  the  principles  "for 
which  the  Republican  Party  has  stood,  Mr.  Mer- 
rick never  took  part  in  political  life,  and  felt 
no  ambition  for  office  or  public  power.  He 
was  a  man  of  exceptional  integrity  and  honor 


who  was  absolutely  trusted  by  his  associates  in 
business  as  in  every  other  relation  of  life.  His 
strong  sense  of  moral  and  ethical  values  was 
always  attributed  by  him  to  his  father's  ex- 
ample and  instruction.  Yet,  although  he  thus 
valued  his  early  instruction,  he  did  not  remain 
a  member  of  the  Unitarian  church  with  which 
his  father  had  for  so  long  been  identified,  but 
joined  the  Episcopal  church,  and  for  many  years 
attended  service  at  Grace  Church,  Philadelphia, 
where,  as  has  already  been  mentioned,  he  played 
the  organ  for  two  years. 

Thomas  Bclsham  Merrick  was  united  in  mar- 
riage on  November  29,  1839,  in  Hallowell,  Maine, 
with  Elizabeth  Marie  White,  a  native  of  Belfast, 
Maine,  and  daughter  of  William  White,  a  well- 
known  lawyer  of  Maine,  and  Lydia  Amelia 
(Gordon)  White,  old  and  highly  respected  resi- 
dents of  that  place.  Mr.  White's  father  was  a 
native  of  Londonderry,  New  Hampshire,  his 
family  having  been  among  the  original  settlers, 
from  Londonderry,  Ireland.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Merrick  were  born  seven  children  as  follows: 
John;  W.  Gordon,  who  married  Annie  D.  Brown; 
Isabella,  who  became  the  wife  of  George  Samp- 
son, of  Hallowell,  Maine;  Lillie,  who  became  the 
wife  of  Charles  E.  Morgan,  deceased,  of  Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania;  Hallowell  Vaughan; 
Bertha  Vaughan,  who  makes  her  home  in  Hal- 
lowell, Maine;  Llewella  M.,  who  became  the  wife 
of  Walter  Leighton  Clark,  of  New  York  and  of 
Stockbridge,  Massachusetts. 


GEORGE  DANA  BISBEE,  who  for  many 
years  was  most  prominently  associated  with  the 
public  and  business  life  of  Rumford,  Maine, 
where  his  death,  which  occurred  on  May  26,  1918, 
removed  from  this  city  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant factors  in  the  general  life  of  the  com- 
munity, was  a  member  of  an  old  and  distin- 
guished New  England  family,  which  was  founded 
in  this  country  in  the  early  Colonial  period. 
The  name  Bisbee  is  found  under  different  forms 
in  this  country,  and  in  England,  where  it  orig- 
inated, and  is  spelled  Bisbredge,  Bisbridge, 
Bisbe,  Besbey,  Bisby,  Bisbee,  and  many  other 
forms.  The  spelling  Bisbee,  however,  is  that 
which  has  been  accepted  for  the  family  in  this 
country  and  is  now  in  general  use. 

(I)  The  family  was  founded  in  America  by 
one  Thomas  Bisbee,  or,  as  the  name  was  spelled 
on  the  list  of  the  ship  Hercules,  which  sailed  in 
March,  1634-35,  "Bisbedge,"  who  was  probably  a 
member  of  the  parish  of  St.  Peters,  Sandwich, 
England.  There  is  no  evidence  to  show  that 


142 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


Thomas  Bisbee  was  married  at  the  time  that  he 
came  to  this  country,  but  he  brought  with  him 
on  the  Hercules  three  servants,  a  fact  which  bears 
witness  to  his  having  been  a  man  of  standing 
and  wealth  in  the  community  which  he  left.  He 
landed  from  the  Hercules  in  Scituate  Harbor,  in 
the  spring  of  1634,  and  was  one  of  those  who 
founded  the  town  of  Scituate,  in  1636.  He  be- 
came a  deacon  of  the  church  and  was  made  a 
freeman  by  the  General  Court  of  Plymouth  Col- 
ony in  the  year  1637.  Shortly  afterwards,  how- 
ever, he  removed  to  Duxbury,  and  in  1638  was 
one  of  a  committee  of  eight  former  or  present 
residents  of  Scituate,  who  received  a  grant  of 
land  at  Seipican  (now  Rochester).  This  grant 
was  not,  however,  accepted  by  the  inhabitants  of 
Scituate,  most  of  whom  removed  to  Barnstable, 
but  Mr.  Bisbee  remained  in  Duxbury,  and  in 
1643  was  elected  to  represent  that  place  in  the 
General  Court  of  the  colony.  He  afterwards 
removed  to  Marshfield,  and  also  represented  that 
place  in  the  General  Court,  and  from  that  finally 
went  to  Sudbury,  where  his  death  occurred 
March  9,  1674. 

(II)  Elisha    Bisbee,    the    only   known    son    of 
Thomas    Bisbee,    was    born,    probably,    in    Eng- 
land,  and   came   with   his    father   to   America   in 
1634.     In   1644  he  operated  the  ferry  at  Scituate, 
and  was  also   engaged  in  business   as   a  cooper. 
He   was   married   to   a   lady    of   whom   we    only 
know   that  her  first   name   was  Joanna,   and  his 
children,    all    of    whom    were    born    at    Scituate, 
were  as  follows:     Hopestill,  born  in  1645;  John, 
who  is  mentioned  below;  Mary,  born  in  1649,  and 
became    the    wife    of   Jacob    Best,    of    Hingham; 
Elisha,  born  in  1654,  married  (first)  Sarah  King, 
of  Scituate,  and  (second)   Mary  (Jacobs)   Bacon, 
widow  of  Samuel  Bacon,  and  daughter  of  John 
and    Margery     (Fames)     Jacob.      Elisha    Bisbee 
made   his   home   at   South   Hingham,    Massachu- 
setts, where  his  death  occurred  March  4,  1715-16. 

(III)  John   Bisbee,   second   son   of  Elisha  and 
Joanna      Bisbee,   was  born   in    1647,  at   Scituate. 
He    removed    to    Marshfield,    where    he    married, 
September  13,  1687,  Joanna  Brooks.     They  after- 
wards   removed    to    Pembroke,   where   his    death 
occurred,  September  24,  1726,  a  little  more  than 
a  month  after  the  death  of  his  wife.     They  were 
the   parents    of   the   following   children:    Martha, 
born    October    13,    1688;    John,    born    September 
15,  1690,  and  married  Mary  Oldham;  Elijah,  born 
January    29,    1692;    Mary,   born    March    28,    1693; 
Moses,    who    is    mentioned    below;    Elisha,    Jr., 
born  May  3  1698,  and  married  Patience  Soanes; 
Aaron,    who    married    Abigail    ;    Hopestill, 


born     April     16,     1702,     and     married     Hannah 
Churchill. 

(IV)  Moses    Bisbee,    third    son    of    John    and 
Joanna    (Brooks)    Bisbee,   was  born   October  20, 
1695.     He   afterwards   removed   to   East   Bridge- 
water,  where  the  remainder  of  his  life  was  spent. 

He    married    Mary    ,    and    they    were    the 

parents  of  the  following  children:    Abigail,  who 
died    in    early    youth;     Miriam,    born    in     1724; 
Charles,  who  is   mentioned  below;  Joanna,  born 
in  1729,  and  became  the  wife  of  John  Churchill; 
Mary,    born   in    1733,    and    died    in    early   youth; 
and  Tabitha,  born   in   1735. 

(V)  Charles   Bisbee,   son   of  Moses  and   Mary 
Bisbee,  was  born  in   1726,  at   East   Bridgewater, 
Massachusetts.     Shortly  after  the   Revolutionary 
War    he    removed    to    Maine,    and    became    the 
founder   of  the   Bisbee  family  here.     He   settled 
at    Sumner,    in    this    State,    and    married    Beulah 
Howland,  daughter  of  Rowse  Howland,  of  Pem- 
broke,   and    probably    a    descendant    of    Arthur 
Howland,   of   Marshfield,   who   later   removed   to 
that  place.     Charles  Bisbee  was  a  soldier  in  the 
Revolutionary  War,  as  were  also  his   two  elder 
sons,  Elisha  and  Charles,  and  it  was  after  having 
completed  his  service  in  that  momentous  strug- 
gle that  he  became  one  of  the  band  of  pioneers 
who  left  Massachusetts  to  find  a  home  for  them- 
selves in  the  Maine  forests.     He  purchased  lands 
in  the  township  of  Sharon,  which  afterwards  be- 
came   Butterfield,    and    in    1783    visited    his    land 
there  and  erected  a  small  and  rude  house  for  his 
family   in   the   wilderness.     With    the   assistance 
of  his  seven  sons  he  soon  cleared  his   property 
and  built  up  a  farm  there,  which  afterwards  he 
cultivated    with    success.      His    death    occurred 
June  5,  1807.     He  and  his  wife  were  the  parents 
of  the  following  children,  all  of  whom  were  born 
in    Pembroke,    Massachusetts:     Elisha,    who    is 
mentioned  below;  Charles,  Jr.,  who  was  born  in 
1758,  and  married  Desire  Dingley,  of  Marshfield; 
Mary,    born    in    1760,    and    became    the    wife    of 
Charles    Ford;    Moses,   born    February   21,    1765, 
and    married    Ellen    Buck;    John,    who    married 
Sarah    Philbrick;    Solomon,    born    September    3, 
1769,    and    married    Ruth    Barrett;    Calvin,    born 
October     14,     1771,     married     Bethiah     Glover; 
Rowse,  born  October  17,  1775,  and  married  Han- 
nah   Caswell;    Celia,    who    became    the    wife    of 
Joshua   Ford. 

(VI)  Elisha     (2)      Bisbee,     eldest     child     of 
Charles  and  Beulah  (Howland)  Bisbee,  was  born 
in  the  year  1757,  at  Duxbury,  Massachusetts,  and 
as  a  young  man  fought  in  the   Revolution.     He 
afterwards   removed   with   his   parents   to   Maine, 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


143 


where  the  remainder  of  his  life  was  spent.  He 
married,  at  Duxbury,  in  1779,  Mary  Pettingill, 
and  his  wife  and  two  children  accompanied  him 
to  Maine,  where  they  settled  at  Sumner.  They 
were  the  parents  of  the  following  children: 
Susan,  born  March  26,  1780,  at  Duxbury,  and 
became  the  wife  of  Nathaniel  Bartlett,  of  Hart- 
ford, Maine;  Sally,  born  at  Duxbury,  prior  to 
1784,  and  became  the  wife  of  Gad  Hayford,  of 
Hartford,  Maine;  Anna,  born  in  Maine,  subse- 
quent to  the  year  1784,  and  became  the  wife  of 
Stephen  Brew,  of  Turner,  Maine;  Elisha,  Jr.,  who 
is  mentioned  at  length  below;  Daniel,  who  mar- 
ried Sylvia  Stevens,  of  Sumner;  Hopestill,  born 
April  27,  1791,  and  married  Martha  Sturtevant; 
Mollie,  born  January  4,  1794,  and  became  the 
wife  of  Nehemiah  Bryant,  and  (second)  of 
Lemuel  Dunham;  Huldah,  who  became  the  wife 
of  Sampson  Reed,  of  Hartford;  Horatio,  born 
August  13,  1800,  and  married  Eunice  White, 
March  27,  1823. 

(VII)  Elisha  (3)  Bisbee,  son  of  Elisha  (2)  and 
Mary  (Pettingill)  Bisbee,  was  born  May  8,  1786, 
at  Sumner,  Maine.      He  married,  April   10,   1810, 
Joanna  Sturtevant,  and  they  were  the  parents  of 
the  following  children:    I.  Elbridge  G.,  born  Feb- 
ruary 8,  1811,  died  October  2,  1812.     2.  Thomas 
J.,  married  Sylvia  Stetson,  of  Sumner.    3.  George 
W.,    twin    of   Thomas    J.,    mentioned   below.     4. 
Mary  P.,  born  June  6,  1815,  and  became  the  wife 
of  Freeman  Reed.     5.  Elisha,  born  in  April,  1822, 
and  died  September  24,  1853.    6.  Sarah  W.,  born 
February  21,   1826,  and  became   the  wife  of  Or- 
ville  Robinson.     7.  Sophia  G.,  born  April  7,  1827. 
8.  Levi  B.,  born  July  10,  1828,  and  married  Eliza 
A.   C.  Heald.     9.   Elisha   S.,  born  April   15,   1830, 
and  married  J.  Parsons.     10.  Asia  H.,  born  Jan- 
uary 6,  1832,  and  died  at  Portland,  Oregon,  June 
i,    1870.      ii.    Daniel    H.,   born    October   9,    1833. 
12.  Jane  Y.,  born  July  I,  1835,  and  married  James 
McDonald,    October    I,    1855.      13.    Hopestill    R., 
born    June    21,    1837.      14.    Hiram    R.,    born    De- 
cember   ii,    1839,    who    was    a    sergeant    of   the 
Ninth  Maine  Volunteers,  in  Company  F,  and  was 
shot  in  battle  and  died  at  Bermuda,  May  20,  1864. 

(VIII)  George  W.   Bisbee,   son   of  Elisha   (3) 
and  Joanna   (Sturtevant)    Bisbee,  was  born  July 
6,  1812,  at  Sumner,  Maine.     He  married,  January 
i,  1836,  Mary  B.  Howe,  of  Rumford,  Maine,  and 
died    in    Peru,    Maine,    January    27,    1872.     They 
were  the  parents  of  one  child,  George  Dana,  with 
whose  career  we  are  here   especially   concerned. 

(IX)  George     Dana     Bisbee,     only     child     of 
George   W.   and    Mary    B.    (Howe)    Bisbee,   was 
born  July  9,   1841,  at  Hartford,   Maine.     He   at- 


tended the  public  schools  of  West  Peru  and  the 
Oxford  Normal  Institute,  of  Paris,  Maine.  He 
was  twenty  years  of  age  when,  in  1861,  the  Civil 
War  broke  out,  and,  in  company  with  many  other 
of  the  young  men  of  his  State,  he  answered 
President  Lincoln's  call  for  men,  and  enlisted 
in  the  Sixteenth  Maine  regiment  at  the  time  of 
its  organiation.  The  regiment  was  at  once  or- 
dered South,  and  the  young  man  saw  a  great 
deal  of  active  service  and  participated  in  some 
of  the  most  desperately  contested  actions  and 
campaigns  of  the  war,  serving  under  Generals 
McCIellan,  Burnside,  Hooker,  Meade  and  Grant. 
These  campaigns  included  those  attempted  in 
Virginia,  with  the  idea  of  regaining  what  had 
been  lost  by  Fredericksburg  and  Chancellors- 
ville,  and  that  at  Antietam,  by  which  Washing- 
ton was  saved.  He  was  also  one  of  those  who 
took  part  in  the  Battle  of  Gettysburg  and  was, 
with  his  entire  regiment,  captured  by  the  Con- 
federates on  the  first  day  of  that  terrific  engage- 
ment. He  was  one  of  the  prisoners  of  war  who 
suffered  the  hardships  of  Libby  Prison,  and  was 
also  confined  in  several  other  Confederate  prison 
camps,  until  his  parole  in  December,  1864.  He 
was,  however,  later  exchanged,  and  although 
wounded  and  greatly  worn  by  his  confinement, 
re-entered  the  army  and  took  part  in  the  battle 
which  finally  resulted  in  the  surrender  of  General 
Lee,  at  Appomattox  Court  House.  So  keen  a 
soldier  was  Mr.  Bisbee  that,  in  spite  of  the  suf- 
ferings which  he  had  witnessed  and  personally 
endured,  he  counted  his  participation  in  this 
last  campaign  as  full  compensation  for  all  his 
trials  and  hardships.  Upon  the  close  of  the  war 
he  was  honorably  discharged  with  his  regiment, 
and  returning  to  the  North,  entered  the  law 
office  of  Randall  &  Winter,  at  Dixfield,  Maine. 
Mr.  Randall  studied  in  the  same  class  with 
Nathaniel  Hawthorne  and  other  noted  men.  Mr. 
Bisbee  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Oxford  in 
December,  1865,  and  the  following  year  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  his  profession  at  Buckfield, 
Maine,  remaining  there  until  1892,  when  he 
finally  removed  to  Rumford  Falls.  Here  he 
again  took  up  the  practice  of  the  law,  and  be- 
came the  senior  partner  of  the  firm  of  Bisbee  & 
Parker,  his  associate  being  Mr.  Ralph  Parker. 
Later  he  also  admitted  his  grandson,  Captain 
Spaulding  Bisbee,  who  is  now  serving  in  the  One 
Hundred  and  Third  Regiment,  United  States 
Expeditionary  Force,  in  France,  into  the  partner- 
ship. Besides  his  private  practice,  Mr.  Bisbee 
held  many  important  public  offices,  legal  and 
otherwise,  in  the  community,  and  in  all  of  them 


144 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


discharged  his  duties  with  the  utmost  efficiency 
and  capability.  He  was  county  attorney  of  Ox- 
ford county  for  a  number  of  years,  and  also 
served  in  both  branches  of  the  State  Legislature. 
He  was  United  States  Marshal  for  the  district 
of  Maine  for  four  years,  with  his  office  at  Port- 
land, Maine,  and  was  appointed  State  bank  exam- 
iner, a  post  which  he  held  for  four  years.  He 
was  also  a  member  of  Governor  Cobb's  Council 
in  1005  and  1007.  Mr.  Bisbee  was  also  a  promi- 
nent figure  in  the  business  and  financial  life  of 
the  State  and  was  connected  with  a  number  of 
important  institutions  here.  He  was  president 
of  the  Rumford  Falls  Trust  Company  and  was 
one  of  the  promoters  of  that  concern,  was  a 
director  and  attorney  of  the  Portland  &  Rum- 
ford  Falls  Railway,  and  several  other  local  enter- 
prises. He  was  appointed  chairman  of  the  board 
of  trustees  of  Hebron  Academy  in  1907,  and 
afterwards  became  president  of  that  institution. 
As  a  lawyer,  Mr.  Bisbee  was  one  of  the  leaders 
of  the  bar  of  Maine,  and  much  of  the  most  im- 
portant litigation  of  the  State  passed  through 
his  office.  He  was  admitted  to  practice  before 
all  the  Superior  Courts  of  the  State,  and  at  the 
bar  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States. 
At  this  time  he  was  president  of  the  Bench 
and  Bar  Association  of  Maine.  It  was  Mr.  Bis- 
bee and  his  associate,  Hugh  J.  Chisholm,  who 
were  the  promoters  of  the  flourishing  community 
of  Rumford  Falls,  Maine. 

George  Dana  Bisbee  was  united  in  marriage, 
July  8,  1866,  with  Anna  Louise  Stanley,  daughter 
of  the  Hon.  Isaac  N'ewton  and  Susan  (Trask) 
Stanley,  old  and  highly  respected  residents  of 
Dixfield.  Mr.  Stanley,  who  was  a  native  of  Win- 
throp,  Maine,  was  a  successful  merchant  at  Dix- 
field. He  was  a  Republican  in  politics,  and  held 
a  number  of  town  offices  and  also  represented 
Dixfield  in  the  State  Legislature.  Both  he  and 
his  wife  died  at  that  place.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Bisbee  the  following  children  were  born:  Stan- 
ley, born  in  Buckfield,  April  25,  1867,  and  now  3 
prominent  man  of  Rumford,  Maine;  Mary  Louise, 
who  became  the  wife  of  Everett  R.  Josselyn,  of 
the  firm  of  Brown  &  Josselyn,  of  Portland, 
wholesale  flour  dealers,  and  two  who  died  in 
infancy.  Mrs.  Bisbee  is  a  member  of  Stanley 
Chapter,  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution, 
which  was  named  for  her  great-grandmother. 

We  all  feel  a  strong,  instinctive  admiration 
for  the  natural  leader  of  men,  for  the  man  who, 
because  of  the  possession  of  some  quality  or 
other,  reaches  a  place  in  which  he  directs  the 
doings  of  his  fellows  and  is  accepted  of  them 


naturally  in  that  capacity.  We  all  admire  him 
independently  of  what  that  quality  may  be,  even 
if  our  best  judgment  tells  us  that  it  is  by  no 
means  praiseworthy  in  itself.  When,  however, 
that  quality  is  a  lovable  one,  and  a  man  leads  in 
virtue  of  the  sway  he  holds  over  the  affections 
and  veneration  of  others,  our  admiration  receives 
an  added  power  from  our  approval,  and  this  feel- 
ing receives  its  final  confirmation  when  such 
leadership  is  directed  solely  to  good  ends.  This 
is  in  great  measure  true  of  the  case  of  George 
Dana  Bisbee,  whose  reputation  in  his  home  State 
for  success,  gained  without  the  compromise  of 
his  ideals,  is  second  to  none.  His  rise  to  a  place 
of  prominence  in  so  many  departments  of  the 
community's  life  was  doubtless  rapid,  but  it  was 
not  won  without  the  expenditure  of  labor  and 
effort  of  the  most  consistent  kind,  labor  and 
effort  which  doubtless  felt  discouragement,  such 
as  every  man  experiences  in  the  course  of  his 
life.  The  qualities  which  formed  the  basis  of 
Mr.  Bisbee's  character  were  unquestionably  those 
fundamental  virtues  of  courage  and  sincerity 
which  alone  are  responsible  for  the  highest  and 
most  enduring  success.  A  story  told  of  him 
during  his  campaign  in  the  Civil  War  well  illus- 
trates the  quality  of  this  courage  and  of  his 
sincere  belief  in  the  overwhelming  importance 
of  the  cause  for  which  he  was  fighting.  Mr. 
Bisbee  was  severely  wounded  at  the  Battle  of 
Fredericksburg,  but  absolutely  refused  to  allow 
the  physician  to  amputate  his  arm.  While  still 
in  the  hospital,  recovering  slowly  from  his  hurts, 
he  received  notice  of  his  promotion  as  an  officer, 
and  he  at  once  expressed  a  wish  to  go  to  the 
front  and  accept  his  commission.  He  was  re- 
fused permission,  however,  by  the  hospital  au- 
thorities, one  of  whom  is  quoted  as  saying  to 
him,  "sick  and  wounded  men  at  the  front  are  of 
no  use."  He  was  accordingly  discharged,  on 
account  of  wounds  and  physical  disability,  but 
still  full  of  his  determination,  he  secured  through 
Vice-President  Hamlin  a  permit  to  visit  his  regi- 
ment and  at  once  offered  himself  for  service 
there.  Struck  by  his  determination,  his  superiors 
allowed  him  to  be  mustered  into  the  service  once 
more,  with  his  old  commission  as  lieutenant, 
and  he  took  part  in  the  Battle  of  Chancellors- 
ville,  with  his  wounded  arm  in  a  sling.  Such 
perseverance  as  was  exhibited  by  him  on  this 
occasion  continued  to  mark  his  behavior  through- 
out life  and  it  was  always  true  of  him  that  an 
object  which  he  deemed  worthy  of  seeking,  he 
would  pursue  without  regard  to  its  cost  and 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


145 


hardship.  Such  men  are  rare,  and  the  success 
which  they  invariably  win  is  only  the  legitimate 
and  appropriate  recompense  of  their  endeavors. 


CAPTAIN  WHITMAN  SAWYER— Of  the 
eighth  generation  of  the  family  in  New  England, 
Captain  Whitman  Sawyer,  a  citizen  and  soldier, 
bore  honorably  a  name  which  figured  conspicu- 
ously in  every  department  of  American  life,  and 
has  continued  its  proportion  to  the  progress  and 
development  of  the  nation.  Within  a  few  years 
of  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrims,  at  Plymouth 
Rock,  the  name  appeared  in  Massachusetts 
records,  and  as  pioneers  Sawyers  showed  those 
qualities  which  planted  civilization  on  the  New 
England  coast,  wrested  fields  from  the  forest 
and  tamed  the  savage  things  that  linked  therein 
to  do  them  harm.  They  were  ready  to  fight 
for  their  liberties  as  for  their  lives,  and  when 
an  appeal  to  arms  was  taken  to  establish  those 
liberties,  it  is  of  record  that  in  the  town  of  Lan- 
caster, alone,  eighteen  members  of  the  Sawyer 
family  were  enrolled  as  soldiers,  and  that  one 
company  from  that  town  was  officered  entirely 
by  Sawyers.  And  what  was  true  in  Massachu- 
setts, was  true  wherever  they  were  found.  This 
martial  spirit  was  as  strong  in  the  eighth  as  in 
earlier  generations,  and  the  war  record  of  Cap- 
tain Whitman  Sawyer  was  one  of  conspicuous 
bravery. 

Captain  Whitman  Sawyer  was  a  descendant  of 
John  Sawyer,  of  Lincolnshire,  England,  he  the 
father  of  three  sons,  William,  Edward,  and 
Thomas,  all  of  whom  came  to  Massachusetts 
about  1636.  This  branch  comes  through  Ed- 
ward Sawyer,  who  married,  in  England,  Mary 
Peasley,  who  accompanied  her  husband  to  New 
England,  they  also  burying  three  children,  Mary, 
Henry,  and  James.  This  family  settled  first  in 
Ipswich,  Massachusetts,  later  in  Rowley.  James 
Sawyer,  their  youngest  child,  was  a  weaver  by 
trade,  lived  in  Gloucester,  and  there  died,  May 
31,  1703.  He  married  Sarah  Bray,  of  Gloucester, 
who  died  April  24,  1727. 

John  Sawyer,  son  of  James  Sawyer,  moved 
with  his  family  from  Gloucester,  Massachusetts, 
to  Cape  Elizabeth,  Maine,  there  kept  a  store, 
and  was  buried  in  the  graveyard  on  Meeting 
House  hill.  He  married,  February  20,  1701,  Re- 
becca Stanford.  Among  their  children  was  a 
son,  Joseph,  who  married  Joanna  Cobb,  and  they 
were  the  parents  of  the  third  John  Sawyer, 
through  whom  descent  is  traced.  John  (3)  Saw- 
yer married  Isabella  Martin,  of  Blue  Hill,  Maine. 

ME.— l—io 


They  were  the  parents  of  John  (4)  Sawyer,  born 
in  Buxton,  Maine,  died  in  Standish,  Maine,  May 
6,  1849.  John  (4)  married  Grace  Jenkins,  and 
they  were  the  parents  of  John  (5)  Sawyer,  born 
on  the  homestead  farm  at  Standish,  Maine,  July 
II,  1800,  died  in  Casco,  Maine,  October  10,  1870. 
He  married,  June  19,  1825,  Rebecca  Longley, 
daughter  of  Eli  Longley,  one  of  the  first  set- 
tlers of  Waterford,  Maine,  who  built  the  first 
log  hotel  and  store  in  that  town,  and  was  the 
first  postmaster.  They  were  the  parents  of  eight 
children,  including  a  son,  Whitman,  whose  life 
and  public  service  is  the  ruling  theme  of  this 
review. 

Captain  Whitman  Sawyer,  fourth  son  of  John 
(5)  and  Rebecca  (Longley)  Sawyer,  was  born  in 
Raymond,  June  10,  1838,  and  died  in  Portland, 
June  20,  1904.  He  lived  in  Raymond  until  his 
early  manhood,  and  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil 
War  he  offered  his  services  for  the  preservation 
of  the  Union.  Following  is  his  war  record,  com- 
piled from  official  and  authentic  sources  by  the 
Soldiers'  and  Sailors'  Historical  and  Benevolent 
Society,  of  which  he  was  a  member,  duly  signed 
and  sealed: 

Whitman  Sawyer  enlisted  from  Cumberland 
county,  Maine,  on  the  loth  day  of  September, 
1862,  to  serve  nine  months,  and  was  mustered 
into  the  United  States  service  at  Portland, 
Maine,  on  the  29th  day  of  September,  1862,  as 
first  lieutenant  of  Captain  Charles  H.  Doughty's 
Company  "C,"  2$th  Regiment,  Maine  Volunteer 
Infantry,  Colonel  Francis  Fessenden  command- 
ing. The  Twenty-fifth  was  the  second  regiment 
from  the  Pine  Tree  State  to  enter  the  service 
of  the  United  States  for  nine  months'  duty,  and 
was  the  first  for  that  term  to  leave  the  State. 
It  was  mustered  into  the  United  States  service, 
at  Portland,  on  the  29th  day  of  September,  1862, 
with  the  following  field  officers:  Francis  Fes- 
senden. colonel;  Charles  E.  Shaw,  lieutenant- 
colonel;  Alexander  M.  Tolman,  major.  The  regi- 
ment left  the  State  on  the  i6th  of  October  for 
Washington,  D.  C.,  where  it  arrived  on  the  l8th 
and  went  into  camp  on  East  Capitol  Hill,  where 
it  was  assigned  to  the  3rd  Brigade,  Casey's  Divi- 
sion, 22d  Corps,  Defenders  of  Washington,  and 
was  immediately  engaged  in  drills  and  evolu- 
tions of  the  line  under  General  Casey.  On  Sun- 
day, October  26th,  the  regiment  moved  through 
a  furious  storm  to  a  camping  ground  on  Arling- 
ton Heights,  Virginia,  immediately  in  front  of 
the  line  of  earthworks  for  the  defense  of  Wash- 
ington, remaining  here,  until  March  24,  1863, 
constantly  engaged  in  guarding  Long  Bridge, 
on  both  sides  of  the  Potomac,  and  in  construct- 
ing batteries  and  fortifications.  In  December, 
1862,  the  Third  Brigade  of  Casey's  Division  was 
broken  up,  and,  with  the  27th  Maine,  the  regi- 
ments were  organized  into  the  First  Brigade 
of  Casey's  Division,  with  which  it  remained  until 


146 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


its  final  muster  out.  Although  in  no  pitched  bat- 
tles, the  command  had  a  number  of  encounters 
with  guerillas  and  marauding  bands,  in  all  of 
which  it  acquitted  itself  admirably.  The  said 
Whitman  Sawyer  was  honorably  discharged  at 
Portland.  Maine,  on  the  3rd  day  of  July,  1863, 
by  reason  of  expiration  of  his  term  of  enlist- 
ment. He  re-enlisted  at  Augusta,  Maine,  on  the 
igth  day  of  December,  1863,  to  serve  three  years 
or  during  the  war,  and  was  mustered  into  the 
United  States  service  and  commissioned  as  Cap- 
tain of  Company  "C,"  3Oth  Regiment,  Maine 
Volunteer  Infantry,  Colonel  Francis  Fessenden, 
commanding.  The  3Oth  Maine  was  formed  of 
exceptionally  good,  soldierly  material  to  a  large 
extent,  and  also  had  a  number  of  old  men  and 
discharged  soldiers  whose  disability  was  only 
apparently  removed,  a  large  proportion  of  its 
officers  and  men,  however,  were  experienced  sol- 
diers. The  regiment  was  organized  at  Augusta, 
on  the  gth  day  of  January,  1864,  with  the  fol- 
lowing field  officers:  Francis  Fessenden,  colonel; 
Thomas  H.  Hubbard,  lieutenant-colonel:  and 
Royal  E.  Whitman,  major.  On  the  7th  of  Feb- 
ruary, being  fully  armed  and  equipped,  the  com- 
mand proceeded  to  Portland,  and  from  there 
embarked  on  the  steamer  Merrimac  for  New 
Orleans,  where  they  arrived  on  the  night  of  the 
l6th,  thence  moved  up  to  Bayou  Teche  to  Frank- 
lin, Louisiana,  where  they  were  assigned  to  the 
3rd  Brigade,  First  Division,  Nineteenth  Corps, 
Army  of  the  Department  of  the  Gulf,  and  later 
took  in  the  Red  River  Expedition,  and  engage- 
ments at  Sabine  Cross  Roads,  Mansfield,  Pleas- 
ant Hill,  Cane  River  Crossing,  Cloutierville, 
Alexandria,  Mansura,  Marksville,  Yellow  Bayou, 
Atchafalya  Bayou  and  Morganza,  Louisiana.  In 
July,  the  regiment  sailed  from  Morganza,  for  Vir- 
ginia, reaching  Fortress  Monroe  on  the  l8th,  and 
was  sent  immediately  to  Deep  Bottom,  where 
it  held  a  picket-line  in  the  face  of  the  enemy 
for  twenty-four  hours,  and  later  took  part  in  an 
engagement  at  Bermuda  Hundred  Heights,  Vir- 
ginia, and  a  number  of  skirmishes.  The  regi- 
ment lost  two  hundred  and  ninety  by  death, 
while  in  service.  The  said  Whitman  Sawyer  was 
brevettcd  major  for  brave  and  meritorious  ser- 
vice, and  while  in  line  of  duty  contracted  mala- 
ria, from  which  he  suffered  a  number  of  times 
for  short  periods.  He  was,  however,  at  all  times, 
to  be  found  at  his  post  of  duty,  performing  faith- 
ful and  efficient  service,  and  achieving  an  envi- 
able record  for  bravery  and  soldierly  bearing. 
He  received  a  final  honorable  discharge  at  Sa- 
vannah, Georgia,  on  the  2Oth  day  of  August, 
1865,  by  reason  of  the  close  of  war. 

Returning  from  the  war,  Captain  Sawyer  set- 
tled in  Falmouth,  where  for  a  few  years,  till 
March,  1870,  he  was  engaged  in  the  grocery  busi- 
ness. He  then  removed  to  Portland  and  formed 
a  partnership  in  the  livery  stable  business  with 
the  late  N.  S.  Fernald.  This  firm  did  an  exten- 
sive business,  and  after  a  time  was  formed  into 
a  stock  company  and  named  after  Mr.  Sawyer, 
the  Whitman  Sawyer  Stable  Company,  he  being 


the  treasuier  and  business  manager.  Captain 
Sawyer  was  one  of  the  strongest  Republicans, 
and  had  often  been  honored  with  political  posi- 
tions. While  living  in  Falmouth  he  represented 
that  town  in  the  Legislature,  1869.  and  pre- 
sented a  petition  which  was  instrumental  in 
building  the  Martin's  Point  bridge,  which  con- 
nects Portland  with  Falmouth,  and  in  1892  was 
elected  one  of  the  legislative  representatives 
from  Portland.  He  was  also  in  the  city  govern- 
ment from  Ward  Five,  beginning  as  one  of  the 
councilmen,  and  being  advanced  to  alderman  in 
1885,  and  re-elected  in  the  following  year,  when 
he  was  elected  chairman  of  the  board.  For 
several  years  he  was  chairman  of  the  Board  of 
Prison  Inspectors,  having  been  appointed  for 
the  third  time  in  December,  1003,  by  Governor 
Hill.  He  was  a  member  of  Windham  Lodge, 
Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  and  of 
Unity  Lodge,  No.  3,  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows,  of  Portland,  and  a  prominent  '-vrnber 
of  Bosworth  Post,  No.  -?,  Department  of  Maine, 
Grand  Army  of  tiic  Republic,  in  which  he  filled 
all  chairs.  Captain  Sawyer  died  at  his  residence. 
No.  660  Congress  street,  and  was  buried  in  Ever- 
green Cemetery.  In  the  annual  report  of  the 
prison  inspectors,  they  thus  expressed  their  re- 
gret at  the  loss  of  their  chairman: 

In  commencing  this  report  we  are  sensibly  re- 
minded of  our  loss,  and  the  loss  of  the  whole 
State,  in  the  death  of  Hon.  Whitman  Sawyer, 
late  of  Portland,  who,  with  marked  ability  and 
efficiency  served  the  State  for  nine  years  as 
chairman  of  the  board  of  prison  and  jail  inspect- 
ors. As  we  here  record  this  expression  of  our 
esteem  of  his  manly  qualities,  his  unfailing  char- 
ity, his  loyalty  to  principles  and  faithful  dis- 
charge of  the  duties  of  his  office. 

Other  bodies  of  which  he  was  a  member  passed 
resolutions  of  sorrow  over  his  death  and  com- 
mendation of  his  high  character  and  sterling 
worth.  A  paragraph  in  one  of  the  leading  Port- 
land papers  stated: 

Not  only  all  old  soldiers,  but  all  good  citizen* 
regretted  the  death  of  Captain  Whitman  Sawyer. 
He  was  a  good  representative  of  our  sturdy 
Maine  stock.  His  word  was  as  good  as  his  bond, 
and  he  was  faithful  in  all  his  relations  of  life. 
Such  a  man  is  a  distinct  loss  to  any  community. 
Captain  Sawyer  will  be  long  remembered  because 
of  his  manly  qualities  of  heart  and  hand. 

Captain  Sawyer  married,  December  24,  1865, 
Maria  Lucy  (Fulton)  Dingley,  widow  of  Sum- 
ner  Stone  Dingley,  and  daughter  of  Elijah  and 
Lucy  (Abbott)  Fulton,  and  granddaughter  of 
Nathaniel  and  Luck  (Crockett)  Abbott,  ami 
paternal  granddaughter  of  Robert  and  Grace- 


/^W  /4'**rtfixi  S/astfffxct*/ Spf 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


147 


nath  (Weeks)  Fulton.  Mrs.  Sawyer  has  been 
for  many  years  a  member  of  the  Woman's  State 
Relief  Corps,  and  of  the  Bosworth  Relief  Corps, 
of  both  of  which  she  is  an  ex-president.  Bos- 
worth  Relief  Corps,  organized  in  1869,  was  the 
first  organization  of  its  kind  in  the  United  States. 
The  Woman's  State  Relief  Corps,  an  auxiliary 
to  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  tendered 
their  bereaved  past-president  the  following  reso- 
lutions of  sympathy  upon  the  death  of  her  hus- 
band: 

Whereas,  We  learn  with  sorrow  of  the  death 
of  Captain  Whitman  Sawyer  after  a  lingering 
illness,  and 

Whereas,  The  members  of  the  Woman's  State 
Relief  Corps  have  ever  respected  Comrade  Saw- 
yer as  a  man  of  sterling  character,  and  one  who 
has  ever  been  a  true  friend  of  our  organization, 
and 

H'hcreas,  That  we,  the  members  of  the 
Woman's  State  Relief  Corps,  extend  our  heart- 
felt sympathy  to  our  Sister,  Maria  L.  Sawyer, 
in  this,  her  hour  of  sadness,  and  share  with  her 
the  hope  of  a  happy  reunion  where  parting  is 
unknown. 

Mrs.  Sawyer  continues  her  residence  in  Port- 
land, at  No.  267  Vaughn  street,  where  she  is 
passing  a  serene  old  age.  Captain  Sawyer  left 
an  adopted  daughter,  Nellie  Maria,  who  married 
C.  H.  Gifford. 


EDWIN  WAGNER  GEHRING,  M.D.— The 
life  of  a  physician  is  no  sinecure  and  the  very 
choice  of  it  is  a  proof  of  the  sincerity  and  ear- 
nestness of  the  chooser,  either  as  a  student  with 
an  overwhelming  love  of  his  subject  or  as  an 
altruist  whose  first  thought  is  the  good  of  his 
fellows.  Probably  something  of  both  qualities 
enters  into  the  attitude  of  Dr.  Edwin  Wagner 
Gehring,  of  Portland,  Maine,  one  of  the  leaders 
of  his  profession  in  that  city,  and  this  is  borne 
out  by  the  double  fact  that  he  is  at  once  unusu- 
ally well  versed  in  the  theory  and  technical  prac- 
tice of  med'cine  and  that  he  has  won  the  respect 
and  affection  of  his  patients  and  the  community 
generally. 

Or.  Gehring  is  a  descendant  of  an  old  Ger- 
man family,  and  although  both  he  and  his  parents 
are  natives  of  this  country,  he  displays  many  of 
the  admirable  qualities  of  that  ancient  race, 
which  have  made  them  so  valuable  a  component 
in  the  citizenship  of  the  New  World  and  enabled 
them  to  play  so  prominent  a  part  in  the  develop- 
ment of  its  institutions,  its  industrial  and  pro- 
fessional life.  Dr.  Gehring's  paternal  grand- 
father. Carl  August  Gehring,  was  born  in  Wurt- 
temberg,  Germany,  and  emigrated  from  that 


country  to  the  United  States  with  a  brother  and 
two  sisters  while  still  a  young  man.  The  little 
family  group  settled  in  Ohio,  where  Mr.  Gehring 
was  married  to  Wilhelmina  Vetter,  a  native  of 
the  same  part  of  Germany  as  himself,  who  had 
also  come  to  this  country  in  early  youth.  They 
were  the  parents  of  four  children,  of  whom 
August  Herbert  Gehring,  the  father  of  the  Dr. 
Gehring  of  this  sketch,  was  the  older  son,  and 
the  others  were  as  follows:  Dr.  J.  J.  Gehring,  of 
Bethel,  Maine;  Mrs.  Wentworth  G.  Marshall  and 
Mrs.  Michael  Houck,  of  Cleveland,  Ohio.  Au- 
gust Herbert  Gehring  was  born  in  Cleveland,  in 
1852,  and  made  that  city  his  home  during  the 
entire  period  of  his  short  life.  He  was  engaged 
in  a  wholesale  and  retail  grocery  business  in 
which  he  was  very  successful,  but  died  when 
he  was  thirty-eight  years  of  age.  He  married 
Catherine  Wagner,  like  himself  a  native  of 
Cleveland,  who  since  his  death  makes  her  home 
in  Lansing,  Michigan,  with  one  of  her  sons.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Gehring  were  the  parents  of  five  chil- 
dren, as  follows:  Edwin  Wagner,  of  whom  fur- 
ther; Norman  J.,  who  is  a  physician  in  Chicago, 
Illinois;  Alma  Louise,  who  makes  her  home  in 
Cleveland;  Herbert  August,  of  Lansing,  Michi- 
gan, where  he  carries  on  the  profession  of  civil 
engineer,  and  where  he  married  and  had  one 
child,  Victor  Marshall,  of  Painsville,  Ohio.  Mrs. 
Gehring,  Sr.,  is  a  daughter  of  John  Wagner,  a 
native  of  Germany,  who  came  to  Cleveland  in 
his  early  youth  and  there  lived  and  died. 

Born  March  3,  1876,  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  Dr. 
Edwin  Wagner  Gehring  attended  the  schools  of 
that  city,  where  he  received  the  preliminary  por- 
tion of  his  education  and  prepared  himself  for 
college.  He  graduated  from  the  University 
School  of  Cleveland  and  then  came  East,  making 
his  home  for  a  time  in  Boston  and  studying  there 
in  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology. 
From  this  famous  institution  he  went  to  Cornell 
University,  from  which  he  graduated  with  the 
class  of  1900,  taking  the  degree  of  B.S.  His 
studies  at  the  Institute  of  Technology  and  Cor- 
nell were  such  as  to  fit  him  for  the  profession 
of  civil  engineering,  but  this  he  never  followed, 
as  he  determined  about  this  time  to  make  the 
profession  of  medicine  his  career  in  life.  With 
this  end  in  view,  accordingly,  he  matriculated 
at  the  Harvard  Medical  School,  where  he  studied 
for  a  time  and  then  entered  the  Bowdoin  Medical 
School  in  connection  with  the  university  of  t!>at 
name.  From  this  institution  he  graduated  with 
the  class  of  1004  and  the  degree  of  M.D.,  and 
followed  up  his  thoretical  studies  there  by  a 


•>* 

*"  J 

1'* 


148 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


period  of  a  year  spent  in  the  Maine  General 
Hospital  as  interne.  Here  he  remained  from 
1904  to  1905,  and  in  the  latter  year  went  abroad 
and  took  a  post-graduate  course  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Vienna.  Dr.  Gehring  then  returned 
to  the  United  States  and  began  active  practice 
in  the  city  of  Portland,  as  a  specialist  in  internal 
medicine,  which  he  has  continued  with  a  very 
marked  degree  of  success  up  to  the  present  time. 
He  is  a  member  of  many  prominent  associa- 
tions and  fraternities,  such  as  the  Sigma  Epsilon 
fraternity,  the  Fraternity  Club,  the  American 
College  of  Physicians,  the  American  Medical 
Association,  the  Maine  Medical  Association,  the 
Portland  Medical  Club,  the  Practitioners'  Med- 
ical Club,  the  Portland  Club,  and  is  an  honorary 
member  of  the  Economic  Club  of  Portland.  In 
addition  to  his  large  private  practice,  Dr.  Gehr- 
ing has  been  adjunct  visiting  physician  to  the 
Maine  General  Hospital  since  1907,  pathologist 
and  physician  to  out-patients  at  the  Children's 
Hospital  in  Portland  since  1908,  was  instructor 
in  physiology  at  Bowdoin  for  a  period  of  some 
five  years,  and  in  internal  medicine  one  year. 

On  September  10,  1904,  Dr.  Gehring  was  mar- 
ried at  Bethel,  Maine,  to  Alice  Chamberlain,  a 
native  of  Portland,  a  daughter  of  Edward  C.  and 
Ella  (Twitchell)  Chamberlain,  who  now  resides 
in  Bethel.  To  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Gehring  three  chil- 
dren have  been  born,  as  follows:  Marcia,  born 
November  9,  1905;  John  Chamberlain,  Decem- 
ber 26,  1908,  died  October  17,  1911;  and  Jane, 
June  25,  1915. 

There  is  something  intrinsically  admirable  in 
the  profession  of  medicine,  so  that  those  who 
enter  it  sincerely  and  live  up  to  its  high  stan- 
dards are  most  justly  entitled  to  our  respect 
and  admiration.  The  fact  that  its  prime  object 
is  concerned  in  the  alleviation  of  human  suffer- 
ing, taken  along  with  the  fact  that  a  consider- 
able amount  of  self-sacrifice  is  entailed  upon 
those  who  practice  it,  precludes  the  possibility 
that  it  is  lightly  entered  upon.  Certainly  Dr. 
Gehring  has  amply  shown  during  the  compara- 
tively short  career  which  he  has  enjoyed,  that 
with  him  at  least  these  high  standards  are  a 
very  real  and  vital  existence  and  that  he  intends 
to  be  guided  by  them  in  his  professional  rela- 
tions. This  is  amply  borne  out  by  the  position 
that  he  has  already  gained,  the  reputation  he  has 
won,  both  among  his  fellow-practitioners  and 
among  the  members  of  a  large  and  high-class 
clientage,  a  position  and  a  reputation  which  give 
every  evidence  of  increasing  and  developing  with 
the  passing  years.  He  is  a  man  who  exerts  a 


large  and  growing  influence  upon  the  life  of  the 
community    where    he    resides. 


ROSCOE  CONKLIN  HAYNES— Lewiston. 
Maine,  may  claim  among  its  residents  many 
notable  and  distinguished  educators,  whose 
names  have  become  associated  with  various 
branches  and  departments  of  education  not  only 
throughout  the  State,  but  in  the  entire  region 
of  New  England  and  beyond.  In  that  depart- 
ment having  to  do  with  commercial  and  business 
education,  there  is  none  more  worthy  of  remark 
than  Roscoe  Conklin  Haynes,  whose  association 
with  the  well-known  Bliss  Business  College  has 
been  long  and  close,  and  has  redounded  equally 
to  his  own  and  to  the  institution's  credit.  Mr. 
Haynes,  like  the  founder  of  the  institution,  Mr. 
Bliss,  who  is  mentioned  elsewhere  in  this  work, 
is  a  Western  man,  and  was  born  in  the  State 
of  Ohio,  of  parents  who  had  always  lived  in 
that  part  of  the  country.  He  is  a  son  of  Henry 
Allen  and  Rebecca  J.  (Karshner)  Haynes,  the 
former  a  native  of  Chillicothe,  Ohio,  and  the 
latter  of  Hallsville,  Ross  county,  Ohio.  Mr. 
Haynes,  Sr.,  at  various  times  in  his  life  lived 
in  Ross,  Clinton  and  Madison  counties,  follow- 
ing farming  as  an  occupation  in  these  several 
places  and  finally  dying  at  Galloway,  in  his  native 
State.  His  death  occurred  in  1904,  at  the  vener- 
able age  of  seventy-four  years.  He  is  survived 
by  his  wife,  who  lives  at  Galloway,  aged  eighty. 
To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Haynes,  Sr.,  nine  children  were 
born,  as  follows:  Josephine,  who  became  the 
wife  of  H.  C.  Curtiss,  who  makes  his  home  at 
Sabina,  Ohio;  Isabelle,  who  died  while  still  a 
little  girl;  Daniel,  who  resides  at  Muncie,  In- 
diana; Jennie,  who  resides  at  Galloway,  Ohio; 
George,  who  makes  his  home  at  London,  Ohio; 
Frank,  who  died  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years; 
Dolly,  who  became  the  wife  of  F.  M.  Roseberry, 
and  died  in  the  year  1900;  Birdie,  who  became 
the  wife  of  J.  C.  Ball,  of  Pittsburgh,  Pennsyl- 
vania; and  Roscoe  Conklin,  with  whose  career 
this  sketch  is  particularly  concerned. 

Born  November  22,  1882,  at  Sabina,  Ohio,  Ros- 
coe Conklin  Haynes,  youngest  child  of  Henry 
Allen  and  Rebecca  J.  (Karshner)  Haynes,  spent 
only  the  first  few  years  of  his  childhood  in  his 
native  town.  While  he  was  still  a  little  boy  his 
parents  removed  to  Madison  county,  Ohio,  and 
it  was  there  that  he  grew  up  to  young  manhood 
amid  the  healthful  surroundings  of  his  father's 
farm.  He  attended  the  local  public  schools  for 
the  preliminary  portion  of  his  education,  and 
afterwards  took  a  special  course  at  Lebanon  Uni- 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


149 


versity.  After  completing  his  studies  at  this 
institution,  he  took  up  for  a  time  the  task  of 
teaching  in  the  public  school,  his  work  being  for 
about  three  years  in  these  institutions  in  Frank- 
lin county,  Ohio.  It  was  at  the  end  of  this 
period  that  he  first  became  acquainted  with  the 
Bliss  College  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  which  he  en- 
tered as  a  student  and  where  he  took  the  regu- 
lar course  in  normal  training.  He  graduated 
from  this  with  the  class  of  1907,  and  in  Sep- 
tember of  the  same  year  came  to  Lewiston, 
Maine,  where  he  had  been  offered  charge  of  the 
commercial  department  in  the  Bliss  College, 
which  had  been  founded  here  just  ten  years 
before.  After  two  years  in  charge  of  the  com- 
mercial department,  Mr.  Haynes  was  given  the 
position  of  manager,  and  now  is  in  active  charge 
of  the  school  at  all  times.  He  is  a  man  of  un- 
usual accomplishments  and  is  especially  well 
qualified  for  the  work  which  he  has  taken  up, 
possessing  those  traits  of  character  which  enable 
him  to  deal  with  young  men  and  women  most 
successfully,  to  draw  them  out  and  encourage 
them  to  do  their  best  work — 

To  make  a  man  do  the  best  of  which  he  IB  capable, 
To  make  him  give  out  the  best  that  Is  within  him, 
This  Is  the  office  of  a  friend. 

If  this  be  true,  then  Mr.  Haynes  may  be  most 
accurately  described  as  the  friend  of  the  many 
pupils  whom  he  has  in  charge.  For  it  is  cer- 
tainly his  talent  which  draws  from  them  all  the 
excellent  work  that  they  do  and  contributes  in 
so  large  a  degree  to  the  high  standing  of  the 
institution. 

The  school  with  which  Mr.  Haynes  is  asso- 
ciated occupies  a  very  important  place  in  the 
life  of  the  community  and  is  undoubtedly  doing 
a  great  work  in  the  training  of  young  people 
of  both  sexes  in  the  practical  affairs  of  life.  It 
makes  a  very  direct  appeal  to  the  foreseeing 
parents  of  the  community,  for  as  is  said  in  the 
prospectus  of  the  school, — 

All  worthy  parents  are  vitally  interested  in  the 
welfare  of  their  sons  and  daughters.  Every  son 
should  be  educated  for  self-support,  no  matter 
what  his  financial  condition  may  be  at  the  pres- 
ent time.  No  young  man  can  respect  himself  in 
the  future,  nor  will  others  respect  him,  unless 
he  develops  self-supporting  qualities — the  ability 
to  earn  money,  or  to  properly  handle  and  invest 
money  that  may  have  come  into  his  possession 
by  inheritance.  Every  daughter  should  be  edu- 
cated for ^  self-support,  although  she  may  never 
"have  to"  support  herself.  Intelligent  women 
everywhere  are  now  realizing  the  importance  of 
a  practical  business  education  for  both  sexes. 

This  is  good,  practical,  general  advice,  and  is 


followed  up  with  the  following  information  con- 
cerning the  Bliss  System  of  accomplishing  the 
desired  results. 

The  Bliss  System  of  actual  business  is  highly 
systematized,  and  is  unquestionably  the  most 
practical  in  business  and  office  training  ever 
devised.  The  instruction  in  this  course  is  largely 
individual  and  the  subject  of  book-keeping  i» 
taught  in  a  practical  manner  throughout  the 
entire  course.  The  fact  that  you  have  taken  a 
course  in  book-keeping  does  not  mean  that  you 
must  become  a  book-keeper,  it  does  mean  that 
book-keeping  is  essential  in  business  education 
for  the  promotion  of  every  young  man  and 
young  woman  seeking  employment  in  a  business 
office.  The  Bliss  System  of  Actual  Business  re- 
quires six  Wholesale  Houses,  a  National  Bank, 
Brokerage  and  Commission,  as  part  of  the  school 
room  equipment  before  it  can  be  taught  in  a 
scientific  manner  as  designed.  The  wholesale 
houses  are  in  charge  of  bill  clerks  and  book- 
keepers chosen  from  the  advanced  class,  and  the 
bankers  are  chosen  in  like  manner.  The  bankers 
and  wholesale  employees  are  under  the  direct 
supervision  of  our  college  auditor,  whose  duty 
it  is  to  see  that  all  business  is  cared  for  in  a 
business-like  way.  The  student  body,  operating 
from  the  floor,  are  the  customers  of  the  whole- 
sale houses  and  patrons  of  the  bank.  A  regular 
national  banking  business  is  carried  on  and  grad- 
uates from  this  department  are  to  be  found  in 
many  of  the  banks  throughout  New  England, 
some  have  risen  to  the  position  of  cashier,  as- 
sistant cashier,  paying  and  receiving  tellers.  It 
would  be  necessary  for  you  to  visit  this  depart- 
ment, witness  the  business-like  atmosphere  of 
the  department  before  you  could  realize  to  what 
extent  the  business  world  has  been  brought 
within  the  confines  of  a  schoolroom. 

With  such  a  system,  under  the  direction  of 
so  capable  an  executive  as  Mr.  Haynes,  it  is  no 
wonder  that  excellent  results  are  achieved. 

Mr.  Haynes  is  far  too  healthful  and  broad- 
minded  to  have  become  so  entirely  absorbed  in 
his  work  as  teacher  as  to  have  lost  contact  with 
the  other  aspects  of  life.  He  has  none  of  the 
qualities  which  are  sometimes  associated  in  the 
popular  mind  with  the  pedagogical  calling,  but 
is  alive  to  and  sympathetic  with  the  world-at- 
large.  He  finds  his  chief  recreation  in  the  sport 
of  fishing,  which  might  even  be  called  his  hobby, 
and  he  spends  his  vacations  indulging  this  taste 
in  all  its  many  forms.  He  is  associated  with  the 
M.  W.  A.,  and  is  a  figure  of  considerable  promi- 
nence in  the  social  world  of  Lewiston.  In  his 
religious  belief  he  is  a  Methodist  and  attends 
the  church  of  that  denomination  in  Lewiston. 

Roscoe  Conklin  Haynes  was  united  in  mar- 
riage, August  28,  1907,  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  with 
Anna  B.  Poling,  who  was  born  not  far  from 
that  city  and  is  a  daughter  of  Mathias  and  Eliza- 


150 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


beth  (Reed)  Poling.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Poling,  while 
long  residing  near  Columbus,  Ohio,  came  orig- 
inally from  Kentucky.  They  are  now  both  de- 
ceased. 

A  word  should  be  here  said  concerning  the 
Haynes  family,  which  is  an  old  one  in  America 
and  has  numbered  among  its  members  many  men 
who  have  achieved  distinction  in  the  various 
walks  of  life.  It  is  of  Irish  origin,  but  was 
founded  in  this  country  at  an  early  date,  the 
immigrant  ancestor  having  settled  in  Virginia, 
in  which  State  for  many  years  the  family  con- 
tinued to  make  its  home. 


GEORGE  CURTIS  WING— The  Wing  family, 
of  which  George  Curtis  Wing  is  the  present 
representative  in  the  city  of  Auburn,  Maine,  can 
claim  a  great  and  honorable  antiquity  in  New 
England,  where  it  was  founded  as  early  as  the 
year  1640  by  immigrants  who  came  from  York- 
shire, England,  and  settled  upon  Cape  Cod.  Here 
the  family  resided  for  a  number  of  generations, 
and  it  was  not  until  the  time  of  Reuben  Wing, 
the  grandfather  of  the  Mr.  Wing  of  this  sketch, 
that  the  name  was  brought  to  Maine.  Reuben 
Wing,  however,  when  a  child  came  from  Cape 
Cod  to  Maine  with  his  father,  Samuel  Wing, 
who  settled  in  the  town  of  Readfield.  Reuben 
Wing,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  went  to  Livermore 
and  in  the  unbroken  forest  took  up  a  farm 
upon  which  he  lived  until  his  death,  at  the 
age  of  ninety  years  and  six  months.  He  mar- 
ried Lucy  Carpenter  Weld,  of  Cornish,  New 
Hampshire,  and  they  were  the  parents  of  seven 
children,  all  of  whom  are  now  deceased.  Among 
these  children  was  Walter  Weld  Wing,  the 
father  of  the  Mr.  Wing  of  this  sketch,  who  was 
borrt  September  8,  1811,  at  Livermore,  Maine, 
and  died  in  the  city  of  Auburn,  at  the  age  of 
eighty-six  years.  Like  his  father,  he  was  a 
farmer,  and  he  married  Lucy  Amanda  Wyman, 
a  native  of  Bridgton,  Maine,  and  a  daughter  of 
Rev.  William  Wyman,  then  a  Baptist  minister 
in  that  town.  To  Walter  Weld  Wing  and  his 
wife  two  children  were  born,  as  follows:  Charles 
Edwin,  who  studied  the  law  and  practiced  that 
profession  in  the  city  of  Auburn  until  his  death, 
which  occurred  at  the  age  of  fifty-three  years, 
and  George  Curtis,  with  whose  career  we  arc 
especially  concerned. 

Born  April  16,  1847,  at  Livermore,  Maine, 
George  Curtis  Wing  spent  his  childhood  and 
early  youth  in  his  native  town.  For  the  pre- 
liminary portion  of  his  education  he  attended 


the  public  school  and  graduated  from  the  Liver- 
more  High  School  in  1865.  He  had  already  de- 
termined upon  the  law  as  his  profession  in  life, 
and  accordingly,  after  his  high  school  career, 
turned  his  attention  to  the  study  of  this  sub- 
ject to  such  good  purpose  that  he  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  April,  1868.  He  at  once  began 
the  active  practice  of  his  profession  at  Lisbon 
Falls,  Maine,  where  he  remained  for  two  years. 
He  then  came  to  the  city  of  Auburn,  where  he 
settled,  and  where  he  has  been  practicing  act- 
ively ever  since.  It  did  not  take  him  long, 
possessed  as  he  was  of  unusual  qualifications 
and  talents,  to  make  for  himself  a  leading  place 
among 'his  legal  colleagues  in  this  region,  and 
to  develop  a  practice  which  in  time  attained 
large  proportions.  Mr.  Wing,  however,  is  also 
actively  identified  with  the  financial  interests  of 
the  community,  and  was  one  of  the  organizers 
of  the  National  Shoe  &  Leather  Bank  of  Au- 
burn, and  since  that  time  a  director.  Beyond 
doubt,  the  department  of  life  in  which  Mr.  Wing 
is  best  known  to  the  community,  however,  is 
that  of  politics  and  public  life,  in  which  for  many 
years  he  has  held  a  conspicuous  and  responsible 
position.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Maine  Sen- 
ate in  1903,  and  prior  to  that  had  held  a  large 
number  of  local  offices,  including  that  of  county 
attorney,  as  far  back  as  the  year  1874,  and  after 
that  for  nine  years  Judge  of  the  Probate  Court 
in  Androscoggin  county.  He  has  always  been 
exceedingly  active  in  every  movement  looking 
towards  the  welfare  and  improved  conditions  of 
his  professional  colleagues,  and  has  been  promi- 
nently identified  with  the  various  legal  societies 
in  that  part  of  the  country.  For  more  than 
twenty  years  he  has  held  the  office  of  president 
of  the  Androscoggin  County  Bar  Association, 
and  in  1915  held  that  same  office  in  the  Maine 
State  Bar  Association.  In  politics  he  is  a  staunch 
Republican  and  has  been  very  actively  asso- 
ciated with  the  local  organization  of  his  party. 
He  held  the  responsible  post  of  chairman  of  the 
State  Republican  Committee  in  1884,  and  in  the 
same  year  was  chairman  of  the  State  delegation 
to  the  National  Republican  Convention  at  Chi- 
cago, which  nominated  his  own  fellow-states- 
man, James  G.  Blainc,  for  the  Presidency.  He 
also  held  the  position  of  Judge  Advocate  on  the 
staffs  of  Governors  Bodwell  and  Marble,  of 
Maine.  Judge  Wing  has  been  for  many  years  a 
very  prominent  Mason,  having  taken  his  thirty- 
serond  degree  in  Free  Masonry,  and  is  affiliated 
with  the  following  Masonic  bodies:  Tranquil 


* 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


151 


Lodge,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  of 
which  he  is  a  past  master;  Bradford  Chapter, 
Royal  Arch  Masons;  Dunlap  Council,  Royal  and 
Select  Masters;  Lewiston  Coinniandcry,  Knights 
Templar;  Kora  Temple,  Ancient  Arabic  Order 
Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine;  and  Maine  Con- 
sistory, Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite.  An 
honor  much  prized  by  Judge  Wing  is  the  hono- 
rary degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws,  conferred  upon 
him  by  Colby  College  in  the  year  1909.  In 
his  religious  belief  Judge  Wing  is  a  Baptist,  and, 
with  the  members  of  his  family,  attends  the 
Court  Street  Church  of  that  denomination  at 
Auburn. 

Judge  Wing  was  united  in  marriage,  May  2, 
1870,  at  Livermore,  Maine,  with  Emily  Billings 
Thompson,  like  himself  a  native  of  that  town, 
and  a  daughter  of  Job  D.  and  Ruth  (Winslow) 
Thompson,  old  and  highly  respected  residents 
of  that  place,  where  they  died  and  are  buried. 
To  Judge  and  Mrs.  Wing  the  following  children 
have  been  born:  Nahum  Morrill,  May  6,  1871, 
a  graduate  of  Colby  College,  married  Fannie  M. 
Parker,  of  Bangor,  by  whom  he  has  a  daughter, 
Marion,  now  (1917)  fourteen  years  of  age;  was 
for  a.  number  of  years  associated  with  the  bank- 
ing firm  of  Van  Voorhis,  Wilson  &  Company, 
of  Boston,  and  is  now  the  representative  of 
Cochrane,  Harper  &  Company,  investment  bank- 
ers, of  No.  60  State  street,  Boston;  George  C., 
Jr.,  of  whom  further. 

The  career  of  Judge  Wing  is  one  that  well 
repays  study.  He  is  one  of  those  characters 
which  impresses  itself  strongly  upon  those  about 
them  until  it  has  left  a  certain  stamp  of  its 
own  quality  upon  the  community,  which  is  thus 
enriched  by  its  presence.  He  holds,  it  is  true, 
posts  of  responsibility  and  trust,  but  not  in  any 
way  commensurate  with  the  actual  place  he  oc- 
cupies in  the  respect  and  affection  of  the  people. 
That  he  has  a  very  large  legal  practice  and  has 
been  a  member  of  the  State  Senate  conveys  no 
adequate  idea  whatever  of  the  place  he  occupies 
in  both  county  and  State  affairs;  the  same  may 
be  said  of  many  others  who  pass  through  life's 
arena  and  leave  the  scantiest  of  impressions  to 
tell  of  that  passage.  Of  that  strong  and  essen- 
tial honesty  that  is  the  very  foundation  of  social 
life,  he  adds  to  this  a  toleration  of  others  that 
draws  all  men  towards  him  as  to  one  they  in- 
stinctively recognize  as  a  faithful  friend.  Nor 
does  he  ever  disappoint  such  as  trust  him  with 
their  confidence,  giving  comfort  and  advice,  sym- 
pathy or  wholesome  rebuke  as  the  occasion  war- 
rants, and  ever  with  a  keen  appreciation  of  the 


circumstances  and  a  profound  and  charitable 
understanding  of  the  motives  of  the  human  heart. 
George  Curtis  Wing,  Jr.,  was  born  at  Auburn, 
Maine,  October  6,  1878.  He  attended  the  public 
schools  of  Auburn,  graduated  at  the  Edward  Lit- 
tle High  School,  at  Brown  University  in  1900, 
and  at  the  Harvard  Law  School  in  1003.  On 
February  6,  1904,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
of  Maine.  He  is  now  (1917)  a  partner  in  the 
law  business  of  his  father.  He  has  served  two 
terms  as  City  Solicitor  of  Auburn,  and  an  equal 
number  of  terms  on  the  Auburn  Board  of  Educa- 
tion. He  was  a  member  of  the  Maine  Legisla- 
ture in  1909,  and  is  now  a  trustee  of  the  Auburn 
Public  Library.  For  a  number  of  years  he  was 
associated  with  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps,  Na- 
tional Guard,  State  of  Maine,  and  rose  to  the 
rank  of  captain  in  that  body,  from  which  he 
received  honorable  discharge,  January  9,  1912. 
He  is  also  active  in  fraternal  orders  and  par- 
ticularly so  in  the  case  of  the  Masonic  order, 
having  taken  the  thirty-second  degree  of  Free 
Masonry.  He  is  affiliated  with  Tranquil  Lodge, 
No.  29,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  and  is  past 
master  of  the  same;  Bradford  Chapter,  No.  38, 
Royal  Arch  Masons;  Lewiston  Commandery, 
No.  6,  Knights  Templar;  Lewiston  Lodge  of  Per- 
fection; Auburn  Council,  Princes  of  Jerusalem; 
H.  H.  Dickey,  Chapter  of  Rose  Croix;  Maine 
Consistory,  Sovereign  Princes  of  the  Royal  Se- 
cret, and  Kora  Temple,  Ancient  Arabic  Order 
Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine,  of  Lewiston.  He 
is  also  a  member  of  Lewiston  Lodge,  No.  371, 
Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks.  In 
his  religious  belief  he  is,  like  the  other  members 
of  his  family,  a  Baptist,  and  attends  divine  ser- 
vice at  the  Court  Street  Church  of  that  denom- 
ination in  Auburn.  Mr.  Wing  is  unmarried. 


CHARLES  CUMMINGS  BENSON— Benson 
is  a  name  that  has  been  long  and  favorably 
known  in  Maine,  where  it  was  first  found  shortly 
after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  since 
which  time  many  of  its  members  have  distin- 
guished themselves  in  the  service  of  the  several 
communities  in  which  they  have  dwelt  and  all 
have  maintained  a  high  standard  of  citizenship. 
The  name,  however,  can  claim  an  antiquity  con- 
siderably greater  than  this,  although  not  in 
Maine,  its  origin  having  been  English,  dating 
back  in  all  probability  to  the  time  when  sur- 
names were  first  coming  into  use  in  that  coun- 
try. From  the  records  it  appears  that  the  Ben- 
sons  were  originally  tenants  of  Fountain  Abbey, 
one  of  the  most  powerful  monastic  foundations 


152 


HISTORY  OF  MAINE 


in  the  middle  ages,  the  beautiful  building  still 
standing  today  as  one  of  the  best  preserved 
relics  of  that  ancient  day.  It  stood  in  the  West 
Riding  of  Yorkshire,  three  miles  southwest  of 
the  town  of  Ripon,  and  was  founded  as  early 
as  1132,  A.D.,  although  not  completed  until  the 
sixteenth  century.  It  thus  presents  examples  of 
every  style  of  architecture  which  flourished  in 
England  during  those  centuries  from  the  Nor- 
man to  the  Perpendicular.  The  monks  of  Foun- 
tain Abbey  were  regarded  as  among  the  richest 
and  most  powerful  of  that  period  and  region, 
and  we  have  references  to  them  as  early  as  in 
the  legends  which  have  grown  up  about  the  ro- 
mantic figure  of  Robin  Hood.  The  Bensons 
were  foresters  during  their  tenancy  on  the  lands 
of  the  Abbey  and  were  people  of  some  conse- 
quence, the  record  of  the  descent  being  kept  from 
an  early  period.  They  were  of  that  splendid, 
sturdy  and  intelligent  stock  which  made  up  the 
yeomanry  of  Merry  England  in  those  days,  and 
some  of  them  rose  to  positions  of  eminence  in 
England.  Perhaps  the  most  distinguished  repre- 
sentative of  the  family  was  Edward  White  Ben- 
son, who  became  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the 
supreme  office  of  the  English  Church.  The  Ben- 
sons  were  probably  a  large  family,  residing  at 
Masham  from  about  the  beginning  of  the  four- 
teenth century,  since  which  time  the  name  has 
spread  over  well-nigh  every  portion  of  the  Eng- 
lish-speaking world. 

It  was  founded  in  this  country  by  John  Ben- 
son, probably  a  native  of  Coversham,  Oxford- 
shire, who  sailed  from  England  in  the  good  ship 
Confidence  and  landed  in  Boston  in  1638.  Ac- 
cording to  himself,  his  age  at  this  time  was 
thirty  years,  so  that  his  birth  must  have  oc- 
curred in  1608.  He  settled  at  Hingham,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  there  founded  the  family  from 
which  the  Maine  Bensons  are  descended.  It  was 
five  generations  after  John  Benson  had  settled 
in  Massachusetts  that  the  family  was  brought  to 
the  "Pine  Tree  State"  by  Ichabod  Benson,  who 
was  a  soldier  in  the  Revolution  and  served  in 
Captain  William  Shaw's  company  for  a  time.  He 
is  also  credited  with  service  from  Mendon,  Mas- 
sachusetts, in  Captain  Reuben  Davis"  company, 
Colonel  Luke  Drury's  regiment.  After  the  close 
of  the  war  he  removed  to  Livermore,  Maine, 
where  his  death  occurred  in  1783.  Charles  Cum- 
mings  Benson,  with  whose  career  we  are  par- 
ticularly concerned  in  this  sketch,  is  a  son  of 
George  B.  Benson,  and  a  great-grandson  of  the 
Ichabod  Benson,  just  mentioned. 


Born  March  I,  1852,  at  Waterville,  the  second 
child  of  George  B.  and  Elvira  M.  (Conforth) 
Benson,  Charles  Cummings  Benson  passed  his 
childhood  at  his  native  place.  There  also  he  re- 
ceived his  education,  attending  for  this  purpose 
the  local  public  schools,  where  he  remained  until 
he  had  reached  the  age  of  fifteen  years.  He  then 
came  to  Lewiston,  where  he  secured  a  position 
as  messenger  boy  with  the  Western  Union  Tele- 
graph Company  and  worked  in  this  position  for 
a  period  of  about  six  months.  He  was  a  bright 
lad,  however,  and  in  the  meantime  learned  how 
to  operate  the  instrument,  so  that  at  the  end  of 
this  period  he  was  made  a  telegraph  operator  at 
the  Lewiston  office.  He  only  held  this  position 
for  a  single  year,  however,  being  then  promoted 
to  the  position  of  manager.  Three  years  later 
he  took  the  position  of  operator  at  Portland  and 
Bangor,  and  was  also  agent  at  Lewiston  for  the 
Maine  Central  railroad  from  1876  to  1898.  It 
was  in  1899  that  Mr.  Benson  first  began  his  suc- 
cessful banking  career,  taking  the  position  of 
treasurer  with  S.  E.  May  &  Company,  bankers, 
which  had  been  established  since  1860.  Not  long 
afterward  Mr.  Benson  bought  the  business  of 
this  concern  and  changed  the  name  to  that  of 
Charles  C.  Benson  &  Company.  By  degrees, 
however,  he  has  purchased  the  interests  of  his 
partners  and  is  at  the  present  time  the  sole 
owner  and  director  of  the  large  business  which 
he  has  developed.  The  offices  of  this  concern 
are  located  at  No.  165  Main  street,  and  the  estab- 
lishment is  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  sub- 
stantial of  its  kind  in  the  State. 

Mr.  Benson  has  not  confined  his  activities  to 
the  business  world  by  any  means,  and  has  taken 
an  active  part  in  well-nigh  every  aspect  of  the 
community's  life.  He  has  been  particularly  act- 
ive in  local  public  affairs,  and  has  been  an  in- 
fluential factor  in  the  local  organization  of  the 
Republican  party.  He  served  for  several  years 
as  a  member  of  the  Republican  City  Committee 
of  Lewiston,  of  which  he  was  the  chairman  in 
1800,  1891  and  1892,  and  he  was  a  member  of 
the  Republican  State  Committee,  representing 
Androscoggin  county,  for  four  years.  The  offices 
held  by  Mr.  Benson  have  well  shown  the  trust 
in  which  he  is  held  by  his  fellow  citizens,  and 
he  has  ever  discharged  their  functions  with  the 
highest  degree  of  efficiency  and  disinterested- 
ness. He  was  a  member  of  the  Lewiston  City 
Council  in  1889,  Alderman  in  1890  and  1891,  and 
Water  Commissioner  in  1893  and  1899.  In  1898 
he  was  elected  City  Treasurer,  receiving  the  un- 


k 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


153 


usual  honor  of  a  unanimous  vote  in  the  City 
Council.  Mr.  Benson  is  active  in  the  social  and 
club  life  at  Lewiston,  and  is  a  member  of  the 
local  lodge  of  the  Benevolent  and  Protective 
Order  of  Elks,  a  charter  member  of  the  Calumet 
Club,  besides  belonging  to  many  other  societies. 
In  his  religious  belief  he  is  a  Congregationalist 
and  attends  the  Pine  Street  Church  of  that  de- 
nomination. 

Mr.  Benson  was  united  in  marriage,  October 
9,  1915,  at  Berlin,  New  Hampshire,  with  Mrs. 
Anna  L.  Cornish,  a  native  of  Livermore,  Maine. 

Mr.  Benson's  father,  George  B.  Benson,  was 
born  at  Buckfield,  Maine,  and  died  in  the  year 
looo,  at  the  age  of  seventy-six  years,  at  Oakland, 
Maine.  He  was  a  machinist  and  blacksmith  by 
trade,  and  during  the  latter  part  of  his  life  his 
work  consisted  of  tempering  axles,  a  trade  which 
had  been  practiced  in  the  family  for  a  number  of 
generations.  He  married  Elvira  M.  Conforth,  a 
native  of  Waterville,  whose  death  ocurred  in  Jan- 
uary, 1915,  at  Lewiston,  at  the  advanced  age  of 
eighty-eight  years.  They  were  the  parents  of 
five  children,  of  whom  Charles  Cummings  was 
the  second  in  point  of  age. 

Mr.  Benson  is  in  the  fullest  sense  of  the  phrase 
a  "self-made  man" — in  the  sense,  that  is,  not 
merely  of  having  made  his  own  wealth,  but  of 
having  improved  and  developed  his  various  facul- 
ties to  the  utmost,  of  having  educated  and  culti- 
vated himself  and  taken  advantage  of  every  op- 
portunity for  self-improvement,  of  having,  in  the 
expressive  Biblical  figure,  invested  the  talents 
entrusted  him  in  this  earthly  life.  He  is  not  of 
those,  however,  who  seek  their  own  advantage 
at  the  expense  of  others,  as  might  readily  have 
been  seen  in  the  respect  and  affection  in  which 
his  associates  hold  him.  The  most  notable 
case  of  this,  however,  and  the  one  which  con- 
tains the  deepest  note  of  praise  is  the  fondness 
which  his  employees  feel  for  him  and  show  in 
their  devotion.  This  is  always  one  of  the  surest 
tests  of  the  essential  democracy  and  justice  of  a 
man,  and  this  test  Mr.  Benson  has  passed  suc- 
cessfully. 


GEORGE  TAYLOR  FILES,  educator,  lec- 
turer, traveler,  and  one  of  the  pioneer  good-roads 
advocates  of  the  United  States,  was  born  in  Port- 
land, Maine,  September  23,  1866,  the  son  of  An- 
drew H.  and  Louise  (Yeaton)  Files,  the  former 
a  native  of  Gorham,  Maine,  and  the  latter  of 
Newcastle,  New  Hampshire.  His  parents  were 
married  in  Portland,  where  his  father,  for  many 


years  principal  of  the  old  North  School,  stood 
exceptionally  high  in  educational  circles. 

George  Taylor  Files  attended  the  public 
schools  of  that  city,  graduating  from  the  Port- 
land High  School  in  1885.  Entering  Bowdoin 
College,  he  graduated  from  that  institution  in 
1889,  at  the  head  of  his  class,  receiving  special 
honors  and  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts.  Dur- 
ing his  second  year  he  did  extra  work  as  an 
accredited  tutor.  Going  to  Johns  Hopkins  Uni- 
versity, at  Baltimore,  he  took  a  post-graduate 
course,  and  from  there  went  to  Leipzig,  Ger- 
many, where  he  remained  two  years,  receiving 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy.  Returning 
to  the  United  States,  he  received  the  appointment 
to  the  chair  of  the  German  language  at  Bowdoin 
College,  soon  taking  high  rank  as  an  educator, 
and  assisting  materially  in  keeping  Bowdoin's 
name  among  the  leaders  of  the  higher  educa- 
tional institutions  of  the  country,  as  well  as  en- 
dearing himself  to  the  thousands  of  boys  who 
have  attended  this  famous  old  college  since  he 
has  been  a  member  of  its  faculty.  He  remained 
with  Bowdoin  as  the  head  of  the  Department  of 
German,  spending  the  majority  of  his  vacation 
periods  in  travel  and  study.  He  has  made  sev- 
eral trips  abroad,  covering  the  European  coun- 
tries with  great  thoroughness,  and  has  put  in 
many  m